Poverty in Asia and Africa: It’s Relevance to the Philippines (A research paper by: Joshua Pagaduan)Introduction Poverty is like an epidemic disease, with no antidote, affecting the entire world. It is worst than any other epidemic diseases, it already kills billions of people and will continue to kill many people. It can vanish away half of the population in a country. It shows no mercy and will never show mercy on its victims. Antidotes, Immunization and other cures for this epidemic disease were being held and studied, but still no antidotes or cure can be perfect to eliminate poverty. Poverty already existed before we were born, it seems that it has no beginning. Itbecame part of other lives and runs through their veins. It also seems that poverty has nolimitations; it works all day and night. It never takes a break in torturing its victims to death.Historians cannot even trace back when poverty started and is seems that poverty has no end. Poverty is the main reason why people suffer, so that’s why pain is a virtue. It is rampantin some African and Asian Countries. Leaving Africans and Asians poor citizens of the world. Itscauses were distinct and many policies or programs were implemented about it. The answer forthe question “Can poverty be ended?” is unknown, but poverty is a major problem in the world.Body Majority of the poorest countries in the world where in Africa and Asia. Countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso and other poor countries wereconsidered poor countries. “Extremely poverty”1 is presented in Africa and Asia. Some causes of the poverty in Africa and Asia are the following:1. Population and Famine The main reason why they are poor because of population and famine. Since they have a large population, government cannot handle them and food supply cannot be sufficient to them. Population has a relationship in famine. Based on Maltusian Theory “if population increases rapidly than the supply of food, it can cause famine and will affect the economic conditions of man” 2.Population can increase rapidly, but the supply of food will not increase. Big population can leave Africans and Asians hungry and Big population will slowly diminish the natural resources of a country.
2. Lack of Education Education is one of the most important asset in the improvement of a country. WithoutEducation poverty is sure present. Some Countries like Afghanistan, only “30% of the policecan read”3 In Eritrea, they only have “824 schools and 2 universities, illiteracy is a hugeproblem”4 and In Somalia, young boys don’t go to school, they just “wished to become piratesbecause that is where the money is”5. Piracy is very rampant in Somalia. It is very sad to seechildren grow without any achievements in life. If only Education is free, they could have beendoctors, engineers, lawyers, or even a president of their own country. Lack of education resultsto poverty and it is the primary reason why some African and Asian countries are poor.3. Employment “Labor is the most important asset of the poor. Underemployment and Unemploymentare thus key determinants of poverty”6. Labor is very important, it brings income to the family,to purchase its daily needs and it runs the economy of the country. Without labor, povertypops out. Poor countries should establish its labor force; they cannot depend for the rest oftheir lives in the help of other countries. In the old sayings “Give a man a fish and he will eatfor a day. Teach him how to fish and he will eat for a lifetime” 7. This saying is addressing richcountries that they should teach poor countries how to work and to stand by themselves, sothey could not be over dependent on them.4. Diseases and Lack of health care Why there are many diseases in poor countries? The only answer is their surroundingsare dirty. Africans and Asians don’t observe cleanliness. As a result “lack of good drinkingwater is a major problem”8 and another result is water is infected in “water related diseasessuch as bilharzias, cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, and pneumonia kill many people”9. Dirtysurroundings has a chain effect, since they are poor they cannot have access in hospitals forhealth care. Many diseases were prevailing in Africa and Asia. Why these diseases can’t bestopped? The answer could be poor performance of African and Asian medical experts.Medicines and hospitals are also limited. African countries are taking of adequate medicalservices .10 The same thing is true in Asia. Lack of health care have too many unstoppabledisease like AIDS, which is a major problem in Africa. Another consequence is felt inZimbabwe.11 Life expectancy of Zimbabwe is the lowest in the world- 37 years old in men and34 years old for women. Diseases and health care can drag down a country to the poverty line.
5. Corruption When we heard corruption, we think that it is the main reason why the country is suffering. Based on a “One Poor African” all African leaders are corrupt. They only sees money and money and nothing but money. Not just the African president but the also the prime minister, the governor, the doctor, the judges, the lawyer, the king and even the pastor. That’s why Africa is still poor and why Africa continues to wallow in poverty.12 Leaders who are rich while their people are poor is subjected to the sayings of Confucius- “In a country, well- governed poverty is something to be ashamed of. In a country badly governed wealth is something to be ashamed of”13. Knowing the causes of poverty, makes it easier to understand what policies orprograms can be instituted, to contradict these causes. The first and most important policy orprogram is the “Human Population Control. It is the practice of artificially altering the rate ofgrowth of a human population”14. The program that is applicable in population control is the“One child policy. It refers to the one child limitation applying to a minority of families in thepopulation control policy of the People’s Republic China” 15. Population causes poverty andbecause China has the biggest population, they decided to reduce it through the One childpolicy. Pretty smart isn’t it. Less population has many advantages such as more jobopportunities, “Increased savings rate and Economic growth”16. Due to this policy China haveno problems in handling their big population. Famine and Malnutrition are very rampant in Africa and Asia. Since Malnutrition ispresent then diseases and sickness are also present. As a result feeding programs and Healthprograms are very common. “World health programme is a food aid branch of the Unitednations and the World’s largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger worldwide 17”.This feeding program helps people to produce or obtain enough food for themselves and theirfamilies and it also improves nutrition and quality of life. This program also helps manycountries such as Lebanon, Somalia, Ethiopia. “WHO or World health Organization is a healthagency that eliminates and fights diseases throughout the world” 18.This agency even provideand sending health experts to check the health of poor Africans and Asians. They even trainedAfrican and Asian doctors to be an expert in terms of health. Educational programs were also being held in poor countries. “Most educationalfacilities are overcrowded and some especially in rural areas are poorly equipped” 19 inPakistan and it is also well applied in other poor countries in African and Asia. “AfricaEducation iniative”19is an example of education programs in Africa. It provides textbooks,learning materials and even provide teachers training. Its main goal is to expand the quality ofeducation in Africa and to encourage African students to study hard, so they could be aneducated person someday. “MOFET is also an educational program in order to promoteacademic condition in Israel”20. This program was established to also encourage students tostudy and to appreciate more education. Through Education a nation can rise up from poverty.
