Unit 3.2 war in asia pacific


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Unit 3.2 war in asia pacific

  1. 1. Unit 3.2 – War in the Asia Pacific Region The Rising Sun casts a shadow…
  2. 2. Lesson Agenda  By the end of the lesson, you would be able to:  Analyze how Japan‟s foreign policy contributed to the war  Explain why Japanese aggression in China led to war  Explain the actions of the League of Nations  Analyze the contribution of the USA and the Soviet Union in the war
  3. 3. How did Japan‟s Foreign Policy contribute to the war?  Empire:  Japan wanted an empire that matched its new status as a major industrial power in the region.  Japanese leaders believed that having an empire would give them the respect of Western nations – Japan was not inferior to them.  ‘Asia for Asians’ Slogan  Most of the countries in Asia had been colonized – Japan felt that Asia should be freed from Western control  Helped to justify war to liberate these Asians – but it was never Japan‟s intention to allow these countries to be free after independence from the West. – Japan to become their new colonial master.
  4. 4. How did Japan‟s Foreign Policy contribute to the war?  Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere  The Japanese called the Asia Pacific region, “Greater East Asia” – this area was very rich in natural resources that resource scarce Japan needed for its industries – The region would also make a good market for Japanese goods.  The Japanese deliberately used the word „Co-Prosperity‟ to get the colonized Asians to believe that all countries would benefit economically through this arrangement…of course it was not true. This policy also justified war of liberation from Western control.
  5. 5. How did Japan‟s Foreign Policy contribute to the war?  Population Woes  Japan‟s population grew from 30 million in 1870 to 70 million by 1937.  rapid increase in population meant shortages in food and space for the people – There were not enough jobs and housing for the people.  The army reasoned that gaining colonies would solve all these social problems.  The Great Depression  The Great Depression badly affected Japan‟s economy. Its industries needed cheap supplies of natural resources and markets to sell their goods.  Japan had few natural resources – could not sell its goods to other countries.  US & western countries practiced protectionism (i.e. raising trade barriers through high import taxes).  Japan could not sell their goods with sufficient profits. Justified the commencement of war to secure markets and raw materials from the Asian nations under western colonial rule.
  6. 6. Buzz Break 1 – What does this source tell you about Japanese reasons for going to war?
  7. 7. How did Japan’s Aggression in China Contribute to War?  Manchuria  Growing influence in Manchuria and Mainland China  Japan won control of Port Arthur in South Manchuria after Russo-Jap War 1905.  Also acquired Southern Manchurian Railway.  Manchuria provided cheap manpower, raw materials: coal, timber, iron and gold.  Japs controlled Manchuria‟s banks…  more than 100,000 Jap settlers in Manchuria by 1925  Mukden Incident 1931 – Passenger train carrying Japs exploded – Japs blamed Chinese for attacking the train – Japs seized control of Mukden, capital city.  Army had full support from Jap Zaibatsus (rich industrialists) – saw war with China a means to gain raw materials and markets.  Renamed Manchuria – Manchukuo and installed Pu Yi (Last Emperor of China) – was a puppet ruler – real power in the hands of the Japs.
  8. 8. How did Japan’s Aggression in China Contribute to War?  China  Easy victories in Manchuria – emboldened Jap military.  Jap military believed that they could defeat China easily and it was best to strike when China‟s economy was weak  Marco Polo Bridge Incident  Jul 1937 – Jap soldier went missing during a regular patrol – Jap army demanded that China allow it to search for him within the Chinese section. China refused. Both sides exchanged fire which led to all out invasion of China  War in China was long and costly:  Jap resources used up – needed more raw materials to carry on the war effort  Had to consider invading British Malaya for rubber, tin and Dutch East Indies for Oil
  9. 9. What was the contribution of the League of Nations to the war?  After Jap invasion of Manchuria, China appealed to the League of Nations  League responded slowly – Invasion was in Sep 1931 – League Commission was set up and only reported to the members in Oct 1932 – Commission agreed that Japan had committed an act of aggression.  League issued verbal condemnation – no other action was taken against Japan – Great Depression weakened economies of Britain and France. – unwilling to send troops to help China or to impose sanctions  In response to the League‟s censure – Japan left the League – convinced Jap military leaders – Western powers too weak to stop Jap expansion plans in Asia – gave further encouragement to Japan to plan invasion of Western colonies in Asia.
