Interactive Learning Techniques: Creating Student-centered Learning     Presentation 1 of 3 presented by International Fou...
Slide 2          Presentation 1 of 3 presented by International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (IFESH)          Wo...
Slide 3                             •   Two broad categories of teaching                                 methods          ...
Slide 4                             •   Teacher must know:                                 • Available methods            ...
Slide 5                             •   By the end of this presentation, you should be                                 abl...
Slide 6                                 Let’s Take a Bite out of this Apple          Let’s take a bite out of this apple.
Slide 7                               •   Brainstorming         •   Lecture                               •   Drama       ...
Slide 8          TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES          Lecture          Traditional teaching and training most frequent...
Slide 9                                   •Autocratic teacher “talks” to students                                   • Litt...
Slide 10                                                        •   Introducing new subject matter, overviews, summaries  ...
Slide 11                                  • Prepare a lecture on a topic integrating some                                 ...
Slide 12                                • Drill - the repeated hearing and reproduction                                  o...
Slide 13                                                      • Sharpens skill under practice                             ...
Slide 14                               • Make concept mastery the goal                               • Use only after thor...
Slide 15                                 • Prepare a drill and practice lesson on a                                   subj...
Slide 16                               •   Instructor performs an instructional activity or                               ...
Slide 17                                Demonstration is necessary when:                                • Introducing a ne...
Slide 18                               • Go through the steps of the activity one at a time                               ...
Slide 19                               •   Creative Arts                               •   Science and Health Education   ...
Slide 20           •Dr. Bretta Blanton, IFESH volunteer and lecturer in Physical Chemistry at Chancellor College,         ...
Slide 21                     •   A method both for teaching and oral testing                     •   Be aware of the impac...
Slide 23                                • Discover what students already know                                  about lesso...
Slide 24                               • Check-in to see if students are following                                 discuss...
Slide 25                               •   Evaluate achievement of planned                                   objectives   ...
Slide 26                              • Stimulate thought                              • Short, simple and clear          ...
Slide 27           TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES           Question & Answer           •Student answers question in work...
Slide 28                               • Make questions more effective by:                                   • Writing the...
Slide 29                               •   Class breaks into groups to discuss one or two                                 ...
Slide 30                               •   Explain the task before breaking into groups                               •   ...
Slide 31           TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES           Buzz Groups/ Group Work           •Buzz groups enjoy working ...
Slide 32                               •   Buzz groups can be used in any type of class                               •   ...
Slide 33                               •   Discussion - A method that permits open                                   inter...
Slide 34                                Discussion is used when:                                   • Checking what has bee...
Slide 35                                •   Brainstorming – A technique in which every                                    ...
Slide 36                               Brainstorming is effective for:                               • Sensitive, controve...
Slide 37                                                    •   Quick, effective way to generate ideas                    ...
Slide 38                             • Brainstorm the causes of early marriage among                               the you...
Slide 39                                           Halfway Finished           Half way there – from finishing the apple
Slide 40                                •   Students act out what they would say or do in a                               ...
Slide 41                          •   Increases students’ self confidence                          •   Provides an opportu...
Slide 42                               •   Describe role and situation to entire group                               •   A...
Slide 43           TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES           Role Play Exercise           •Students demonstrating Role Play
Slide 44                                • Preventative measures for malaria – General                                  Stu...
Slide 45                                Values clarification – The process of                                identifying a...
Slide 46                                Goals of Values Clarification                                •   Allows students t...
Slide 47                                  • Use Likert Scale method from Strongly Agree to Strongly                       ...
Slide 48
Slide 49                               • Teachers should be posted to their home                                 districts...
Slide 50                               • Graphical representation of the causes and                                 effect...
Slide 51           TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES           Future Wheels           Future wheels is an instructional met...
Slide 52                             • Use to show complex cause and effect                               relationships   ...
Slide 53           •Malawi Institute of Education student demonstrating the use of Future Wheels to illustrate           c...
Slide 54                                                    •   Allow for student participation – group or class          ...
Slide 55                               •   Drug and alcohol abuse                               •   Poverty               ...
Slide 56                               •   Central problem should have identifiable causes, which                         ...
Slide 57                               • Provide teachers with ready-made messages                                 that ca...
Slide 58                                •   Ask students to compose songs when possible                                •  ...
Slide 59                                                  •   Provide knowledge, skills and attitudes to students         ...
Slide 60           TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES           Songs and Jingles           Students at Domasi College in Mal...
Slide 61                              •   Games - a means of passing on knowledge, skills                                 ...
Slide 62                               • Jeopardy (open-ended questions get                                 progressively ...
Slide 63                                      Three-quarters Finished           Three-quarters of the way finished.
Slide 64                                • Devil’s advocacy - A form of role play in                                  which...
Slide 65                                •   You have ten minutes to complete this                                    exerc...
Slide 66                                •   Guidelines:                                    • Role play the students       ...
Slide 67                                                 •   Promotes critical thinking and problem solving               ...
Slide 68                               • Involves the presentation and analysis of an                                 inci...
Slide 69                                Mwawa is a quiet young man who lives in                                Mwazama vil...
Slide 70                                                 •   An effective substitute for reality                          ...
Slide 71                                  • Develop a case study on a topic and                                    incorpo...
Slide 72                               • Two teams discuss single topic.                               • One team argues f...
Slide 73                               •   The government should give land in national parks.                             ...
Slide 74                               •   Guidelines:                               •   You have 10 minutes to complete t...
Slide 75           TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES           Teachers-in-training at Domasi College in Malawi demonstrate ...
Slide 76                                •   Field trips - Lessons conducted outside the                                   ...
