Dr. coniglio pp present pdkubc feb 18 2014
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  • Research linkages have been established particularly in risk for panic; temperament is a factor; environment can include a range of factors including family interactions, bullying, trauma, etc. <br />

Dr. coniglio pp present pdkubc feb 18 2014 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Dr. Connie Coniglio Provincial Executive Director Children and Women’s Mental Health and Substance Use Program February 18, 2014
  • 2. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Overview • Prevalence of mental disorders • Anxiety among school aged children and youth • Causes, signs and symptoms of anxiety • How we all can help • General and targeted resources for educators
  • 3. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Prevalence Data • Average overall community prevalence rate for mental disorders among children and youth in BC is 15% (Mheccu, 2002) • Approximately 140,000 BC children and youth will experience mental disorders causing significant distress and impairment to functioning at home, at school, with peers and/or in the community(Mheccu, 2002) • A multifaceted approach is required including universal programs for all children, targeted programs for children at risk and clinical programs for children with severe disorders
  • 4. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Prevalence of Mental Disorders in BC Mheccu, 2002 Disorder Prevalence Approx # in BC Any anxiety disorder 6.5% 60,900 Conduct disorder 3.3% 30,900 ADHD 3.3% 30,900 Any depressive disorder 2.1% 19,700 Substance use 0.8% 7,500 Pervasive DD 0.3% 2,800 OCD 0.2% 1,900 Schizophrenia 0.1% 900 Tourettes 0.1% 900 Any eating disorder 0.1% 900 Bipolar <0.1% <900 Any 15% 140,500
  • 5. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Context • Most mental disorders emerge during childhood or adolescence; 75% of all lifetime cases of mental disorders begin by age 24 • Mental health challenges are the most common health issues for teens and young adults in their early 20s • Less than half of youth in BC with a mental disorder have accessed the help that they need • Stigma is a serious barrier to help seeking for children, youth and their families
  • 6. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Reasons for not accessing mental health services (among youth who need them) McCreary Society 2009 • Thought/hoped the problem would go away 56% • Didn’t want people to know 43% • Didn’t know where to go 30% • Afraid someone I know might see me 23% • Afraid of what a Dr would say or do 21% • Didn’t think I could afford it 11% • No transportation 8% • Parent/guardian would not take me 7% • I am not treated with respect there 3% • I could not go when it was open 3%
  • 7. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders People who youth found helpful (among youth who sought help in the past year) McCreary Society 2009 • Friend 94% • Doctor or Nurse 78% • Teacher 77% • School Counsellor 67% • Religious Leader 57% • Youth Worker 54% • Other School Staff 52% • Social Worker 38%
  • 8. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Anxiety • Anxiety is the most commonly occurring mental disorder in children, youth and adults • The 12 month prevalence for any anxiety disorder is over 12%; one in four Canadians will have at least one anxiety disorder in their lifetime • All anxiety is characterized by intense fear, anxious arousal, irrational thinking and avoidance • There are seven types of anxiety disorders in children and youth  Separation anxiety  Social anxiety (school phobia)  Generalized anxiety  Panic  Post traumatic stress disorder  Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)  Specific phobia
  • 9. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Anxiety • 3 to 4% of individuals experience severe and chronic levels of anxiety • Anxiety often co-occurs with other mental disorders, in particular depression • Untreated anxiety in youth is a strong risk factor for depression and substance use in early adulthood • Co morbidity = more disability and use of services later in life • Chronicity is linked to a 10 fold increase in the risk of suicide
  • 10. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Anxiety • Anxiety is a hidden illness; sufferers are embarrassed, secretive and avoidant • The rate of detection among GPs is well below 50% • There is a service gap between need and resources despite the fact that anxiety is the most treatable of mental disorders
  • 11. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Anxiety Defined • Anxiety is our body’s reaction to perceived danger or important events; it is instinctive and protective; it keeps us safe • It is an internal alarm system, alerting us to danger and helping our body to prepare for it • Everyone experiences anxiety from time to time; it can be adaptive • When we are anxious it impacts our thoughts, body and behaviour • It triggers the fight-flight-freeze response – our automatic response to help cope with danger
  • 12. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Causes of Anxiety in Children and Youth • Anxiety disorders have multiple, complex origins including Genetics Temperament Environment
  • 13. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Causes of Anxiety in Children and Youth • Risk and protective factors can help improve understanding • Risk includes characteristics of the individual and their environment; this includes poverty, poor housing, trauma • Protective factors help build resilience in the child; this can include individual, familial and community factors • Key protective factors are support from a consistent adult, good learning and social skills and a positive world view • Children and youth do best in communities where neighbourhoods and schools function well and where the individual feels a sense of belonging or inclusion – sometimes referred to as connectedness