  10. 10. Buzz Break 2 – How reliable is this source in explaining the actions of the League of Nations?
  11. 11. What was the contribution of the United States to the war in the Pacific?  Strained from the start:  With the opening up of Japan to trade and foreign influence in mid 19th century- the relationship between the two countries was strained at times.  Suspicions:  USA suspicious of Japan‟s alliance with Britain and did not want an Asian competitor to their interests in the region.  Anti-Jap US Immigration:  Japan was offended when USA set a quota for immigration in 1924  Pro-China Lobby in US:  USA condemned the success of Kwantung Army in Manchuria and increased their aid to China.  Relations between the two deteriorated with the escalation of Sino-Japanese war in 1937
  12. 12. What was the contribution of the United States to the war in the Pacific?  June 1940:  Japanese forces the closure of the Burma Road, an important supply route for the Chinese.  America’s response:  Banned the export of scrap iron to Japan which had a strong impact on Japan as it needed import of raw materials to cater for their war effort.
  13. 13. What was the contribution of the USSR to the war in the Pacific  Tense Relations:  Japan‟s relationship with Russia was tense from the period 1907-17  After the revolution, USSR was created - Japan was threatened territorially and ideologically and so military planning was focused in this direction.  Soviets Gave Aid to China:  During Sino-Japanese war, Soviets were main suppliers of aid to China so there was fighting between Japanese and Soviet troops on the Manchurian border in 1939.  With increasing hostility between Germany and USSR Russians focused on Hitler.  Japan signed neutrality pact with USSR in April 1941. With launch of Operation Barbarossa the Russian threat to Japan ended.
  14. 14. Attack on Pearl Harbor – Dec 7th 1941
  15. 15. Trigger factors for the War in the Asia-Pacific 1. Changes in American Foreign Policy  Japan had not expected any foreign intervention esp. from US in their war against China…why? = US was following a policy of isolationism – also signed a neutrality pact in 1937.  However American popular opinion sided with China. Pres. Roosevelt convinced of the need to stop aggressor nations. He used Japan‟s aggression in China as justification to send military aid to China.  US also sanctioned a trade embargo (blockade of trade) on Japan – severely affected Japan‟s war with China.  Forced Japan to look towards the resource-rich colonies of Malaya and East Indies – wanted to acquire them to feed their war effort.  Therefore, even though the US was not a formal enemy…its actions put her on the side of Japan‟s enemies
  16. 16. Trigger Factors: War in Pacific 2. War in Europe  At the same time of American trade embargoes against Japan – British and French forces in Asia were very weak and they became pre-occupied by the war in Europe.  Their colonies in SEA were very vulnerable to attack and therefore vulnerable also to Japanese aggression to take over its resources to fund the war effort against China.  With French Vietnam and the British colonies of Hong Kong, Malaya and Singapore as easy targets – Japanese were confident of winning a war in the Asia Pacific to achieve its territorial ambitions.
  17. 17. Trigger Factors: War in Asia Pacific 3. Attack on Pearl Harbour  The attack on Pearl Harbour was the trigger for Japanese decision to wage war  America‟s embargo against Japan affected Japan adversely – depended heavily on American oil. Japan faced a choice: back down or retaliate.  Japanese politicians felt – could not back down – Jap army and navy chiefs convinced the Emperor that war with US could not be avoided – resources were running low – Jap military hoped for a quick victory.  Thus…came up with the element of surprise – attack the US 7th Fleet at Peal Harbour. Catch the US unawares and destroy most of its fleet and aircraft – this would slow down their ability to wage a retaliatory strike – also unable to defend SEA.
  18. 18. Attack on Pearl Harbour  On Dec 7th 1941 – Japanese aircraft struck Pearl Harbor – a US naval base – It sank five out of eight battleships at anchor and bombed its airflelds – more than 2400 Americans were killed – Pres. Roosevelt declared war on Japan the next day.  With the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor – Japan also began military operations against the Colonies in Malaya and Dutch East Indies  US was also drawn into the war with Japan‟s Allies : Germany and Italy.