Process Excellence At Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank Case Study
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Process Excellence At Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank Case Study

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  • Dear all,
    I'm David Daoud and I was one of the greenbelt involved in this project.
    I am delighted to have won this award.
    http://www.linkedin.com/in/daviddaoudprofile
    Best regards
    David
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Process Excellence At Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank Case Study Process Excellence At Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank Case Study Document Transcript

  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank - PEX Network Case StudyProcess Excellenceat Credit AgricoleCorporate & InvestmentBankProcess Excellence Network Case Study2012 Europe Process Excellence Award Winner“Best Project Over 90 Days”1|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank - PEX Network Case StudyCASE STUDY: CREDIT AGRICOLECORPORATE & INVESTMENT BANKINSIGHT FROM EUROPEAN AWARD WINNING PROJECTCONTEXT & PROJECT OVERVIEWWith over 54 million customers, 160,000employees, 11 600 branches worldwide and theexpertise of its specialized subsidiaries, Credit Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment BankAgricole Group is one of the largest banks in won PEX Network’s European ProcessEurope. Its investment banking arm, Credit Excellence Award for Best Project Over 90 DaysAgricole Corporate & Investment Bank (CA-CIB)launched a Lean Six Sigma initiative. Within thisOperational Efficiency Programme, the Cash business line itself was organised. A productivityPayments process was identified as one area of gain of more than 10% was delivered across thisopportunity to make substantial improvement. large front to back team and key to success was a concerted effort to engage business users at everyThe Cash Management business is a transactional, step of the way.high volume, low revenue business that offerslittle opportunity for growth but remains a core The project was launched as part of the bank’sclient offering for the bank. It covers cash PRIME (“PRocess IMprovement & Efficiency”)management services and payment products, such Programme, a multi-year process optimisationas; electronic transfers, standing orders, “wire” programme. It aims at improving all the “end-to-transfers (any client requested international/ end” operational processes of CA-CIB in order todomestic payment). strengthen the quality of client service, improve global efficiency by promoting synergies andIT improvement opportunities had already been working across processes, reduce costs andoptimised, so further gains would mainly have to reinforce the management of risk.come through process improvements and re-organization across the value chain. For their work, innovative approach and outstanding results, the company won PEXThe company applied Lean Six Sigma tools and Network’s award for Best Process Improvementtechniques to tackle the problem, which included Project Over 90 days, a pan-European awardredefining the Front to Back process (from the judged on operational and business results as wellFront Office through to the Operations and the as clarity in execution throughout the process andBack Office) and developed solutions that sustainability of change.challenged not just the process, but also how the2|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank - PEX Network Case Study TACKLING CASH PAYMENT INEFFICIENCIES The Cash Payments project at Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank (CA-CIB) began in April 2011. The process – which handles cash management services and payment products such as electronic transfers, standing orders, etc. – had been identified as a key opportunity for improvement because of the twin problems of Processes were mapped and analysed to find decreasing revenues (owing to historically low non-value added activity interest rates) and rising costs. “It was a question of survival to streamline this business […] in order to reduce cost, but NOT at the expense of quality,” explained Laurent Ripoche, Head of Transaction and Commercial approach to identify key problem areas and Banking at CA-CIB and sponsor of the project. sources of non-value added activity.This approach included mapping and understanding the process Initial data analysis showed that 280 million and challenging non-value added activities and operations per year were 99.8% straight through tasks. Data was collected on volumes and effort in processing (“STP”); but the remaining non-STP order to calculate accurate costs of poor quality payments, some 35k manual transactions per (CoPQ) and improvement solutions identified and month, drive the effort associated with 200 FTE in validated by operational employees during Kaizen the front to back process. workshops, with the focus on external client IT improvement opportunities had already