Slide 77                                • Educational visits – Outings made to                                  consolidat...
Slide 78                                                  •   Gain knowledge, skills, and attitudes by using all their    ...
Slide 79                               •   Communicate the objective of the field trip in advance                         ...
Thank you – we have consumed this apple together.Slide 81
• Why is it prudent to combine several methods                     when teaching anything?                   • Prepare les...
Slide 82           •   Classroom Teaching Skills (7th ed.) (2003). New               York: Houghton Mifflin Company.      ...
Slide 83                     • A girl should choose school over marriage .                     • A girl should refuse to h...
Interactive Learning Techniques
Interactive Learning Techniques
Interactive Learning Techniques
Interactive Learning Techniques
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Interactive Learning Techniques

  1. 1. Interactive Learning Techniques: Creating Student-centered Learning Presentation 1 of 3 presented by International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (IFESH) Workshop, December 1, 2010, Chancellor College ; February 16 and 17, 2011, Malawi Institute of Education; and February 25 & 26, Domasi College. Presented by Pamela K. Fontenot: pkfontenot@gmail.com
  2. 2. Slide 2 Presentation 1 of 3 presented by International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (IFESH) Workshop, December 1, 2010, Chancellor College and February 16 and 17, 2011, Ministry of Education. Student-Centered Learning: Maximizing Student Achievement Let’s see if we can take a bite out of this apple!
  3. 3. Slide 3 • Two broad categories of teaching methods • Teacher-centric • Student-centric • Strengths and weaknesses TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Teaching methods can be divided into two major categories: teacher-centered and student- centered. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. How do you choose which one to use?
  4. 4. Slide 4 • Teacher must know: • Available methods • Strengths and weaknesses of each • The function of each method • How to implement • Consider content TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES In order to make an informed choice to use an appropriate teaching method, the teacher must be aware of: •What teaching methods are available. •What are strengths and weaknesses of each method. •When each method is best used: time, resources. •How each method can actually be used in practice.
  5. 5. Slide 5 • By the end of this presentation, you should be able to: • Identify student-centered and teacher-centered teaching methods and techniques • Decide when best to use the different methods • Select appropriate techniques for a particular learning intervention TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Objectives By the end of this presentation, you should be able to: •Describe the difference between student-centric and teacher-centric methods and techniques. •Explain how to best use different methods and techniques in lessons. •Select appropriate technique(s) for a particular teaching/learning outcome. •Apply various techniques in your lessons.
  6. 6. Slide 6 Let’s Take a Bite out of this Apple Let’s take a bite out of this apple.
  7. 7. Slide 7 • Brainstorming • Lecture • Drama • Buzz groups • Debates • Memorization • Discussions • Devil’s advocacy • Instructor • Panel discussions demonstrations • Experiments • Role plays • Drill and practice • Field trips Activity #1 w/ Audience Objective: To identify student-centric and instructor-centric learning methods: Instructions to Audience: Here are some instructional techniques. Which do you think are teacher-centric and which are student-centric? The following are the only teacher-centric techniques in the list: • Lecture • Drill and practice • Memorization • Instructor demo without student practice. •Let’s look at some strengths and weaknesses for each one.
  8. 8. Slide 8 TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Lecture Traditional teaching and training most frequently rely on lecture. This is one-way communication of a prepared talk. The teacher talks to the students in an autocratic way, and in its pure form, the students have limited or no opportunity to ask questions or offer comments.
  9. 9. Slide 9 •Autocratic teacher “talks” to students • Little to no discussion or questions • Knowledge transfer – questionable • Learners need to be intellectually engaged for learning to take place •Lasting change requires meaningful and compelling mental engagement and interaction with one’s surroundings TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Lecture Even though lectures appear to be an efficient teaching or training method, because little or no time is spent on an interactive discussion, learning is not guaranteed.
  10. 10. Slide 10 • Introducing new subject matter, overviews, summaries Advantages • Can be foundation with support from other interactive techniques • Covers a lot of material in a short time • Used to teach groups of any size • Usually presented as monologue – student interaction usually not entertained Disadvantages • High potential for boredom • Quality of learning is superficial and any knowledge transfer likely to be short-term TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Characteristics of Lecture Do these look familiar?
  11. 11. Slide 11 • Prepare a lecture on a topic integrating some of the tips provided in the checklist • Checklist for Improving the Teaching Effectiveness of Lectures TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Instructor Challenge: Let’s look at this checklist. Refer to checklist for handout to make lecture method more effective.
  12. 12. Slide 12 • Drill - the repeated hearing and reproduction of a particular item • Most effective in language learning • Laser focus on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling • Spelling bees • Fun – lively and enthusiastic teacher TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Drill & Practice Drill is the repeated hearing and use of a particular item. This technique is most helpful in learning a language. As a form of repetition, drills enable one to focus sharply on particular points of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling. The method can be fun if the teacher is lively and enthusiastic.
  13. 13. Slide 13 • Sharpens skill under practice Advantages • Provides foundation on which higher level cognitive skills can be built • Can easily become boring and monotonous Disadvantages • Difficult to sustain motivation and interest because repetitive nature diminishes interest value • Can degenerate into mere rote learning – understanding not prime aim TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Drill & Practice Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the drills and practice method. Advantages • Increases students’ understanding of previous work • Sharpens the skill under practice • Provides a foundation on which higher level cognitive skills can be built Disadvantages • Can easily become boring and monotonous • It is difficult to sustain motivation, interest or alertness among the students because of the repetitions involved • Degenerates easily into mere rote learning because understanding is not the prime aim
  14. 14. Slide 14 • Make concept mastery the goal • Use only after thorough preparation to make the concept clear • Use only for short periods within lesson • Support with relevant learning aids – drawings, objects, models, pictures to illustrate concepts TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Drill & Practice Guidelines Discuss ways of making drill and practice more effective: •They should be used only after thorough preparation to make the concept(s) clear. •They should be used only for short periods within a lesson. •They should be accompanied by relevant and appropriate teaching and learning aids such as drawings, objects, models and pictures to illustrate the concepts. •Make concept mastery is the goal of drill & practice.
