S-9Turkey has been under different types of terrorism threat based on Marxist-Leninist, separatist and religious ideologies for the last forty years. Lots of people died including civilians, soldiers, police officers, State officials and terrorists as well. The terrorist activities have caused also huge economic losses.
S-11Terrorist organizations currently active in Turkey mainly fall under three distinctive categories. These are: - Left Wing Terror Organizations, - Terrorist Organizations Abusing Religion, - Separatist Terror Organizations, Dears participants, you will be informed very detailed about these terrorist organization at tomorrow sections by specialist about these topics. But right now I just want to give very brief information.
Slayt no 16:PKK/KCK terrorist organization was established in 1978 and began violent terrorist acts in 1984. PKK, based on Marxist- Leninist ideology, purposes to found a Kurdish state on the lands of Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq. PKK/KCK terrorist organization changed its tactic in 2007 and established an «umbrella» organization called Kurdistan Peoples Community (KCK-KomaCiwakenKürdistan). KCK purposes to found a so-called Democratic Confederative state by forming parallel structures in Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria. With this purpose, KCK organizes massive violent attacks particularly in metropolis and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.
Slayt no 18: PKK/KCK terrorist organization continues its bloody attacks. From 2010, 346 Security Officer and 91 Civilians were killed, 1977 Security Officers and 597 Civilians injured in terrorist attacks.Also, 521 terrorists were captured dead and 49 terrorists were captured injured in these two years.
Slayt no 17:PKK/KCK conducts its activities in Europe through legal organizations by abusing such terms as “humanitarian, cultural, rights and freedoms”. There are four main roof organizations of PKK in Europe, these are; KNK, KON-KURD, KARSAZ (International Kurdish Businessmen Foundation) and HEYVA SOR A KURDISTAN (Heyva Sor).
Countering Radicalization & Terrorism in Turkey
Dr. Bilal SEVİNÇ Chief Superintendant email@example.com Turkish National PoliceCounter-Terrorism Department Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP 1
OUTLINE Terrorism in Turkey Separatist terrorist organizations (PKK/KCK) Violent activities of PKK/KCK Juveniles in PKK/KCK terrorist organization Activities of PKK/KCK in Europe Conclusion 2 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYTurkey has had big human and economic losses in its long-lasting fight against terrorism. 3 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY Left Wing Terrorist Organizations Terrorist Organizations Abusing Religion Separatist Terrorist Organizations 4 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY SEPERATIST TERRORIST ORGANIZATION: PKK/KCK (KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY / UNION OF COMMUNITIES IN KURDISTAN)Serial Process Action1. Ideology Marxism/Leninism (1978) Separatism-M/L (1984) Separatism-M/L -Exploiting of religion (1990)2. Goal Establishing a unified independent Kurdistan, covering the territories from four countries (Turkey, Iraq, Syria and Iran)3. Strategy Long Term Public War Strategy (1978) Legal Defence Strategy (1999) Revolutionary Public War Strategy (2011)4. Structure Kurdistan Workers Party / PKK (1978) Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan / KADEK (2002) Congress for Kurdistan Public / KONGRA-GEL (2003) Union of Communities in Kurdistan / KCK (2007)5. Modus Armed attacks (Bombing, assassination, suicide attacks …) against civilians and sec. for. Operandi Public Violent Activities (illegal demonstrations, Molotov cocktail bombings, arsons, damage buildings & vehicles …)6. Financial Trafficking (drug/human), money extortion, racketeering, taxation, donations, smuggling Sources (commodity/fuel/cigarettes), …7. Activities European Kurdish Democratic Society Coordination –CDK (2004) Abroad 5 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY Since 2010, 418 security officers and 111civilians were killed and 2.329 security officers and699 civilians injured in terrorist attacks carried outby PKK/KCK terrorist organization. In the operations against PKK/KCK in thisperiod; 714 terrorists were captured dead, 57terrorists were captured injured. Also; (161) heavy armors, (914) long barrel arms, (236) weapons, (157.620) bullets, (767.515) kg explosives were captured in theseoperations. 6 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYSince 1984, PKK/KCK terrorist organization carries out its terrorism activites and does not hesitate to kill individuals without being selective on targets either civilians or security forces. 