been satisfaction. optimised, so further gains would mainly have to Finally, the company designed a global come through process improvements and re- implementation plan created with business organization across the value chain. involvement and owned by the business, with key The Lean Six Sigma team followed a DMAIC milestones, ownership and agreed due dates. This business involvement in the changes was critical, and the PRIME programme identified that it was essential to engage business users at every step of the way to ensure that the changes made had maximum impact and would be adopted. “My team and my role within this programme is as a facilitator for change, but we cannot own the change implementation and the new processes that will be implemented on our own,” explained Isabelle Monier-Vinard, Head of Credit Agricole CIB’s Lean Six Sigma Programme (PRIME). “It was critical to get all of these different stakeholders in the same room and agree on commonMore than 50% of the time of front office staff was improvement objectives.” dedicated to “non sales” tasks 3|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case StudyThat’s one of the reasons that the Lean Six Sigmadivision ran 26 workshops conducted at all levelsof the business. Each workshop had a structuredagenda and data (including process maps, volumesand time to process each step) to drive thediscussion and workshop attendees then addedtheir opinions on issues raised and then agreedjoint priorities for improvement objectives, whichwere scored transparently. All issues identifiedwithin these workshops were collated andprioritized in the ‘House of Dysfunctions andWaste’; so that each could be assessed and scoredagainst strategic objectives.“We had to convince all the different teams toovercome their siloed organisation towards an endto end view and ownership of their activities,” saidIsabelle Monier-Vinard. “To do that, we used clientfocussed data and linked each operational silo and Solutions were designed by or validatedits performance to their client satisfaction and with the businessglobal metric […] everything was data driven.”This use of data helped to bridge the SOLUTIONSorganisational silos, and to make people worktogether productively. After extensive analysis, Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank (CA-CIB) redesigned not justAll solutions that the team came up with were the processes but even reorganized the businesseither from these workshops or validated in line functions into several distinct activities : front‘Solution’ office, middle office, backworkshops with “The strength of these workshops was that all office and reporting.the business and levels of the organisation expressed The front office wasthen shared withmanagement for themselves freely without feeling that realigned to focus on itsdecision making conclusions had already been made in advance core business – Productand of these sessions.” - Laurent Ripoche, project Development and Sales –implementation while the back office sponsorplanning. This remained in charge of thelead to increasing claims managementbuy-in for implementation as the workshop activities. Two new activities were created: first, aaudience had agreed to the solutions directly. ‘Middle Office’ was set up to ensure better management of the end to end process, and“The strength of these workshops was that all secondly, a ‘Reporting’ team, which monitorslevels of the organization (management and ongoing activity and enables timely follow up ofoperational) expressed themselves freely without risks. These new activities, coupled with thefeeling that conclusions had already been made in realignment of the front office tasks onadvance of these sessions,” explained Laurent commercial actions, are aimed at improving clientRipoche, project sponsor. service while removing non value add activity and delivering efficiency gains.4|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case StudyThere were two primary reasons for reorganizing The image at the bottom of this page details thethe functions in this way, explained Adrian Grant original process (Initial Value Chain) compared(MBB external advisor). The first reason was lack with the redesigned version (Target Value Chain).of clarity over what exactly the front office and theback office should be doing. There were quite a RESULTSfew administrative tasks that the front office wasperforming that would have fit better under a back Improvements along the value chain delivered aor middle office. Additionally, there were things gain of more than 10% productivity across thisthat were being done by both sides because they large front to back team through the followingweren’t clearly defined. steps:“I think an effectively designed middle office in  Process review and optimizationbanks is a rare thing,” said Adrian Grant. “This one (removing Non Value Add activity)has now been designed the right way – bottom up,not top down. I think that’s the thing that’s been  Reduction of manual operations (andvery good about this project, is