  15. 15. Slide 15 • Prepare a drill and practice lesson on a subject of your choice integrating some of the guidelines for Drill & Practice. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Instructor Challenge: Procedures for Using Drill & Practice with Language Learning: • Give a word or phrase or sentence. • Let the class say it after you or respond to it or write it down. • Repeat each item up to six times. • First, ask pupils to practice as individuals, then as a whole class together.
  16. 16. Slide 16 • Instructor performs an instructional activity or process as students observe • Aim of demonstration is to: • Provide students with concrete illustration of what they are expected to do • How to best do it • How to tell when they have used the skill or ability correctly • Follow demonstrations with practice opportunities for students TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Instructor Demonstration & Practice This is a student-centered technique when student practice is added; but a teacher-centric technique with instructor demo alone. The instructor performs an instructional activity or a process as students observe. The aim of the demonstration is to provide students with a concrete illustration of what they are expected to do, the best techniques for doing it, and how they can tell when they have used the skill or ability correctly. Demonstrations should be followed by an opportunity for students to practice the observed skills, either individually or in groups.
  17. 17. Slide 17 Demonstration is necessary when: • Introducing a new skill or concept • Materials are insufficient • Time is inadequate • Activity is dangerous to students (Chemistry experiments!) TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Instructor Demonstration & Practice Best Uses Demonstration is necessary when: •Materials are not sufficient for each student to access •The activity may be dangerous to the students •Time is inadequate •Introducing a new skill or concept
  18. 18. Slide 18 • Go through the steps of the activity one at a time • Ensure that every student understands what is going on • Large classes - demonstrate in small groups • Stand at a raised point for all students to see you • Arrange students in a semi-circle, with shorter students in front • Ask some students to demonstrate to their peers from time-to-time TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Instructor Demonstration & Practice Guidelines •If the class is large, demonstrate in small groups. •When demonstrating, stand at a raised point for all students to see you. Or the students can be made to sit in a semi-circle or shorter students should be in front . •Make sure that the actions being demonstrated match the voice . •Check in advance that all necessary teaching and learning resources are available and working properly. •Ask some students to demonstrate to their colleagues from time to time. •Go through the steps of the activity one at a time. •Ensure that every student understands what is going on.
  19. 19. Slide 19 • Creative Arts • Science and Health Education • Mathematics • Chichewa • English • Physical Education • Music TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Instructor Demonstration & Practice Activity #1 Divide students into groups and allow them to brainstorm using Demonstration & Practice Techniques for the topics on the slide. In groups, brainstorm the areas in which demonstration and practice may be used in the following subjects:
  20. 20. Slide 20 •Dr. Bretta Blanton, IFESH volunteer and lecturer in Physical Chemistry at Chancellor College, works with a female student at MIE to demonstrate the uses of chemistry in our everyday lives.
  21. 21. Slide 21 • A method both for teaching and oral testing • Be aware of the impact of rejecting a student’s response • Be aware of the pace of questioning – give students time to think about their response • Avoid asking questions that require one-word answer s • Ask open, clarifying questions – Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? • Questions should help the instructor assess his/her teaching effectiveness and students` learning. • Formulate higher order questions which require the students to apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate knowledge or informationTEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUESQuestion & AnswerQuestion and answer is defined by some experts as "a method both for teaching and oraltesting". When conducting a class or group discussion, teachers should be aware of the impact ofturning down a student’s response. By not accepting a response in a positive way, the teachermay discourage students from answering future questions.The pacing of questions is also important. Students should be given enough time to think abouta response. The questions should come rapidly enough to keep the pace of the class lively. Trynot asking questions which will require a one-word answer; for example; yes or no. Instead,open and clarifying questions should be asked to encourage students to express themselves.The questions will also help the teacher to assess his/her teaching and the students` learning. Itis therefore necessary that teachers also formulate higher-order questions which require thestudents to apply, synthesize and evaluate knowledge or information.You could ask questions during the introduction, development and/or conclusion phases of yourlesson.Let’s look at some reasons to ask questions in the Introduction.
  22. 22. Slide 23 • Discover what students already know about lesson • Stimulate interest in the lesson • Arouse inquisitive minds TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Question & Answer Group Activity – Discuss w/ class: Discuss why you would ask questions during: Introduction •Find out what students already know •Stimulate students’ interest in the lesson •Arouse an inquisitive mind in students
  23. 23. Slide 24 • Check-in to see if students are following discussion • Clarify misconceptions to that point • Encourage student contributions TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Question & Answer Group Activity – Discuss w/ class: Discuss why you would ask questions during: Development •Check if students are following the discussions •Clarify any misconceptions that may develop as the lesson proceeds •Encourage students to contribute to the knowledge being presented
  24. 24. Slide 25 • Evaluate achievement of planned objectives • Clarify misconceptions to this point TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Question & Answer Group Activity – Discuss w/ class: Discuss why you would ask questions during: Conclusion •Evaluate the achievement of planned objectives •Discover whether any misconceptions still exist after the lesson development
  25. 25. Slide 26 • Stimulate thought • Short, simple and clear • Specific, not ambiguous • Encourage student expression • Relevant to the content • Appropriate to students’ ability TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Question & Answer Characteristics of Good Questions Good questions should: •Stimulate thought •Short, simple and clear •Specific and not ambiguous •Encourage students to express themselves •Relevant to the content •Appropriate to students’ ability
  26. 26. Slide 27 TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Question & Answer •Student answers question in workshop at Domasi College in February 2011.
