Gender development


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Gender development

  1. 1. Gender and Development Prepared by: Charlayne Anne Narzabal Eileen Pagaduan JC Bell Torres
  2. 2. WHAT IS GENDER?  Gender refers to the different ways men and women play in society, and to the relative power they wield.  Gender is expressed differently in different societies.
  3. 3. Gender  refers to the specific set of characteristics that identifies the social behavior of women and men and the relationship between them.  is the range of physical, biological, mental and behavioral characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
  4. 4. THEORIES OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT 3 Theories about gender development: 1. Social learning theory  A cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement.  Learning or imitating behaviors in other people.
  5. 5. 2. Cognitive Developmental Theory  Process of acquiring gender-appropriate behavior.  Emphasizes the child’s understanding about gender roles and the permanent places in it. 3 Stages of Cognitive Developmental Theory: a. Gender Identity- the child recognizes that they are either a boy or a girl and possesses the ability to label others. b. Gender Stability- the identity in which they recognizes themselves as does not change. c. Gender Consistency- the acceptance that gender does not change regardless of changes in gender-typed appearance, activities, and traits.
  6. 6. 3. Gender Schema Theory  cognitive theory to explain how individuals become gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture.  A mental blueprint for organizing information and children develop and formulate appropriate gender.
  7. 7. GENDER STEREOTYPING Gender Stereotyping  Defined as the beliefs humans told about the characteristics associated with males and females.  Discrimination based on one’s sex.
  8. 8. GENDER DIFFERENCES Characteristics Gender differences Physical differences Although almost all girls mature more rapidly than boys by adolescence, boys have surpassed girls in size and strength. Verbal ability Girls do better on verbal tasks beginning in the early years. Boys exhibit more language problems than girls. Spatial skills Boys display superiority on spatial tasks. Mathematical ability Boys begin to demonstrate superiority during the high school years. Science Females are falling behind while the performance of male is increasing. Achievement motivation Boys do better in stereotypically in math and science and girls in arts and music. Aggression Boys appear to be more aggressive than girls.
  9. 9. GENDER EQUALITY  Gives men and women the same entitlements to all aspects of human development including economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights, respect, opportunities and level of power.  Men and women should receive equal treatment and should not be discriminated based on gender.  Equal representation of men and women.
  10. 10. GENDER INEQUALITY Refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure, and hormonal differences.
  11. 11. FOUR THEMES THEORIZING GENDER INEQUALITY  Men and women are situated in society not only differently but also unequally.  Inequality results from the organization of society, not from any significant biological or personality differences between men and women.  No significant pattern of natural variation distinguishes the sexes.  All inequality theories assume that both men and women will respond fairly easily and naturally to more egalitarian social structure.
  12. 12. 10 EXAMPLES OF GENDER INEQUALITY 1. Educational attainment 2. Political participation 3. Freedom to marry and divorce 4. Access to health care 5. Feminization of poverty 6. Restricted land ownership 7. Feticide and Infanticide 8. Violence 9. Limited mobility 10. Professional obstacles
  13. 13. WHAT IS POWER? Power is a basic fabric of society and is possessed in varying degrees. Power becomes abusive and exploitive when independence of a person/s become so dominant.
  14. 14. GENDER AND POWER  Women and Children have often been on the abusive side of power. CAUSES: 1.Physical strength of men 2. Abuse of power by men
  15. 15. GENDER AND POWER  Max Weber defined power as the likelihood a person may achieve personal ends despite possible resistance from others  Authority is power which people determine to be legitimate rather than coercive.
  16. 16. Factors act as determinants of amount of power a person holds:  Status resources  experience  self-confidence  Men have more legitimate power(based on rank or position)
  17. 17. Gender and Education
  18. 18.  Investing in education is seen as one of the fundamental ways in which nation states and their citizens can move toward long-term development goals and improve both social and economic standards of living.  Boys are far more likely than girls to be given specific information that guides improvement of their performance. ( Boggiano and Barrett,1991)
  19. 19. REFERENCES:           inequality-around-world.htm