it is functionally operational risk)aligned, rather than just the management team  Organizational re-alignment (Front Officesaying let’s call them a middle office now.” & Operations)The realignment helped the Lean Six Sigma team  Challenging Supply chain (client servicegain more efficiency than they could have from channel changes to optimize payments)improving processes alone. The project was a front to back process review “By focusing on the organizational design - instead that looked at Value Add activity from a clientof just improving and optimising an existing perspective and functionally aligned processes toprocess - we improved the global efficiency aid efficient performance. Since the reorganizationbecause we allowed the front office and the and process optimisation, productivity gains ofsupport function to be more focussed on their 12% have been validated and realised (withcore activities,” said Isabelle Monier-Vinard. budgets updated based around implementation5|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case Study actions). The overall implementation plan has been incorporated in the new cash management business plan for 2012.What were the key success Adrian Grant attributed some of the success to thefactors? fact that the project looked at the entire process from the perspective of the customer.Credit Agricole CIB attributes the following “I think that every process we look at always startsfactors as key to the overall success of the with a siloed view and it’s so easy to forget ourproject: clients in that. We become a part of the machine rather than the front to back service the client  Front Office sponsorship sees,” he said. “I think what make PRIME [CA-CIB’s Lean Six Sigma programme] successful is that it  Onboarding operational Green Belts from reminds all of the actors in the process - front to the business back - about what their client sees.”  Voice of Client used to optimise current The project demonstrated the ability of Credit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank’s Lean Six service offering: Sigma team to onboard a global, end to end, front office to back office solution, overcome o Leading to re-focus of Front Office organizational silos and realise the truism that on core sales tasks efficiency gains can be identified at the interfaces between departments by reducing manual tasks o Creating a new Middle Office and improving client focus. (dedicated to client servicing) 6|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case StudyVIEW FROM THE BUSINESSINTERVIEW WITH LAURENT RIPOCHE, HEAD OF TRANSACTION & COMMERCIALBANKING (PROJECT SPONSOR), CREDIT AGRICOLE CORPORATE & INVESTMENT BANK Laurent Ripoche is Head of Transaction & Commercial Banking (TCB); he has been in this role since April 2007. He began his career in 1988 with Crédit Lyonnais retail banking. In 1992, he worked in Fixed Income Middle-Office. In 1995, he became Corporate Relationship Manager in Paris, then, in 1998, project Manager RAROC Tools / Economic Capital. In 2001, he was appointed Head of Credit Risk Management in Asia - Pacific (Calyon), then in 2005, project Manager Basle II for corporate clients. He was Sponsor for the Cash Management project, taking responsibility for coordinating the management decision making on this front to back business line.WHY WAS THE CASH PAYMENTS WHAT WAS THE MOST IMPORTANTPROCESS IDENTIFIED AS A STRATEGIC THING FOR YOU TO ACHIEVE THROUGHOPPORTUNITY FOR IMPROVEMENT? SPONSORSHIP OF THIS PROJECT?The Cash Payments business between 2008 & I am personally convinced of the value of the Lean2010 had to cope with the scissor effects of: Six Sigma methodology. I learned about it during my MBA and beyond my business objectives I  30% fall in revenue (decrease of interest wanted to test the applicability of this approach to rates) a banking environment where processes are less materialized than in the manufacturing world.  20% increase of its cost base As a sponsor the most important thing was toIt was a question of survival to streamline this quickly define the objectives, the scope of the endbusiness, our end to end processes across the to end processes and the geographical location ofwhole value chain in order to reduce cost, but NOT activities. Through a first data analysis we wereat the expense of quality. The strategic objective able to do an efficient scoping of quantifiablefor Cash Payments business is first to increase objectives that could be reached through aquality as valued by clients and secondly to reduce pragmatic approach.the cost base of the operation. Launching such aproject was a good opportunity to reach these two Another important aspect of my role as a sponsorobjectives. was to allow the methodology to highlight the axis for improvement (confirming some of manager’s feelings both in Front Office and Back Office) rather than direct the outcome of the project top- down, so that data leads the improvements in a transparent manner.7|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case StudyWHY DO YOU THINK