  27. 27. Slide 28 • Make questions more effective by: • Writing them down in advance to ask during lesson without difficulty • Pose, Pause, Pounce • Discourage choral answers • Probe students’ responses – Why? What? How? • Ask questions at varying levels of difficulty • Avoid repeating or rephrasing unless requested to do so TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Question & Answer Instructor Technique: •Pose, pause, point •State the question •Pause for 5 or more seconds •Call on student to answer
  28. 28. Slide 29 • Class breaks into groups to discuss one or two specific questions or issues • Room fills with noise as groups “buzz” in discussions - exchanging ideas from collective abilities, knowledge and experiences • One member from each group reports its findings to class • Buzz groups can be in pairs, trios or more TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Buzz Groups/ Group Work Another teaching technique is the buzz group. This technique is commonly known as “group work.” During a lesson, the class can break into groups to discuss one or two specific questions or issues. The room soon fills with noise as each group buzzes in discussions. If possible, one member from each group should report its findings to the whole class. Buzz groups can be in pairs, trios or more, depending on the activity. While they are buzzing, students are able to exchange ideas drawn from their collective abilities, knowledge and experiences.
  29. 29. Slide 30 • Explain the task before breaking into groups • Supervise discussions to encourage and help students manage out of difficulty • Manage feedback concisely • Assign different, but related tasks to each group to motivate and give each group a special responsibility • Organize feedback in such a way that one group presents its ideas, with other groups only contributing new ideas ; OR • Allow each group to give one point at a time until all the groups have contributed • Be time conscious TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Buzz Groups/ Group Work Work in groups to identify the guidelines that you would follow when using buzz groups. •Rotate group leadership roles regularly •Try to give different but related tasks to each group to motivate and give each group a special responsibility •if the task is the same for all groups, organize feedback in such a way that one group presents their ideas; with other groups only contributing new ideas; or •Let one group report one point at a time until all the groups have contributed •Be time conscious
  30. 30. Slide 31 TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Buzz Groups/ Group Work •Buzz groups enjoy working on group projects in workshop at Domasi College in February 2011.
  31. 31. Slide 32 • Buzz groups can be used in any type of class • Select areas within any curriculum • Prepare lesson on one area using the Buzz Group technique TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Buzz Groups/ Group Work Buzz groups can be used in any type of class. Select areas within any subject on the curriculum where buzz groups can be used and prepare a lesson on one area reflecting the technique.
  32. 32. Slide 33 • Discussion - A method that permits open interaction between student-and-student and between teacher-and -student • Free-flowing conversation, gives students opportunity to express opinions and ideas, hear those of their peers and teacher • Promotes higher-order cognitive skills: analysis, synthesis, evaluation TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Discussion Some experts describes the discussion method as one that “permits open interaction between student-and-student and between teacher-and-student It involves free-flowing conversation, giving students an opportunity to express their opinions and ideas and listen to those of their peers and teacher. The teacher does not take the leadership role. Rather, he/she participates as a member of the groups. And everyone adheres to the guidelines for specified acceptable discussion behavior. If properly planned and structured, the discussion method involves students in higher-order cognitive skills such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation. (Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Cognitive Domain).
  33. 33. Slide 34 Discussion is used when: • Checking what has been learned, e.g., from a field trip or an educational trip • Exploring opinions, knowledge and experiences of students • Giving students practice in forming, expressing and evaluating opinions • Concluding a practical exercise, where the students have applied their knowledge and require feedback, e.g., a laboratory experiment TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Discussion In groups, describe briefly situations in which class discussion would be used. The discussion method is often used to: •Check what has been learned, e.g., from a field or an educational trip •Explore the opinions, knowledge and experiences of students •Conclude a laboratory experiment •Give students practice in forming, expressing and evaluating opinions
  34. 34. Slide 35 • Brainstorming – A technique in which every student’s response is accepted • Avoid judging or evaluating ideas, but accept and record each as it is offered • Do not require students to justify answers • Brainstorm as entire class or in groups • Groups – let high-ability students lead TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Brainstorming Brainstorming is a technique in which every student’s response that applies to a given topic is acceptable. It is important not to evaluate ideas but accept and record each idea on the chalkboard or a piece of paper as it comes. Students need to know that they will not be required to justify or explain any answer. After a period of brainstorming (which should not be too long), time for reflection on or prioritizing of the list should be allowed. The brainstorming can be done as a whole class or in groups. If in groups, it is good to let the high ability students take a leading role.