7 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYPKK/KCK announced the year of 2012 as the final year and asked its members to increase violent activities. One of the military wing leaders of the terrorist group, Fehman HUSEYIN (code name Dr. Bahoz ERDAL) explained with his following statement that murders of civilians is not important for PKK/KCK;«It is not important to kill 50 civilians if you will be able to kill one police officer». 8 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYPKK/KCK takes the responsibility of civilian killings through its fake structure of TAK. The aim is to ; - Clear itself from the image of being terrorist organization, - Show its militants that they are powerfull, - Force Turkey to meet their demands . 9 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 18 October 2011- Güroymak/Bitlis Explosive devices replaced under the road were exploded by PKK/KCKterrorist organization. (5) Police officers and (5) civilians including a baby were killed and (3) civilians were injured. 10 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 26 September 2011 - Batman• PKK/KCK members carjacked…• They responded to «STOP» warning of the police with gun fire and then attempted to escape shooting around…• Eight month-pregnant Mizgin Doru, her daughter Sultan and 1 police officer lost their lives…• The baby Doru who was in the womb of her mother was saved but could survive only for a day and lost his life in the hospital.• Mizgin DORU was mother of 4 children. She was pregnant for her 5th baby. (1) Police officer and (3) civilians were killed 11 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY • Aziz Tan was serving as imam… • He was 49 years old… • He advised to the children «do not throw stones at security forces!» to save the futures of children. • When he went out for Morning Prayer call in the Holy Ramadan, PKK members shot him on his back... 12 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 20 September 2011-ANKARA (5) Civilians were killed, (42) Civilians were injured 13 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 12 September 2006 Diyarbakır/Bağlar Koşuyolu (10) Civilians were killed, (16) Civilians were injured 14 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 27 June 2008 3 January 2008 İstanbul/Güngören Diyarbakır (17) Civilians were killed, (7) Civilians – 6 of them were(144) Civilians were injured children- were killed , (67) Civilians were injured 15 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYPKK/KCK terror organization rejects or brush over theiractivities targetted civilians asserting several excuses. 20 September 2011, SİİRT (4) young girls were killed , (2) other civilians were heavily injured. 16 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 29 October 2011-Bingöl As result of a suicide bombing attack against the building of Justice and Development Party, (3) civilians were killed and (24) civilians were injured. 17 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 20 August 2012 9 August 2012 GAZİANTEP İZMİR/FOÇA (2) Security forces were killed and (9) security forces(10) civilians, (4) of whom were kids, were killed and and (3) civilians were injured. PKK/KCK also killed (3) (65) Civilians were injured. villagers before the attack. In Sanliurfa provice (1) (16) People were detained and (8) of them were terrorist was captured dead and (1) terrorist was arrested. arrested. 18 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYOn 19 september 2012, The Chief Public Prosecutor of Tunceli/Ovacık was killed while going to his home as a result of armed attack of PKK/KCK members. 19 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYIn the eastern part of Turkey ,PKK/KCK carries out several other activities such as; kidnapping of teachers, representatives of political parties and citizens, burning the cars, work machines and schools. 20 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 90 juveniles acting in PKK/KCK terrorist organization were seized in 2012. It constitutes 13% of 671 seized PKK/KCK members in 2012. 38 juveniles were seized just before they are about to join the terrorist group. It constitutes 40% of 95 people who were seized before joining PKK/KCK in 2012. 23 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY 625 juveniles were seized during illegal violent demonstrations organized by PKK/KCK in 2012. It constitutes 39% of 1595 seized individuals joined illegal violent demonstrations. 