THE APPROACH FO on Sales, specializing people in a value added middle office and simultaneously reducing costTAKEN BY THE LEAN SIX SIGMA TEAM through lowering the number of manualAT CREDIT AGRICOLE WAS SO operations and eliminating the duplication ofSUCCESSFUL? effort.One key success factor was that the project team We changed our way of working on the global endwas very transversal and balanced between Front to end filiere, focusing on client satisfaction and inOffice (sales), the operational business teams and this way the improvements are strategic for ourthe Back Office. Coached by the PRIME Lean Six business line!Sigma specialists, everyone involved participatedwell in workshops, where everybody was able to IN WHICH WAYS DO YOU THINK THEtalk without constraints. LSS facilitation oriented LEAN SIX SIGMA TEAM DELIVERS VALUEthe sessions towards shared objectives and people TO THE BUSINESS?shared their ideas very freely and reached aconsensus on solutions rapidly. The strength of Apart from the quantifiable benefits, the costthese workshops was that all levels of the reduction, we all improved our processorganization (management and operational) understanding and learned from the operationalexpressed themselves freely without feeling that people (who experience the processes on a day toconclusions had already been made in advance of day basis) and engaged in transversal teamworkthese sessions. As a consequence the axes of for a common goal. All actors, from front to back,improvement were all validated by consensus. valued the focus on quality as the key driver for this business.We know our business through intuition, but withquantifiable measures it is difficult to refute theneed of improvement either on our process or ourorganization.THERE ARE SOME WHO ARGUE THATPROCESS IMPROVEMENT IS ASTRATEGIC RATHER THAN TACTICALISSUE. WOULD YOU AGREE?For me, it is both strategic and tactical. In thisproject reducing manual operations was a tacticalobjective (linked to cost reduction) but wecontinually kept in mind our strategic objective toimprove our commercial dynamism. The approachallowed for the elements of the service valued bythe client to be quantified. By re-shuffling theorganization of the end to end filiere, we globallydelivered recognized value that the customer iswilling to pay for. This was achieved by refocusing8|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case StudyLINKING PROCESS IMPROVEMENT WITHSTRATEGIC BUSINESS OBJECTIVESINTERVIEW WITH ISABELLE MONIER-VINARD , BLACK BELT & HEAD OF CREDITAGRICOLE CORPORATE & INVESTMENT BANK LEAN SIX SIGMA PROGRAMME (PRIME) Isabelle Monier-Vinard is the Head of the Operational Excellence Initiative “PRIME” (Process IMprovement & Efficiency) at Crédit Agricole Corporate & Investment Bank (CA-CIB) since 2009. She manages both the delivery of process excellence and the wider adoption of the Lean Six Sigma methodology within the company from the Front Office to the Support Functions. As programme lead she supports the deployment strategy within the organization and is responsible for assuring the quality of PRIME project deliverables and the follow up of the LSS methodology and mindset. Isabelle started her career in the Group Internal Audit department of Banque Indosuez. In 2000 she joined Société Générale Corporate and Investment Bankingwhere she took various management responsibilities in the Equity Derivatives Operations Department. In2007, Isabelle joined CA-CIB as COO of Capital Markets Operations Department to then become the Chief ofStaff to the Global Head of IT & Operations. THROUGHOUT THIS PARTICULARHOW WAS THIS PARTICULAR PROCESS PROJECT, I UNDERSTAND THAT YOUIDENTIFIED FOR IMPROVEMENT? RAN A LOT OF WORKSHOPS AT EVERYA Cartography of 57 end to end processes has LEVEL OF THE ORGANISATION.. WHYbeen defined by the general management as WAS IT SO IMPORTANT FOR YOU TOtargets for review by 2014. We ran a project TAKE THIS APPROACH?selection with the key stakeholders, and it saw thecash management process as a good opportunity. My team and my role within this programme is asWhen we say key stakeholders we mean front a facilitator for change, but we cannot own theoffice and support function management were change implementation and the new processesinvolved in this project selection. On top of that, that will be implemented. So for us and for thethe head of cash management business - the front company, it is key to have the business in theoffice - was also very keen on participating in this workshops agreeing on the future state, because itproject. secures the effective implementation. The cash payment project crosses different departments –It was important right from the start to have the front and support – and even within theseinvolvement of both front and support function different departments there are siloed teams. Soemployees, a very strong sponsorship from the it was critical to get all of these differenthead of the front office. It helped us to have a full stakeholders in the same room and agree onend to end review