Gender and Development
Charlayne Anne Narzabal
JC Bell Torres
WHAT IS GENDER?
Gender refers to the different ways men and
women play in society, and to the relative power
Gender is expressed differently in different
refers to the specific set of characteristics that
identifies the social behavior of women and
men and the relationship between them.
is the range of physical, biological, mental and
behavioral characteristics pertaining to, and
differentiating between, masculinity and
THEORIES OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT
3 Theories about gender development:
1. Social learning theory
A cognitive process that takes place in a social context
and can occur purely through observation or direct
instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or
Learning or imitating behaviors in other people.
2. Cognitive Developmental Theory
Process of acquiring gender-appropriate behavior.
Emphasizes the child’s understanding about gender roles and the
permanent places in it.
3 Stages of Cognitive Developmental Theory:
a. Gender Identity- the child recognizes that they are either a boy or a
girl and possesses the ability to label others.
b. Gender Stability- the identity in which they recognizes themselves as
does not change.
c. Gender Consistency- the acceptance that gender does not change
regardless of changes in gender-typed
appearance, activities, and traits.
3. Gender Schema Theory
cognitive theory to explain how individuals become
gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are
maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture.
A mental blueprint for organizing information and children
develop and formulate appropriate gender.
Defined as the beliefs humans told about the
characteristics associated with males and
Discrimination based on one’s sex.
Although almost all girls mature more rapidly than
boys by adolescence, boys have surpassed girls in
size and strength.
Girls do better on verbal tasks beginning in the
early years. Boys exhibit more language problems
Boys display superiority on spatial tasks.
Boys begin to demonstrate superiority during the
high school years.
Females are falling behind while the performance of
male is increasing.
Boys do better in stereotypically in math and
science and girls in arts and music.
Boys appear to be more aggressive than girls.
Gives men and women the same entitlements to all aspects
of human development including economic, social, cultural,
civil and political rights, respect, opportunities and level of
Men and women should receive equal treatment and should
not be discriminated based on gender.
Equal representation of men and women.
Refers to unequal treatment or
perceptions of individuals based on
their gender. It arises from differences in
socially constructed gender roles as well
as biologically through chromosomes, brain
structure, and hormonal differences.
FOUR THEMES THEORIZING GENDER
Men and women are situated in society not only differently
but also unequally.
Inequality results from the organization of society, not
from any significant biological or personality differences
between men and women.
No significant pattern of natural variation distinguishes the
All inequality theories assume that both men and women
will respond fairly easily and naturally to more egalitarian
10 EXAMPLES OF GENDER INEQUALITY
Freedom to marry and divorce
Access to health care
Feminization of poverty
Restricted land ownership
Feticide and Infanticide
10. Professional obstacles
WHAT IS POWER?
Power is a basic fabric of society and is
possessed in varying degrees.
Power becomes abusive and exploitive
when independence of a person/s become
GENDER AND POWER
Women and Children have often been on the
abusive side of power.
1.Physical strength of men
2. Abuse of power by men
GENDER AND POWER
Max Weber defined power as the likelihood a
person may achieve personal ends despite possible
resistance from others
Authority is power which people determine to be
legitimate rather than coercive.
Factors act as determinants of amount of power a
Men have more legitimate power(based on rank
Investing in education is seen as one of the
fundamental ways in which nation states and
their citizens can move toward long-term
development goals and improve both social and
economic standards of living.
Boys are far more likely than girls to be given
specific information that guides improvement of
their performance. ( Boggiano and Barrett,1991)