Managing Peace & Security Iraq-Kuwait War (Lecture/Session 2): Reactions, Impacts & Effectiveness of UN Actions
What you will learn today… Students will be able to: Describe the reactions to and impacts of the Iraq- Kuwait War to both countries, the region and the World. Evaluate the effectiveness of UN efforts to maintain international stability and peace.
Reactions to the Iraqi invasion ofKuwait Fear of Iraqi dominance Worry and fear amongst governments and people in the region Iraq now controlled 20% of the world’s oil production. They could now fix the price of oil This could affect the price of oil Iraq could become bolder: Attack other countries in the region. Saudi Arabia’s (the region’s largest country) armed forces no match to Iraq’s forces
Reactions to the Iraqi invasion ofKuwait The ‘Arab Solution’ Arab countries did not want Western involvement Fear of the return of imperialism (refer to trainer for explanation) Kuwait asked Arab League (AL) to organize a joint force to counter the Iraqi invasion Arab League voted to condemn Iraq’s actions + withdraw from Kuwait. 8 members of AL did not support the vote. AL was divided on their responses to the invasion.
Reactions to the Iraqi invasion ofKuwait American Response Invited to defend: Saudi government was worried about Iraqi troop build-up along border – invited the United States (US) to send troops to help defend its country. US assumed leadership: After the US sent troops…other countries joined the military operation code-named: Operation Desert Shield. Britain, France, Members of the Arab League sent troops, military equipment and money
Reactions to the Iraqi invasion ofKuwait International Response The UN Security Council: Passed a resolution unanimously, demanding immediate Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait. Called for both Iraq and Kuwait to begin immediate and intensive negotiations to resolve differences Both Kuwait and Iraqi assets internationally were frozen immediately to prevent Iraq from making use of Kuwait’s foreign reserves to finance the war. Economic & Military sanctions were used in an attempt to force Iraq out of Kuwait Economic sanctions deprived Iraq of revenue from sale of oil No country could sell anything to Iraq …except food and
Was the use of force the only wayto get Iraq out of Kuwait? Answer: Yes…why? Iraq’s response to diplomatic attempts not favourable Saddam stubbornly refused to withdraw. Annexes Kuwait instead Started to hold Westerners as hostages…turning them into human shields Only released women and children after international condemnation Economic sanctions would take too long to cause a change in Iraq’s stand on Kuwait Coalition Forces confident that the war with Iraq could be won
Impact of the conflict Impact on Kuwait More than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians killed and thousands of others tortured - Kuwaitis fled their own country After they were defeated, Iraqi Army was ordered to set-fire to 600 out of the 950 Oil wells in Kuwait
Impact of the Conflict Impact on Iraq Destruction of Iraq’s military capability Most formidable armed force in the region. 1/3rd armed force destroyed Highway of Death – wreckage of military equipment Political instability in Iraq During the war, Kurds rose up against Saddam Hussein’s government However uprisings not supported by coalition forces. Suffering of Iraqis Coalition air raids destroyed a large part of the infrastructure Country’s water supply contaminated, sewage treatment
Impact of the Conflict Regional Impact Environmental catastrophe Set fire to the oil wells of Kuwait – causing air pollution Dumped 11mill barrels of oil into Persian Gulf Costs billions of dollars to clean up
Impact of the Conflict International Impact Nearly 2million foreign workers in Kuwait, from Bangladesh, India, Egypt, The Philippines and Palestine also fled Kuwait, unable to support their families back home
Your turn…fill in your graphicorganizer Impact on Impact on Kuwait Iraq Impact on the Impact on International the Middle IMPACTS OF THE CommunityEast Region IRAQ – KUWAIT WAR
Success of the UN in MaintainingInternational stability and peace Gulf War an example how the UN could muster its resources to deter aggression UN involvement gave the war legitimacy… UN involvement needed the support of Western powers who had the means of carrying out the war…UN does not have an Armed Force of its own. Western powers supported UN - their own national interests. (protection of oil reserves and maintaining the price of oil) In other areas, UN efforts in maintaining international stability and peace not successful
Some additionalsources of information Iraq-Kuwait war (web sources) kk (causes) Kkk (impacts) The role of the UN in managing international conflicts kkdkd Kdkdk
Reflection Questions Briefly describe one reaction to the Iraq invasion of Kuwait What were the categories of impacts of the Iraq- Kuwait War. What was the UN’s role in the Iraq-Kuwait War? Is this war an example of how UN is successful in managing peace and stability?