Students frame arguements all the time, but writing an exposition for an O'Level paper is a very exacting requirement. These slides attempt to provide students with an idea of the structure and
Students frame arguements all the time, but writing an exposition for an O'Level paper is a very exacting requirement. These slides attempt to provide students with an idea of the structure and language features of expository writing
1. Expressing anOpinionDiscursive and Argumentative Essay writing for EnglishLanguage Paper 2 (O’ Levels)
2. References• Longman’s Complete Guide to Upper Secondary Composition
3. By the end of the lesson…• You should be able to: • Identify what is an “exposition” and its types • Identify the language features of expositions • Work out & write an exposition • Understand the requirements of exposition writing
4. What is an exposition?• What do you do when you have to persuade someone to consider your point of view? • Make a stand about an issue • Support your point of view (POV) with evidence • Conclude by stating the benefits of your approach• “An exposition is a text that presents one side of the issue. The purpose is to persuade the reader or listener by presenting one side of an argument, that is, the case for or against…”(Longmans, 2008: p.41)
5. Types of expositions• Debates• Expository essays• Editorials• Speeches (Situational Writing)• Spoken arguments• Legal defences (in court)• Reviews of Books, Movies, Online games, Blogs etc.
6. Discussion Vs. Exposition Discussion Exposition• Do not immediately take • Take a stand immediately. a stand.• Present various • Presents only one side of possibilities, review the the issue. arguments and; • Attempts to persuade the• …then makes a audience (listeners or considered judgement . readers) to accept the author’s POV
7. Language Features (Expositions)• Uses simple present tense: • Gives a more “up-to-date” feel to your writing • E.g. - “…some people disagree with…” - “ …The latest statistics prove that…” - “…The present situation is not satisfactory”• Uses words that express attitude: • Gives a more convincing/sincere tone • E.g. - “…the people must be given the benefit of” - “…These things rarely occur more than once”
8. Language Features (Expositions)• Use verbs of belief: • “I can convince you that…” • “I can prove to you that…”• Use connectors to do with reason and choice: • “…You will fail unless you follow my suggestion…” • “Because of our failure to deal with these issues, this state of affairs has become worse…”
9. Language Features (Expositions)• Use emotive words and phrases: • “…we all love our country and we are all proud of our achievements…” • “…It is distressing to see her suffer at this time…”• Use adverbs that show time sequence and link the arguments such as first, next, previously and finally: • “…we must resolve our difficulties before they become worse. First we need to…Then we must. After this we have to…”
10. Language Features• Use rhetorical questions. • “…Can our country afford this?...” • “…Do you really want this to happen?…”
11. Writing an Exposition• Essay Planning • Step 1: Choose your topic & decide your stand • Are you for or against? • Step 2: List 4 or 5 points to argue your POV: • Brainstorm – no particular order • Arrange them in a coherent sequence that brings out your stand
12. Writing an Exposition• Step 3: Collect all the evidence you will need for each point: • Quote statistics • Give examples • Quote statements from authorities • Include a moral statement • Tell a “real life” story that illustrates your point
13. Expository Writing Model Plan your writing accordingly… An Introductory statement A series of arguments A conclusion
14. Sample of Expository Essay• Let’s see how it is done… • (Adapted from Pg 46, Longman’s Complete Guide to upper Secondary composition)
15. Recap• What is an exposition? And how is it different from a discussion?• What are the language features of expositions? • S_____ P_____ Tense • Words that express a_______ • Words that are e_________ • Verbs of be_____ • Connectors that show r_____ & c______ • Adverbs that show seq_______ • R_________ questions.
16. Recap 2• Steps to writing expositions • Step 1: _____________________ • Step 2: _____________________ • Step 3: _____________________• Structure of an exposition • Introductory _________________ • A __________ of arguments • A _______________.
17. Walk Through….• O’ Level English Paper One, Nov 2010 • “…Some people say that the Internet does more harm than good. What is your view?...”
18. Further notes on Discussion Essays• Discussion essays are written to: • …present a balanced argument giving points for or against a topic. • …arrive at your opinion after careful analysis based on facts.
19. Further notes on Discussion Essays• Additional Language Features: • Expressions showing contrasts: • a) “…however”, “but” • b) “…on the other hand” • c) “…whereas…” • Expressions showing analysis: • a) It can be seen that… • b) based on our review • c) Therefore
20. Comparison Expository Essays Discussion Essays• “…Singapore has too many • Some people believe that laws” Do you agree? getting a university degree is the best route to a successful• “There is too much traffic on career, while others think that the streets of Kuala Lumpur”. it may be better to start work Do you agree? after school. Discuss• It is said that school uniforms • Should girls and boys be given give pupils a sense of identity and encourages good exactly the same type of discipline. Would you agree education? with this?