Urban change in Birmingham


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AQA A2 Geography case study of urbanisation in the UK

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Urban change in Birmingham

  1. 1. Urbanisation of Birmingham 1732…
  2. 2. Urbanisation of Birmingham This map shows the extent of Birmingham in 1731 at the start of the industrial revolution Population of the town was around 20,000 Birmingham had 3 main natural advantages for the development of industry – deposits of iron ore, a coal seam and a number of streams that could be used to run watermills
  3. 3. In 1886… This image shows the extent of the building and industry that developed throughout the 19 th century In the early 1800s, metalwork was the dominant industry including: nail, buttons, jewellery and guns. By the late 1800s train carriages were being made and in 1879 the Cadbury factory opened in Bourneville. By 1830, 160 miles of canals had been built Rail line linking Birmingham to Liverpool, Manchester and London had opened by 1838 In 1880 the population was 400,000 At the start of the century, living conditions were very poor, sewers were installed in the 1850s and piped water services began in the 1860s Birmingham was made a city in 1889 1000s of back to back terraces were built to house the growing population
  4. 4. By the 1950… suburbanisation is evident Dense inner city housing in areas such as Sparkbrook, Lozells and Ladywood Ladywood Lozells Train links are starting to extend out of the city encouraging suburban growth in areas like Harborne and Selly Oak After the WW1 the main aim was to have ‘fit homes for heroes’ so in the 1920s and 30s, over 50,000 council houses and 65,000 private houses were built in the emerging suburbs
  5. 5. In 1954 20% of the housing stock was considered unfit for human inhabitation
  6. 6. Many of the inner city slums were cleared in the late 1950s and replaced by high rise blocks with more open space between them
  7. 7. Other development occurred in the ever expanding suburbs Between 1950 and 1970 the council built over 120,000 new houses Many people complained that these suburban developments lacked community spirit and amenities Irish, Pakistani and West Indian immigrants were not entitled to council houses so were forced to live in sub-standard housing in the inner city areas
  8. 8. M6 was completed in 1971 linking Birmingham to the North West M5 was completed in 1970 linking Birmingham to the South West M40 linking Birmingham with Oxford and London was finished by 1990
  9. 10. The growth of the suburbs…
  10. 11. Population change in Birmingham