  • 14. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Recognizing Anxiety • Symptoms of anxiety in children and youth generally fall into four categories Thoughts Behaviours Feelings Physical symptoms
  • 15. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Recognizing Anxiety • It’s normal for children to be anxious in situations like the first day of school, exams or presentations • Anxiety becomes a problem when a child or youth is anxious in situations in which someone of the same age is not usually afraid • Anxiety is also a problem if it does not get better with time and significantly affects the life of the child and their family
  • 16. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Recognizing Anxiety Thoughts Behaviour Physical Symptoms Worrying about something bad happening What if mom doesn’t pick me up from school? What if I throw up? Will everyone laugh at me? Needles, death, health worries, future Fighting, avoiding situations, people or objects Looking for comfort or reassurance, clinging Throwing temper tantrums Crying Trouble sleeping Panic Racing or pounding heart Tummy ache Sweating Headache Dizziness, light headed
  • 17. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders When is it a Problem? • Anxiety becomes a problem when the child experiences fear or worry even when there is no real danger or much less harm than they think; these fears may not make any sense to others or even to themselves It is important to consider:  the amount of anxiety the child is feeling  the level of anxiety  how long it’s been going on  how much the anxiety is getting in the way of how they function  how distressing it is for the child and for their family  when the anxiety happens too often and gets in the way of doing things at home, at school, or with friends, it’s important to seek help
  • 18. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Helping Children and Youth with Anxiety • Anxiety is the most treatable mental disorder - children and youth can learn how to manage anxiety effectively, and these two key areas of treatment can help 1. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) focuses on how to: – relax – identify anxious thoughts and behaviours – challenge those thoughts and behaviours – replace them with more helpful thinking and behaviours 2. Medications can be useful in treating an anxiety disorder. They are mostly used with CBT – Parents can help by learning about anxiety and CBT. They can coach their child in ways to relax, be brave and use positive self-talk to get through anxiety
  • 19. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Cognitive Behaviour Therapy • First line, evidence-based treatment for children, youth and adults with anxiety • Includes a variety of strategies to help a child or youth reduce anxiety, challenge anxious thoughts, and combat long standing avoidance behaviours • Includes affective education, behavioural relaxation, cognitive restructuring, imagined and in-vivo exposure, modeling and rewards and behavioural parent training
  • 20. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Helping All Children with Anxiety • Regular routines (morning, school, homework, bedtime) • Clear expectations, limits, and consequences that are realistic for the child’s age • Paying attention to the child’s feelings and helping the child identify them • Staying calm when the child is anxious • Giving praise and reward even for small accomplishments • Planning for times that may be difficult (getting to school, returning to school after breaks) • Showing the ways you identify your own feelings and solve problems • Modeling and encouraging healthy living habits, including:  regular physical activity  a healthy and balanced diet  getting a good night’s sleep  stress management and relaxation  healthy relationships  community involvement  social support
  • 21. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Provincial Mental Health Resources • Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre • Anxiety BC website (main site & site for youth) • MindShift anxiety app for teens • Anxiety Quick Reference Sheets for Children, Teens and Parents • mindcheck.ca website
  • 22. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Educator Strategies • Universal Resources – FRIENDS for Life Program providing CBT skills for children in Grades 4/5 (MCFD) – Improved mental health literacy among educators and parents of children and youth • Targeted Resources – Early identification and intervention in school and community environments with a focus on teaching CBT skills and referring appropriate children to more intensive supports – Self help resources and tools like the MindShift app and mindcheck.ca for youth • Clinical Resources – Referrals to MCFD Child and Youth Mental Health Teams in communities; tertiary referrals for children with more severe mental disorders requiring specialized assessment and intervention
  • 23. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Educator Strategies • Provide universal prevention programs for all children • Consider prevention as an upstream whole systems approach to connectedness and engagement of children, youth and families • Provide mental health literacy for all adults who interact with children and youth • Ensure mechanisms for early identification and intervention are in place and coordinate services and programs with system partners in your community • Provide evidence-based interventions (CBT as first line) • Establish meaningful partnerships with parents/families to expand capacity and support children and youth
  • 24. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Targeted Educator Resources • Orientation to Child and Youth Mental Health Services: A Guide for Teachers • BCTF: Teaching to Diversity Parent Support • Teen Mental Health (teenmentalhealth.org) • BC FRIENDS for Life School Program • Mind Masters • Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre • Mental Health Summer Institute
  • 25. Improving Understanding and Supports for Children and Youth with Anxiety and Mental Disorders Thank You!!