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Sec4 express chapter1(managing peace & security-iraq&kuwait)lect2
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Sec4 express chapter1(managing peace & security-iraq&kuwait)lect2

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  • 1. Iraq-Kuwait War (Lecture/Session 2): Reactions, Impacts & Effectiveness of UN Actions Managing Peace & Security
  • 2. What you will learn today…  Students will be able to:  Describe the reactions to and impacts of the Iraq- Kuwait War to both countries, the region and the World.  Evaluate the effectiveness of UN efforts to maintain international stability and peace.
  • 3. Reactions to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait  Fear of Iraqi dominance  Worry and fear amongst governments and people in the region  Iraq now controlled 20% of the world’s oil production.  They could now fix the price of oil  This could affect the price of oil  Iraq could become bolder:  Attack other countries in the region.  Saudi Arabia’s (the region’s largest country) armed forces no match to Iraq’s forces
  • 4. Reactions to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait  The ‘Arab Solution’  Arab countries did not want Western involvement  Fear of the return of imperialism (refer to trainer for explanation)  Kuwait asked Arab League (AL) to organize a joint force to counter the Iraqi invasion  Arab League voted to condemn Iraq’s actions + withdraw from Kuwait.  8 members of AL did not support the vote. AL was divided on their responses to the invasion.
  • 5. Reactions to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait  American Response  Invited to defend: Saudi government was worried about Iraqi troop build-up along border – invited the United States (US) to send troops to help defend its country.  US assumed leadership: After the US sent troops…other countries joined the military operation code-named: Operation Desert Shield. Britain, France, Members of the Arab League sent troops, military equipment and money
  • 6. Reactions to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait  International Response  The UN Security Council:  Passed a resolution unanimously, demanding immediate Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait.  Called for both Iraq and Kuwait to begin immediate and intensive negotiations to resolve differences  Both Kuwait and Iraqi assets internationally were frozen immediately to prevent Iraq from making use of Kuwait’s foreign reserves to finance the war.  Economic & Military sanctions were used in an attempt to force Iraq out of Kuwait  Economic sanctions deprived Iraq of revenue from sale of oil  No country could sell anything to Iraq …except food and
  • 7. Was the use of force the only way to get Iraq out of Kuwait?  Answer: Yes…why?  Iraq’s response to diplomatic attempts not favourable  Saddam stubbornly refused to withdraw. Annexes Kuwait instead  Started to hold Westerners as hostages…turning them into human shields  Only released women and children after international condemnation  Economic sanctions would take too long to cause a change in Iraq’s stand on Kuwait  Coalition Forces confident that the war with Iraq could be won
  • 8. Impact of the conflict  Impact on Kuwait  More than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians killed and thousands of others tortured - Kuwaitis fled their own country  After they were defeated, Iraqi Army was ordered to set-fire to 600 out of the 950 Oil wells in Kuwait
  • 9. Impact of the Conflict  Impact on Iraq  Destruction of Iraq’s military capability  Most formidable armed force in the region. 1/3rd armed force destroyed  Highway of Death – wreckage of military equipment  Political instability in Iraq  During the war, Kurds rose up against Saddam Hussein’s government  However uprisings not supported by coalition forces.  Suffering of Iraqis  Coalition air raids destroyed a large part of the infrastructure  Country’s water supply contaminated, sewage treatment
  • 10. Impact of the Conflict  Regional Impact  Environmental catastrophe  Set fire to the oil wells of Kuwait – causing air pollution  Dumped 11mill barrels of oil into Persian Gulf  Costs billions of dollars to clean up
  • 11. Impact of the Conflict  International Impact  Nearly 2million foreign workers in Kuwait, from Bangladesh, India, Egypt, The Philippines and Palestine also fled Kuwait, unable to support their families back home
  • 12. Your turn…fill in your graphic organizer Impact on Kuwait Impact on the Middle East Region Impact on the International Community Impact on Iraq IMPACTS OF THE IRAQ – KUWAIT WAR
  • 13. Success of the UN in Maintaining International stability and peace  Gulf War an example how the UN could muster its resources to deter aggression  UN involvement gave the war legitimacy…  UN involvement needed the support of Western powers who had the means of carrying out the war…UN does not have an Armed Force of its own.  Western powers supported UN - their own national interests. (protection of oil reserves and maintaining the price of oil)  In other areas, UN efforts in maintaining international stability and peace not successful
  • 14. Reflection Questions  Briefly describe one reaction to the Iraq invasion of Kuwait  What were the categories of impacts of the Iraq- Kuwait War.  What was the UN’s role in the Iraq-Kuwait War?  Is this war an example of how UN is successful in managing peace and stability?