Labor is very important. Unemployment results in poverty. Since unemployment rate ishigh in Africa and Asia, job opportunities were being done. Since the primary livelihood ofsome Africans and Asians is Agriculture the “Comprehensive Agriculture “21is been established.This program gives livelihood to thousands of farmers, it increases food supplies and reduceshunger. “It also improves agriculture research, technology, dissemination and adoption” 22. TheAfrica Education Iniative also provides job opportunities. It recruits and trains teachers, so theycould be instruments in educating their children. Corruption is very common in Africa and Asia and this is the reason why they are poor.Policies, programs, and campaigns were being introduced to fight against corruption. “NAPnational Anti corruption Programme promotes leadership in all sectors of society that iscommitted to the creation of a culture of integrity and to restore confidence in the fightagainst corruption.”23. Corruption is the pathway of poverty. Knowing all the policies and programs, what is applicable in the Philippines? Whatprograms can definitely be applied to help Philippines rise from poverty. The most applicable isthe Population control or the one child policy. Philippines is already populated. “Population ofthe Philippines is increasing rapidly, placing great stains on the economy and on socialservices”24. This policy could help a lot in the reduction of our population, if one child policymay sound rude, the RH Bill should be implemented. The increasing of our population isalready alarming but no major steps were being done. Health care programs can be applicablealso. Even though Philippines have many prestigious hospitals, there are “Shortage of trainedmedical personnel exists in rural areas “25. Lack of health care is experience in rural areasmaking our country very poor. Education programs can be applied also. Literacy rate of thePhilippines is high, but “quality of education is poor in rural areas” 26. Education must beimproved in both urban and rural areas and government must focus more in the improvementof education in rural areas, In order to have a fair balance of Education. Job opportunity mustalso be improved. Just like Africa and Asia, Philippines have a high Unemployment andUnderemployed rate. “Higher education is greatly valued but the Philippine economy can’tabsorb all college graduates”26. This is the main reason why our skilled workers choose theleave the country and to serve other nations. Government must provide thousands of jobs toFilipinos, so they can serve their own country. Jobs should always be available to everyFilipinos. African and Asian Poverty leave a great impact in Philippines. It teaches us various oflessons in every Filipino citizens. First we know that Philippines is just the same as Africa andAsia. All of them have high population, Poor health access, corruption, and poor Education.They show no difference both of its inhabitants are suffering. Second, Labor or Employment isgreatly valued. Being productive is a step to get out of poverty. Thirdly, Education inPhilippines must be improved. The poverty in Africa and Asia is a result of lack of Education,without it there will be no professional workers, no income, and no daily needs. Everything isgone without education. Lastly the most important thing is voting for the right leader. A leaderthat have a heart for its people and not a servant of money. African leaders are known as
corrupt, it gives Filipinos an idea how a corrupt leaders rule. Their leadership results topoverty.ConclusionThe Following are analysis or conclusions about poverty.1. Poverty is not a permanent thing. It can be stopped and it can be ended by citizens who are experiencing it.2. Causes of poverty in Africa and Asia are exactly the same.3. Africa and Asia will continue to be poor if Africans and Asians are not ready to change their respective continents. These two continents could rise up from poverty and can be the riches continent in the world.4. Philippines can learn from the poverty of Africa and Asia. Philippines also could rise up from poverty. Poverty is not everlasting.5. The key to outwit poverty is to analyze its causes. If the causes is Big population, then reduce the population, If the problem is lack of Education then improve the value of Education and If the problem is lack of Employment then establish more job opportunities.
Joshua Pagaduan Poverty in Africa and Asia: its Relevance in the PhilippinesIntroductionI. Description of povertyBodyI. Causes of poverty in Africa and Asia A. Population and Famine B. Lack of Education C. Employment D. Diseases and Lack of Health care E. CorruptionII. Policies or programs instituted to deal with poverty. A. Population Control 1. One Child Policy B. Feeding Programs and Health Programs 1. World health Programme 2. WHO C. Educational programs 1. Africa Education Iniative 2. MOFET D. Job opportunities 1. Comprehensive Agriculture Development Program 2. AEI E. Anti corruption program 1. National Anti Corruption ProgrammeConclusion
Endnotes 1. Sachs, the End of poverty p.3 2. Imerial-Dallo-samson-Seriano-Antonio, turning points IV, p.4 (manila: Rex Printing company inc. 2007) 3. www. Financialjesus.com 4. ibid 5. ibid 6. Causes of poverty in the Philippines, Chapter 6 p. 91 7. Www. ehow.com 8. www.ruralpovertyinAfrica.com 9. Ibid 10. http:// world – poverty.org/povertyinafrica.aspx 11. www.financialjesus.cpm 12. www.africanpoverty.com 13. www.enproverbia.net 14. www.wikipedia.com 15. Ibid 16. Ibid 17. Ibid 18. Radford: kasaysayan ng daigdig p.249 (SIBS House, Inc 2008 19. Lexicon universal encyclopedia (Lexicon Publication INC 19920 p. 27 20. www.wikipedia.com 21. Ibid 22. Ibid 23. www.NAP.com 24. Lexicon Universal encyclopedia (Lexicon Publication INC 19920) p. 237 25. Ibid p.237 26. Ibid p. 237