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Project Communications Management Knowledge Area

Project Communications Management Knowledge Area



This presentation covers processes and concepts from Project Communications Management knowledge area. This covers the tools and techniques in an easy-to-understand fashion. This is part of the series ...

This presentation covers processes and concepts from Project Communications Management knowledge area. This covers the tools and techniques in an easy-to-understand fashion. This is part of the series of presentations based on PMBOK book's coverage, and is extremely helpful in your preparation for PMP or CAPM certification exams. Or you can use this to understand more about project management.
For more detailed study notes visit www.PMExamSmartNotes.com.



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    Project Communications Management Knowledge Area Project Communications Management Knowledge Area Presentation Transcript

    • A guide to passing PMP® exam! series..Project CommunicationsManagement Knowledge AreaBased on the PMBOK® bookFor a free eBook on Project Management, and brain-friendlynotes for PMP® and CAPM® certification examsvisit www.PMExamSmartNotes.comBrought to you bywww.PMExamSmartNotes.com
    • Download this poster fromthe article by clicking here.It’s Free!
    • Types of Communication
    • Communication gets initiated from a sender, who encodes themessage and sends it to the receiver over a medium ofcommunication.> Receiver decodes the information, processes it and sendsfeedback.> However the noise in the medium may render themessage useless to the receiver. This is similar to thedisturbance in telephone line, which makes it harder tohear the person on the other end.> Receiver encodes feedback and sends back to thesender> Sender gets the feedback and if noise has notrendered it useless, will decode and understand it.How Communication Happens
    • Communication Model
    • Components of the model• Sender: anyone or anything that initiates themessage• Receiver: anyone or anything that receives themessage• Message: information being passed• Medium: a means by which message istransmitted between sender and receiver• Feedback: response to the message from receiver• Noise: anything that interferes with the message,for instance, distance, unfamiliar technology
    • • Effective communication is about givingthe information at the right time and inthe right format.• Efficient communication is about givingonly the information that is needed.Effective Versus EfficientCommunication
    • Identify Stakeholders
    • Stakeholder is anyone activelyinvolved in the project, or whoseinterests may be positively ornegatively affected by execution orcompletion of the project.Who is a Stakeholder?
    • Stakeholder AnalysisStep1: Identify key stakeholders from the project charterand procurement documents. Add to this list people fromthe organization that you think should be involved.Step2: Once you have all the names, get some crucialinformation about them that you must know - their role,level of influence on the project, level of knowledge thatyou can leverage, interests in the project and such.Step3: With the information you have collected aboveprepare a power-interest grid and place eachstakeholder in the appropriate quadrant based on theirlevel of power and interest on the project, as shown inthe figure.
    • Power-Interest Grid
    • Once you place them in interest-power gridchalk-out strategies to deal with negative andpositive stakeholders – to keep them happyand to involve them in the project only to theextent you need to.Stakeholder ManagementStrategyA Sample Stakeholder Management Strategy Format
    • Plan CommunicationsImage courtesy http://www.freedigitalphotos.net
    • "To effectively communicate,we must realize that we areall different in the way weperceive the world and usethis understanding as a guideto our communication withothers."- Anthony Robbins
    • Communications RequirementsAnalysisMain goal would be to figure out who should begiven which information, and when.Potential communication channels betweenpeople involved in the team is calculated asn(n-1)/2
    • For instance, if you had 15 stakeholdersthen there will be 15x14/2 = 105 potentialchannels of communication.You may not use all of them, but you canuse this information to ensure that thecommunication plan does not leave outany of the stakeholders.
    • Communication TechnologyThis is largely determined by the policies andpractices that performing organization (yourcompany) has in place.However, this can also be dictated by customerscommunication mechanisms.Some companies may have a centralizedlocation like intranet, wiki, or file server wherecommon information is kept.
    • Communication MethodsPush - information is pushed to the receiver, either manually orautomatically.In a software project, whenever code is checked into Version Control Systeman automated mail can be configured to be sent to everyone on the team.Pull - where information is kept in a centralized place andreceiver will pull it whenever required.Project documents, test plans, project metrics might be placed in acentralized file server, and anyone on the team (as per access restriction) canpull the information.Interactive - all discussions, meetings, training sessions, phonecalls, video-conferences fall into this method. The disadvantageof this method is that if content of discussion is not collated(manually or using technology), discussion summary not beavailable for future reference.
    • Communication MethodsFormal - communication happens in the context of expected/setenvironment and toolsWeekly team meetings, daily stand-up meetings, requirement reviewmeetings with customer, monthly all-hands meetingsInformal - communication happens in an ad-hoc, undefinedmanner and in non-formal environmentManager talks to a team member over lunch, few team members bumpinto CEO at coffee vending machine, customer pings one of teammembers on chat messenger for a casual exchangeVerbalTeam meetings, one-on-ones, skip-level meetings, status meetingsWrittenDesign presentation, proposal review, emails, design documents, projectschedule presentation
    • Distribute Information
    • These are the means of distributing information.• Hard-copy documents (module level design distributed todevelopers),• electronic databases (task tracking systems), intranet(project information,• self-published data (tentative leave requests ofmembers)• phone (virtual team remotely logging into meetings,weekly customer calls via conference number),• project management software (MS Project)• collaborative work management tools (such asasana.com)Information distribution tools
    • ManageStakeholderExpectations
    • Interpersonal SkillsCommunication - project manager should identifyefficient communication channels with each of thestakeholders, keep cultural differences in perspectiveand communicate information on a regular basis.Active Listening is a communication technique wherelistener gives constant feedback to the speaker by re-stating what she has understood to make sure that themessage has been communicated as intended.Motivation - knowing what motivates each of yourteam members and helping them get those things willkeep the team motivated.
    • Interpersonal SkillsDecision making is about how a project manager goesabout handling issues on the project - command,consultation, consensus, coin-flip (random decision).Political and cultural awareness - knowing each teammembers and their backgrounds helps project managerto communicate in a fashion that makes it easier for themembers.Negotiation - while there are issues on the project youas a project manager should ensure that you listen toboth the parties and make decisions in a fair and justmanner.
    • Interpersonal SkillsLeadership is all about effectively conveying the bigpicture and inspiring team to achieve the goal.Team building - the goal is to develop a projectenvironment that helps people bond with eachother.Influencing is about using your relationship withteam members effectively to ensure theycollaborate and cooperate well on making rightdecisions and achieving project goals.
    • Report PerformanceReport Performance
    • Information Generated on Project• Project status related - status reports on cost,schedule, scope• Quality related - metrics, measurements, testresults• Project progress related EVM numbers - EarnedValue, Planned Value, Actual Cost, SPI, CPI,Schedule Variance, Cost Variance, and such fromEVM method• Forecasts - such as Estimate At Completion (EAC)and Estimate To Complete (ETC) numbers• Actual data versus baseline data, and variances
    • Schedule and Cost Variances
    • References• Project Communications ManagementKnowledge Area• Basic Communication Model• Identify Stakeholders• Plan Communications• Distribute Information• Manage Stakeholder Expectations• Report Performance process• All About Earned Value Management (EVM)• Control Costs (Forecasting, Variance analysis)
    • PMI is a registered trademark and service mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.PMP is a registered certification mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.PMBOK is a registered trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.For more study notes for PMP® and CAPM® examsvisit http://www.PMExamSmartNotes.comThank you!