  35. 35. Slide 36 Brainstorming is effective for: • Sensitive, controversial issues • Generating large number of ideas quickly • Encouraging students who are quiet, hesitant to participate TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Brainstorming Activity In groups, describe briefly situations in which brainstorming would be used. The brainstorming technique is effective for: •Sensitive and controversial issues that need to be explored •Encouraging students who are quite and hesitant to enter into discussions •Generating a large number of ideas as quickly as possible
  36. 36. Slide 37 • Quick, effective way to generate ideas • Encourages every student to freely express views since responses are not judged immediately Advantages • Gives students opportunity to think through issues • Promotes respect for all students’ ideas • A way to determine students’ knowledge before embarking on new topic • Generated ideas are owned collectively by groups of students Disadvantages • Difficult to ensure that every one speaks, particularly with large classes • After brainstorming session, re-organizing ideas or points may be time consuming TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Brainstorming Activity Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the brainstorming method. Advantages •Quick and effective way to generate ideas •Encourages every student to express their views freely since responses are not judged immediately •Gives students opportunity to think through issues •Promotes respect for all students’ ideas •One way to determine students’ knowledge before embarking on a new topic •Ideas generated are owned collectively by groups of students Disadvantages • Very difficult to ensure that every one speaks, particularly if the class is large ideas • After the brainstorming session, re-organizing the ideas or points may be time consuming
  37. 37. Slide 38 • Brainstorm the causes of early marriage among the youth of Malawi. • Guidelines: • Choose a group moderator, a recorder and a reporter. • Go around the table and allow everyone to contribute one idea until everyone has exhausted their ideas. • Recorder transcribes each idea. • Synthesize the best, the major or the ideas that the entire group agrees on. • Reporter will report on the conclusions from the group. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Brainstorming Exercise Choose a group moderator, a recorder and a reporter. Brainstorm ideas to support the topic. Go around the table and allow everyone to contribute one idea until everyone has exhausted their ideas. Recorder transcribes each idea. Synthesize the best, the major or the ideas that the entire group agrees on. Reporter will report on the conclusions from the group.
  38. 38. Slide 39 Halfway Finished Half way there – from finishing the apple
  39. 39. Slide 40 • Students act out what they would say or do in a given situation • Use own life experiences and creativity to imitate real-life situations • Performances can last 5 to 10 minutes • Other students watch and listen carefully • After the role play, the entire group discusses performance TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Role Play In role play, students use their own experience and creativity to imitate a real life situation. When done well, role play increases students` self confidence, gives them the opportunity to understand or feel empathy for other people’s view points or roles, and usually encourages them to come up with practical answers, solutions or guidelines on various issues.
  40. 40. Slide 41 • Increases students’ self confidence • Provides an opportunity for self-expression • Encourages creativity • Provides opportunity for empathy with other view points • Encourages practical answers, solutions or guidelines on issues that are being examined TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Role Play Advantages
  41. 41. Slide 42 • Describe role and situation to entire group • Ask for volunteers or make appointments • Tell players to add to their roles and use own ideas • Allow actors time to prepare and allow 5-10 minutes for the play • De-role the students afterwards TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Animate each bullet point in order to conduct discussion using progressive disclosure. Role Play What guidelines would you follow when using role play? •Give a description of the role and the situation briefly to the entire group •Ask for volunteers or appoint students to act out the role play •Tell the players that they can add to their roles and use their own ideas about what the person would say or feel in the situation •Give the actors a few minutes to prepare and let them act out the play within 5 to 10 minutes •After the role play, the class should discuss the performance De-role the students afterwards to avoid the students getting bullied by other students with the names and roles they assumed in the play. To de-role, you briefly explain that the roles and names the actors took in the role play are not part of the students’ real life. The acting students have not taken on new names or roles.
  42. 42. Slide 43 TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Role Play Exercise •Students demonstrating Role Play
  43. 43. Slide 44 • Preventative measures for malaria – General Studies • A student with good morals and values - Life Skills Education TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Role Play Exercise •Each table chooses a different moderator. •Ask for volunteers or appoint students to act out the role play •Tell the players that they can add to their roles and use their own ideas about what the person would say or feel in the situation •Give the actors a few minutes to prepare and let them act out the play within 5 to 10 minutes •After the role play, the class should discuss the performance •De-role the students afterwards to avoid the students getting bullied by other students with the names and roles they assumed in the play. To de-role, you briefly explain that the roles and names the actors took in the role play are not part of the students’ real life. The acting students have not taken on new names or roles.
  44. 44. Slide 45 Values clarification – The process of identifying and critically examining one’s values, beliefs, attitudes, convictions, opinions on specific issues – usually sensitive or controversial. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Values Clarification Values clarification is the process of identifying and critically examining one’s values, beliefs, attitudes, convictions and opinions on different issues such as drugs, pregnancy and cultural practices.
  45. 45. Slide 46 Goals of Values Clarification • Allows students to recognize, acknowledge and tolerate the variety of opinions held by others • Enables students to identify personal beliefs and attitudes with regard to: • Cultural, social, sexual, consumer rights – controversial, sensitive issues TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Values Clarification Values’ clarification aims at: •Allowing students to recognize, acknowledge and tolerate the variety of opinions held by others •Enabling students to identify their personal beliefs and attitudes with regard to: -cultural and social issues, sexual and reproductive health, consumer rights – almost any controversial issue that you can think of
  46. 46. Slide 47 • Use Likert Scale method from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree • Explain to the students that as they read each statement they should go stand under the board which best reflects their views • Begin with a more general or less threatening statement • Select a sample of people to explain why they chose a particular position • Students may change positions if convinced by other students’ explanations • The teacher must avoid expressing his/her opinion TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Values Clarification Guidelines: Post cardboard signs labeled, strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree at different points in the classroom. This is the Likert Scale. •Explain to the students that as they read each statement they should go to the board which best reflects their views •Begin with a more general or less threatening statement •Select a sample of people to explain why they chose a particular position •students may change positions if convinced by other students’ explanations •The teacher must avoid expressing his/her opinion. The role of the teacher is to create a climate of tolerance and reinforce the demonstration of how broad the spectrum of ideas can be. If the discussion becomes heated, the teacher should ask the students to pay attention to how deeply felt values can be and how difficult they can be to change.