24 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY PKK/KCK’S ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE European Kurdish Democratic Society Coordination (CDK) European Kurdish International Associations Kurdistan National Kurdish Kurdish Red Kurdistan IslamicConfederation (KON- Congress (KNK) Businesmen Union Crescent (HEYVA- Community (CIK) KURD) (KARSAZ) SOR) Directly tied to the YRD/Democratic Press Union ; (6) Radios, (3) TV Channels (2) News Agencies, (7) News Papers, (45)Periodicals (Magazines), 25 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY PKK/KCK’S ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE European Kurdish Democratic Society Coordination (CDK) European Kurdish International Associations Kurdistan National Kurdish Kurdish Red Kurdistan IslamicConfederation (KON- Congress (KNK) Businesmen Union Crescent (HEYVA- Community (CIK) KURD) (KARSAZ) SOR) CDK: Caries out its activities in Europe through 400 different organizations by abusing some terms such as “humanitarian, cultural, rights and freedoms etc.” KON-KURD: Recruitment activities and also promotes Kurdish language, culture and identity.. KNK: Responsible from political activities (i.e. freedom to Ocalan, clearing out the PKK/KCK’s name from EU terror organizations list…). KARSAZ: Financial activities for PKK/KCK HEYVA-SOR: Gives financial and logistical support to PKK/KCK under the mask of humanitarian aid organization CIK: Under the mask of religious organization, carries out PKK/KCK related activities. 26 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY PKK/KCK terror organization uses Europe for; -Propaganda -Recruitment -Finance 27 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY ANKARA İZMİR İSTANBUL 22 May 2007 21 August 2008 11 October 2008 Çiğdem (K) Gönül ERDOĞAN captured ANDOK (C) Güven AKKUŞ, ÖMER-AMED (C) Bünyamin with 5 kg of C-4 explosive in İstanbul inJoined PKK/KCK in 1998 from SÜRME, Joined PKK/KCK in 2000 October 2008 and joined PKK/KCK from Holland from Greece Germany 28 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEYJoined PKK/KCK from Germany in 2006 and captured inAnkara on on 17 October 2010. During the search of thisindividual’s home following materials were seized;-(11,5) kg chemical explosives,-(4) handgranades,-(2) Kalashnikov rifles,-(1) fake ID card. 29 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY • PKK/KCK terror organization collects 20 million Euro from Europe in a year. • 3 million out of 20 million is sent to PKK/KCK camps. • Legal structures of PKK/KCK is funded by Economic and Financial Unit (EMB in Turkish). 30 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
COUNTER-TERRORISM IN TURKEY Terrorists’ needs such as logistical, food , weapon and health are met with the money collected from various sources. Also, weapons and explosive materials which were/are used to kill many innocent civilians and security forces were/are bought with this money. 31 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
CONCLUSION PKK/KCK terrorist organization has used violence against civilians in its all history… Its ideology/strategy/goal/structure/modus operandi/financial and activities in Turkey and abroad contain violence against civilians. Its violence against civilians is a result of a chain of command that it is systematic from leadership/executive committee to armed militants. At the beginning violence against civilians was an instrument, it is now the goal of the PKK/KCK. Activities and financial sources of some other structures of PKK/KCK that acts under legal appearances such as TV channels, radio, newspaper, journals, associations, cultural centers must be investigated and be made subject to the judicial process. 32 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP
CONCLUSIONGeneral Issues: Cooperation through information sharing is important in the fight against terrorism. Individuals subject to red bulletin should be extradited; documents captured during the operations should be shared, and activities of the groups in other countries should be decoded/prevented. In order to share experiences, trainings and capacity building activities between the countries have due importance. Given that terror organizations have some legal extensions in other countries, their activities in terms of supporting terrorist group should be kept under strict control. Countries should not allow terrorist groups’ financing and recruitment activities through legal extensions. Some members of the terrorist organizations seek asylum In Europe with fake allegations against Turkey. We kindly request other countries to ask Turkey before accepting asylum seekers. 33 Counter-Terrorism Department of TNP