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Cited in Fisher (2013) : “the [ritual] group has an
intellectual and moral conformity . . . everything is common
to all. Movements are stereotyped; everybody performs the
same ones in the same circumstances, and this conformity
of conduct only translates the conformity of thought. Every
mind being drawn into the same eddy, the individual type
nearly confounds itself with that of the race”
Solidarity Macro Theory
“(…) persons who go through a great deal of trouble or pain to attain
something tend to value it more highly than persons who attain the
same thing with a minimum of effort."
Aronson, E., & Mills, J. (1959). The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a
group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59 (2): 177–181.
"It seems clear that the inclination to engage in behavior after extrinsic
rewards are removed is not so much a function of past rewards
themselves. Rather, and paradoxically, such persistence in behavior is
increased by a history of non-rewards or inadequate rewards."
Festinger, L. (1961). The psychological effects of insufficient
rewards. American Psychologist 16 (1): 1–11.
The Dark Side of Solidarity Macro
As well as increasing group attraction, hazing can
produce conformity among new members (Keating et
Similarly, this author has argued that the over-arching
purpose of hazing is to create “dependence,” whereby
abused individuals increase their liking of their abusers (as
in Stockholm Syndrome).
Dominance Macro Theory
Durkheim (1912) notes that group members haze
newcomers to “make them understand how superior [they
feel]” (p. 318).
Robidoux (2001) describes athletic hazers “celebrating
their power over rookies” (p. 104).
Nuwer (2000) actually deﬁnes hazing as an imposition of
dominance, stating that hazing involves “any activity that
requires new members to show subservience to old
members” (p. 20)
Commitment Macro Theory
Vigil (1996) writes that severe gang initiations act to “weed
out the weak and uncommitted” (p. 151).
Smith (1964) suggests that lengthy fraternity inductions are
“contrived for the pledging of commitment” (p. 29).
Johnson (2000) writes of athletic hazees having to “prove
their commitment” (p. 70).
The Evolution of Hazing
“The human mind may be designed to respond to new
group members in a variety of ways, and one of those
ways may be something other than a hug.”
∞ Iannaccone (1992) argues that painful initiations
“screen out free riders” (p. 11).
∞ Moreland and Levine (2002) describe harsh initiations
as “testing how committed newcomers are” (p. 191).
∞ Tiger (1984) theorizes that male hazing is “analogous
to mate selection in the reproductive sphere”
Theodor W. Adorno’s The Authoritarian
Is there a correlation between
antidemocratic ideals and hazing practices?
∞ Homogenous and fixed way of dressing, thinking, behaving
i.e. totalitarianism and group-think
∞ Blind obedience towards authority
∞ (The illusion of) lack of other alternatives
∞ Hazing is actually also a part of the military itself...