  47. 47. Slide 48
  48. 48. Slide 49 • Teachers should be posted to their home districts • Teens should just say “no” to drugs and alcohol. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Values Clarification Exercise Guidelines: Post cardboard signs labeled, strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree at different points in the classroom. This is the Likert Scale. •Explain to the students that as they read each statement they should go to the board which best reflects their views •Begin with a more general or less threatening statement •Select a sample of people to explain why they chose a particular position •students may change positions if convinced by other students’ explanations •The teacher must avoid expressing his/her opinion. The role of the teacher is to create a climate of tolerance and reinforce the demonstration of how broad the spectrum of ideas can be. If the discussion becomes heated, the teacher should ask the students to pay attention to how deeply felt values can be and how difficult they can be to change.
  49. 49. Slide 50 • Graphical representation of the causes and effects of actions • Enables students to look into the future – at the causes and consequences of problems or situations that may be unclear in the present TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Future Wheels The Future Wheels method is a graphical representation of the causes and effects of behaviors.
  50. 50. Slide 51 TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Future Wheels Future wheels is an instructional method that is used when the consequences of risky behavior need to be brought to the attention of the youth. Basically the problem wheel rolls into future consequences which roll into other negative and undesirable situations. Similarly, the wheels of the causes of the problem seem to roll into the problem. Guidelines for using Future Wheels To Facilitator: Use illustration as you describe the guidelines. •The central problem under discussion should have identifiable causes, which consequently roll into effects •Students should brainstorm in either groups or as a class on the root causes and steadily identify more causes that lead to the central problem •In the same way they should identify effects that result from the central problem •Use arrows to show relationships •Discuss the future’s wheels with the whole class •Summarize the activity by asking students questions on what they have learned
  51. 51. Slide 52 • Use to show complex cause and effect relationships • Use when students have difficulty predicting effects in the future • Use to build consensus • Use to plan essays or compositions on causes and effects of problems or situations TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Future’s Wheels Best Practices
  52. 52. Slide 53 •Malawi Institute of Education student demonstrating the use of Future Wheels to illustrate cause and effect. Here, her group examined the far-reaching effects of HIV/AIDS.
  53. 53. Slide 54 • Allow for student participation – group or class discussion level Advantages • Sessions move quickly and keep students’ attention • Diagram has strong visual impact and can enhance student understanding • Provides clear picture of complex nature of problems Disadvantages • Requires that students have some prior knowledge of subject TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Future’s Wheels Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of future wheels. Advantages •Allow for student participation whether at group or class discussion level •Sessions move quickly and keep the attention of learners •The diagram has a strong visual impact and can enhance understanding of concepts •Provides a clear picture of the complex nature of problems Limitations • Some knowledge of the subject is required
  54. 54. Slide 55 • Drug and alcohol abuse • Poverty • HIV/AIDS • Breakdown of moral values • Teen pregnancy TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Future Wheels Exercise •Select a topic. •Choose a recorder and a reporter. •The central problem under discussion should have identifiable causes, which consequently roll into effects - •Students should brainstorm in groups on the root causes and steadily identify more causes that lead to the central problem. •In the same way they should identify effects that result from the central problem. •Use arrows to show relationships. •Group reporter discusses the future’s wheels with the whole class. •Summarize the activity by asking students questions on what they have learned.
  55. 55. Slide 56 • Central problem should have identifiable causes, which consequently roll into effects • Brainstorm in groups or as a class the root causes and steadily identify more causes that lead to the central problem • In the same way they should identify effects that result from the central problem. • Use arrows to show relationships • Discuss the future wheels with the whole class • Summarize the activity – ask questions on what students have learned TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Future’s Wheels Guidelines •The central problem under discussion should have identifiable causes, which consequently roll into effects - •Students should brainstorm in either groups or as a class on the root causes and steadily identify more causes that lead to the central problem •In the same way they should identify effects that result from the central problem •Use arrows to show relationships •Discuss the future’s wheels with the whole class •Summarize the activity by asking students questions on what they have learned
  56. 56. Slide 57 • Provide teachers with ready-made messages that can be discussed with students to determine the nature of the messages and their appropriateness • A powerful means of reaching out to some students TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Songs and Jingles Songs and jingles provide teachers with readymade messages which can be discussed with students to determine the nature of the messages and their appropriateness. Using songs and jingles has been found to be a powerful means of reaching out to specific students.
  57. 57. Slide 58 • Ask students to compose songs when possible • Identify songs from the locality - traditional songs, songs by local choirs, bands • Listen to them together • Ask probing questions like these: • What is the nature of the song? • Is it well known? • Who is the intended audience? • What messages is the band sending? • Are they culturally appropriate? • Are the messages contributing to the understanding of the subject matter? • What impact would the song’s messages have on young people? TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Songs & Jingles Guidelines •Where possible ask students to compose songs on various issues •Or identify songs from the local setting, e.g., traditional songs, songs by bands or choirs •Listen to them together with the students •Ask the following questions about the songs/jingles: Activity Listen to any popular song and answer the above questions on it.
  58. 58. Slide 59 • Provide knowledge, skills and attitudes to students in an enjoyable manner Strengths • Students can extend the discussions of the song’s message with their peers after class – allowing for enhanced student participation • Require creativity to compose Weaknesses • Message may be lost through other characteristics of music or lyrics TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Songs & Jingles Strengths •They provide knowledge, skills and attitudes to students in an enjoyable manner. •The message can be further discussed with their peers after class; thus allowing for more student participation. Weaknesses •One needs creativity to come up with a song or a jingle. •The message to be learned may be lost through the musical qualities of the song or jingle.
  59. 59. Slide 60 TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Songs and Jingles Students at Domasi College in Malawi are demonstrating their ‘musical intelligence’ with a song they composed for this group project.