of this, what we call here in our common improvement objectives. The key waslanguage, a filiere, meaning we go from the front really to give them the ownership of the issues:to the back of the process.9|P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case Studyfirst of all the ownership and the With these four, in fact, key cornerstoneacknowledgement of problems and the solutions principles, we will still be able to translate and toand secondly of all the change management adapt to our general management’s strategicissues, before launching the implementation plan. objectives, and to deliver exactly what is expected from this initiative. But on top of that, the keyWHAT WOULD YOU SAY WAS THE MOST element for me is conviction and pragmatism - notDIFFICULT ASPECT OF THE PROJECT, going too fast, not too slow, but getting to exactlyAND HOW DID YOU OVERCOME IT? where we need to be.In every investment bank, the front office and RIGHTLY OR WRONGLY, MANY TEND TOsupport function do not naturally see their ASSOCIATE LEAN SIX SIGMA WITH COSTactivities as a transversal and common state. CUTTING, AND NOT REALLY A WHOLEBringing a front to back shared understanding was LOT MORE. DO YOU THINK THAT THIS ISthe main challenge for us in this project – we had AN ACCURATE ASSESSMENT OF WHATto convince all the different teams to overcome LEAN SIX SIGMA CAN REALLY BRING TOtheir siloed organisation towards an end to end THE BUSINESS?view and ownership of their activities.To do that, we used client focussed data and In my opinion, Lean Six Sigma is not about costlinked each operational silo and its performance to cutting. It is about efficiency. The key message Itheir client satisfaction and global metric. So carry around the company is about all of us lookingeverything was data driven, which is very for efficiency. Anyone can decide to do top downimportant to make in fact all these different key cost cutting, but I don’t believe that bringsstakeholders converge towards a search for sustainable efficiency to the organisation.improvement. In fact, we were able to effectively By deploying a Lean Six Sigma approach, weidentify the defects and their root causes in a contribute to performance. In a sense, we performfactual way, regardless of whether they were in a sanity check on our current processes and on thethe front, or, the back office. So it was very organisation. We bring four key elements to theimportant to have all this data driven analysis table with regards sustainable improvement.because it helped to bridge the silos, and to make These elements are: securitisation, monitoring,people work together productively. client satisfaction, and global efficiency. I believe that what Lean Six Sigma brings us is how to beTAKING A MORE STRATEGIC VIEW, I better in a measurable way that our clients, theUNDERSTAND THAT PART OF YOUR business and the employees recognise.ROLE AND YOUR AIM AT CRÉDITAGRICOLE HAS BEEN TO BUILD A WHAT TECHNIQUES DO YOU EMPLOY TOSUSTAINABLE AND SELF-SUFFICIENT REALLY SUPPORT THE OVERALLLEAN SIX SIGMA PRACTICE THAT CAN STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AT CRÉDITREALLY TRANSLATE THE STRATEGIC AGRICOLE?OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT INTO ASPECIFIC CHANGE AGENDA. WHAT DOES If I go back to the four main principles I mentionedTHAT ACTUALLY LOOK LIKE TO YOU? earlier - adaptation, pragmatism, delivery and conviction - we can translate them into eightAfter three years of building this practice - the first execution principles that need to be carried out inLean Six Sigma practice that this company has ever order to bring value to the company. First of all wehad - I would summarise our journey with four need a clear and constant sponsorship fromwords: first, adaptation, second, pragmatism, general management, something that we havethird, delivery, and the last, conviction. here. The second execution principle is a pragmatic and global approach10 | P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case Studythrough a project selection aligned to our general FINALLY, WHAT ARE YOU DOING TOmanagement objective, and also a project REALLY MAKE YOUR LEAN SIX SIGMAapproach adapted to the issue we have to cope ACTIVITY SUSTAINABLE FOR THE LONGwith. TERM?The third principle is the collaborative projectexecution in two pillars: we always work with a As I said, we do run our project systematically withmixed team of in fact Lean Six Sigma experts and a mixed team of Lean Six Sigma experts andoperational staff, and we still focus on the middle operational staff. So the first thing is that thesemanagement involvement and ownership at the operational staff free up half of their time toend of our project. become part of our extended team. That means that they are really part of the project team. WeThe fourth is a strict protocol for the follow up and thoroughly train them, coach them during all thethe acknowledgement of our results. By this I projects, and ensure they use the Lean Six Sigmamean all results - financial and non-financial. These tools