  60. 60. Slide 61 • Games - a means of passing on knowledge, skills and attitudes that entertains and keeps learners motivated. • Learning is made more effective and permanent. • Many games can be adapted from regular games and changed to suit the topic. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Games Games are a means of passing on knowledge, skills and attitudes in a manner that entertains and keeps learners motivated. In this way, learning is made more effective and permanent. There are a number of games that may be used in different topics and situations. Many games can be adapted from regular games and changed to suit the topic under discussion.
  61. 61. Slide 62 • Jeopardy (open-ended questions get progressively harder as the stakes increase) • Concentration (matching pairs) TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Games Outline the guidelines for effective use of games. Activity •Identify as many games as possible which you can use to teach a subject •Prepare a lesson using one of the games you have identified
  62. 62. Slide 63 Three-quarters Finished Three-quarters of the way finished.
  63. 63. Slide 64 • Devil’s advocacy - A form of role play in which one person tries as hard as possible to convince a friend to give in to temptation • The other person responds to the devil’s temptations by giving the reasons why he or she does not want to give in to the temptation TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Devils Advocacy Devil’s Advocacy is a form of role play in which one person tries as hard as possible to convince a friend to give in to temptation. The other person has to respond to all of the devil’s temptations by giving the reasons why he or she does not want to give in to the temptation.
  64. 64. Slide 65 • You have ten minutes to complete this exercise. • A girl chooses school over early marriage . • Sugar daddies / mummies • Ways of contracting HIV/AIDS • Ways to prevent malaria TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Devil’s Advocacy Exercise Guidelines: •You have ten minutes to complete this exercise. •Role play students •In pairs, one student pretends to be a bad friend (the devil) who tries to make the other give in to the temptation. •Reverse roles after a time. •Teacher summarises the activity by highlighting the reasons against giving in to the temptation.
  65. 65. Slide 66 • Guidelines: • Role play the students • In pairs, one student pretends to be a bad friend (the devil) who tries to make the other give in to the temptation. • Reverse roles after five minutes. • Reporter – Summarize activity by highlighting the reasons to give in to temptation. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Devil’s Advocacy Exercise Guidelines: •You have ten minutes to complete this exercise. •Role play students •In pairs, one student pretends to be a bad friend (the devil) who tries to make the other give in to the temptation. •Reverse roles after a time. •Teacher summarises the activity by highlighting the reasons against giving in to the temptation.
  66. 66. Slide 67 • Promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills in students on both sides of an argument Strengths • Prepares students to rationally handle peer pressure and temptation • Some students might be convinced by the Weaknesses arguments in favour of the risky behaviour if the opposing side is not well defended TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Devil’s Advocacy Strengths & Weaknesses Debrief w/ students What are the strengths and weaknesses of this method? Strengths •Promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills in students as they need to be aware of the arguments for both sides of an issue •Prepares students to rationally handle peer pressure and temptation towards risky behaviour Weaknesses • Some students might be convinced by the arguments in favour of the risky behaviour if the other side is not well defended
  67. 67. Slide 68 • Involves the presentation and analysis of an incident, story or scenario • Simple, factual • Divide students into Buzz Groups for group work TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Case Study The case study method involves the presentation and analysis of an incident, story or scenario that has happened or could happen. These should be simple and based on facts. When doing case studies students should be divided into buzz groups.
  68. 68. Slide 69 Mwawa is a quiet young man who lives in Mwazama village. His friends insist that he go drinking with them, but he refuses. One day his friends tell him that if he refuses to go again, they will beat him up. He still refuses because his mother once told him that people get infected with HIV/AIDS at drinking places. • Is Mwawa’s decision good? Why? • Is Mwawa’s mother’s warning correct? Explain. • What advice would you give to Mwawa and his friends? TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Example Case Study Read the story below and answer the questions that follow. •Is Mwawa’s decision good? Why? •Is Mwawa’s mother correct in saying that people get HIV at drinking places? Explain. •What advice would you give to Mwawa and his friends?
  69. 69. Slide 70 • An effective substitute for reality • Learner analyzes and solves real-life challenges without suffering consequences of failure Strengths • Group work enables students to actively participate and think through what they might actually do if confronted with a challenging situation • Useful in developing analytical, problem solving and decision making skills • Time consuming and labor intensive to develop Weaknesses • No specific, concrete solutions to case study problems exist • Facilitator should be skilled in managing case studies TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Case Study Strengths •Serves as an effective substitute for reality. The learner analyzes and solves real – life challenges without suffering or enduring the consequences of failure •Working in groups enables each student to participate actively and think through what they might do if the problem or challenging situation happened to them •Case study is useful in developing analytical, problem solving and decision making skills Weaknesses •Time consuming and labor intensive to develop the case study •No specific, concrete solutions to problems presented in case studies •Facilitator should be skilled in handling case studies
  70. 70. Slide 71 • Develop a case study on a topic and incorporate it into a lecture TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Case Study Instructor Challenge
  71. 71. Slide 72 • Two teams discuss single topic. • One team argues for the `yes` side of the issue; the other team argues for the `no` side. • Teams should spend time brainstorming their arguments before the debate. • Then, elect two or three speakers to represent their team in the debate. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Debate Two teams discuss a single topic. One team argues for the `yes` side of the issue whereas the other team argues for the `no` side. The teams should spend some time brainstorming their arguments before the debate. They should then elect two or three speakers to represent their team in the debate.
  72. 72. Slide 73 • The government should give land in national parks. and game reserves to homeless people. • A proposition salient to your curriculum TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Debate Ideas for Debates Conduct a debate on a proposition that is salient to your curriculum: •All people with HIV/ AIDS should be quarantined, e.g., isolated from society. •The government should give the land in national parks and game reserves to landless people.
  73. 73. Slide 74 • Guidelines: • You have 10 minutes to complete this activity. • Select or appoint chairperson to conduct debate. • Chairperson introduces speakers and keeps order. • Time limit for each speaker is 5 minutes. • Speakers stand in front of entire group and present their views in turn. TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Debate Guidelines for Conducting Debates •Elect or assign a chairperson to conduct the debate •Chairperson introduces speakers and keeps order •Each speaker is allowed to speak a five minutes per session •Speakers stand in front of the entire group and present their views in turn
  74. 74. Slide 75 TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Teachers-in-training at Domasi College in Malawi demonstrate the interesting, interactive debate technique.
  75. 75. Slide 76 • Field trips - Lessons conducted outside the classroom • Goal - To give students first-hand information and experiences on classroom lessons • Trip – part of ongoing study • Students can relate classroom work to everyday life • Teachers prepare activities for students to perform at the site TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Educational Visits Field trips are lessons conducted outside the classroom with the aim of giving students first- hand information and experiences on subject matter under discussion. The trip is part of ongoing study and teachers should prepare in advance activities for students to do at the site. Students are given the chance to relate classroom work to their everyday life. For example, a teacher may take his or her class to a nearby pond to observe the life cycle of mosquitoes in science and health education or to a nearby main road to observe road users in general studies.
  76. 76. Slide 77 • Educational visits – Outings made to consolidate classroom learning • Teacher does little at site • Resource person responsible to explain ideas and processes to students • Trips could include visits to industrial sites, hospitals, other institutions TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Educational Visits Educational trips are outings made in order to consolidate what is learned in the classroom. Here, the teacher does little at the site; it is the responsibility of the resource person to explain the ideas, concepts, and processes to the students. These trips could include visits to industrial sites, hospitals and other institutions.
  77. 77. Slide 78 • Gain knowledge, skills, and attitudes by using all their senses • Can relate classroom ideas to the real world Strengths • Provide students with opportunities to carry out practical work in relation to what they have learned • Provides students with a variety of learning styles to help them learn more effectively • A good event in which to involve parents as helpers • Time consuming Weaknesses • Requires a lot of arrangements and organisation • May be prone to eventualities - the weather • Visits may be costly with regard to transportation and provision of meals TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Field Trips/Educational Visits Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of field trips/educational trips. Advantages •Students gain knowledge, skills, and attitudes by observing (using all their senses) •Students relate classroom ideas to the real word •Provides students with an opportunity to carry out practical work in relation to what they have learnt. •Provides students with a variety of learning styles and thus helps them learn more effectively •Good event in which to involve parents Disadvantages •Time consuming to undertake •Requires a lot of arrangements and organisation •Sometimes requires parental consent before children can be taken out •May be prone to eventualities •Visits may be costly with regard to transportation and provision of meals
  78. 78. Slide 79 • Communicate the objective of the field trip in advance • Make a preliminary trip to determine suitability • Acquire permission from principal and site owner • Prepare agenda and activities for students to do to prepare for trip • Give instructions on what to do when students are onsite • Ask parents or class leaders to help control class at site • Do not hurry students in observations once onsite TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Guidelines for Planning Field Trips Discuss how you would effectively plan and organise a field/educational trip. Ask if this is a good technique in which to involve the parents as helpers & chaperones? •The trip should have an aim/objective which should be communicated to the students well in advance •Make a preliminary trip to determine the suitability of the place •Get permission from the principal of the school and the site owner •It may be necessary to inform the PTA and the School Management Committee about the trip •Ensure that students have pens/pencils and paper for notes •Communicate any precautionary measures to the students •Prepare an agenda or schedule and student preparation activities before the trip and tell the students what to do when they reach the site •Ask class leaders to help you control the class •Do not hurry students or push them into seeing everything once they get to the site Slide 80
  79. 79. Thank you – we have consumed this apple together.Slide 81
  80. 80. • Why is it prudent to combine several methods when teaching anything? • Prepare lesson plans on any subject – use three of the methods described in this presentation • Comments? This Training Event is • Questions? sponsored by: • Concerns?TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUESSession Wrap UpObjectives CheckNow:•Can you describe the difference between student-centric and teacher-centric methods andtechniques?•Can you explain how to best use different methods and techniques in lessons?•Can you select appropriate technique(s) for a particular teaching/learning outcome?•What are you plans to apply various techniques in your lessons?
  81. 81. Slide 82 • Classroom Teaching Skills (7th ed.) (2003). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. • Mtunda, F.G. and Safuli, SDD. (1997). Theory and practice of teaching. Blantyre: Dzuka. Mzumara, P.S., In-service course materials for teacher educators. (Unpublished). • A trainer’s guide. (2000). Hertfordshire, London: IIED. • A guide to better instruction (2001). (6th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  82. 82. Slide 83 • A girl should choose school over marriage . • A girl should refuse to have sex without a condom. • Teens should just say “no” to drugs and alcohol. • People with HIV/AIDS should be quarantined from society. • Teenage pregnancies contribute to an impoverished society. • Parents should be involved in their children’s education.TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUESMain Project:Using your handouts and from the presentations, working in Buzz Groups synthesize what youhave learned. Use the topics that are projected on the slide to develop using Discussion,Brainstorming, Role Play, Values Clarification, Future Wheels, Songs & Jingles, Games, Devil’sAdvocacy, Case Study, Debate, and Field Trip/Educational Visits. Include ideas for multiple intelligences in the techniques, as well as other strategies that youlearned about to differentiate instruction for all of your students.

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