effectively. This is so that we do not have toare followed in the control tower that we are in carry everything by ourselves. We have trainedcharge of, and for all of the identified gains, we almost 100 operational staffs who are now ainvolve Finance in the agreement of our community who understand our approach and aremonitoring process. This is key for us, because it able to roll out and use Lean Sigma tools in theirgives the initiative real credibility in terms of own daily work. When Im talking aboutefficiency and improvement. operational staff, we try to onboard different levels of operational staff, meaning just anThe fifth one is the training of operational staff to employee working on the process, but also middlebe able first of all to get them involved concretely managers. We give them the opportunity to bein the project, and secondly to enable them to be part of a global review end to end of the processable to roll out any micro improvement initiatives which they normally don’t have the opportunity toin their own activities or propose new ideas for do.improvement. Governance, the sixth one, toinvolve each “rung” of the hierarchy within Second, we focus our project delivery onmanagement, which includes top management. quantifiable benefits for our clients, and deliveringWhat that gives you is a strong investment of also to the middle management sustainable toolsconviction by top management for the like process maps, operational risk metrics,programme. capacity models and competency matrices that they can still use after the project has ended, andSeventh is the communication, which needs to be that will be in fact part of their daily monitoringvery active, and communication is still on two tools.things. First of all, the programme objectives, to bevery clear with everybody within the company In parallel, we are building a Lean Six Sigmaabout the objectives we are looking for, and also academy that will allow us to train more peopleto communicate on results - and especially outside of our core project focus. In fact, oursuccess. We need to reward also operational process expertise is recognised outside of the Leanstaffs who have been working with us on this Six Sigma optimisation core focus because we areimprovement project. And the final principle is to now involved in key strategic IT transformationhave a dedicated team of very motivated people projects for which we are in charge of the processlooking for projects that will enable change and contribution in designing the target processesprovide value to the company. before IT configuration.11 | P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case StudyABOUT PROCESS EXCELLENCE AWARDSThe Process Excellence Awards have been established tohonour, recognize and celebrate projects thatdemonstrate true best practices. Entrants are assessedon the use of methodology, business impact, andexcellence within the practice of Lean, Six Sigma &Business Process Management (BPM). Judges for thePEX Network awards are assembled of experts andbusiness leaders working in industry.A full list of European award winners 2012 can beobtained on PEX Network.com.12 | P a g e
  • Process Excellence at Credit Agricole - PEX Network Case StudyPEX Network Fast About UsFacts WHAT IS THE PROCESS EXCELLENCE NETWORK? PEX Network is an online, free to join, membership portal providing process professionals with exclusive access to a library of multimedia resources from top executives on Lean Six Sigma, BPM, OperationalDIVISION LAUNCHED: 1999 Excellence, Continuous Improvement and other process excellence related topics.WEB PORTAL LAUNCHED: 2008 The Process Excellence Network has a subscribed membership of 80,000+ with an additional 20,000 connected to us via our social networks and aMEMBERSHIP SIZE global contact database of over 450,000.Total Membership: 80,000+ In addition to online resources, PEX Network organizes 30+ targeted face- to-face events globally per year with industry specific focuses on FinancialGrowth: 800+ members per week Services, Telecoms & Utilities, and Energy. We also hold major cross industry summits on process excellence in Orlando, FL (PEX Week) and in London, England (PEX Week Europe) every January and April.SOCIAL MEDIA CREDENTIALS ABOUT THE EDITORLinkedIn: 10,000+ Members Diana Davis is editor of PEXNetwork.com and follows trends in processTwitter: 2,300+ followers excellence including Lean, Six Sigma, and BPM. She worked previously as a producer with Associated Press Television News and she has also worked in marketing and business development in the software industry. DavisEVENTS holds a Masters in International Journalism from City University, London and a BA in English from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. She30+ globally per annum can be reached on diana.davis@pexnetwork.com. CONTACT USTOPICS COVERED Website: www.pexnetwork.comBPM General Inquiries: inquire@pexnetwork.comLean Telephone: +44 (0)20 7368 9300Six SigmaPerformance ManagementChange ManagementData ManagementInformation Technology 13 | P a g e