Chapter 6: ManagingChapter 6: ManagingPeace and SecurityPeace and SecurityWhy Conflicts Occur among NationsWhy Conflicts Occur among Nations
Chapter 6Chapter 6 Chapter Overview:Chapter Overview:– Some causes of international conflicts.Some causes of international conflicts.– How Singapore ensures NationalHow Singapore ensures NationalSecurity through diplomacy andSecurity through diplomacy anddeterrence.deterrence.
Forms of ConflictsForms of Conflicts All countries want to protect theirAll countries want to protect theirsovereignty and national interest:sovereignty and national interest:a)a) Competing territoryCompeting territoryb) Conflict over scarce resourceb) Conflict over scarce resourcec) Conflict over ideological differencesc) Conflict over ideological differences
Lesson ObjectivesLesson Objectives By the end of the lesson students would beBy the end of the lesson students would beable to:able to:a.a. State why territorial disputes wouldState why territorial disputes wouldlead to wars.lead to wars.b.b. State why India and China went toState why India and China went towar over territory.war over territory.
Think About This!Think About This! How do you think the governments ofHow do you think the governments ofthese countries drew their country’sthese countries drew their country’sboundaries?boundaries? What determined the border betweenWhat determined the border betweencountries?countries?
Let’s Hear From YouLet’s Hear From You In pairsIn pairs work out the answer to the followingwork out the answer to the followingquestion with your partner:question with your partner:– What are the factors that governments take intoWhat are the factors that governments take intoaccount when drawing up borders.account when drawing up borders.
What Have WeWhat Have WeLearnt?Learnt? Marking of boundaries is not precise.Marking of boundaries is not precise. Open to dispute. Difference in views.Open to dispute. Difference in views. Governments may base their decisionGovernments may base their decisionon political or cultural reasons.on political or cultural reasons.
Sino-India WarSino-India War India and China among the oldest civilizationsIndia and China among the oldest civilizationsin the world.in the world. Throughout long history no major wars.Throughout long history no major wars. However went to war over territorial disputes.However went to war over territorial disputes.
India’s Point of ViewIndia’s Point of View In 1947 India gained independence fromIn 1947 India gained independence fromBritain. It inherited a frontier drawn by theBritain. It inherited a frontier drawn by theBritish.British. Did not accept China’s interpretation ofDid not accept China’s interpretation ofborder. India suspicious of China’s motivesborder. India suspicious of China’s motives Disputed areas:Disputed areas: Aksai Chin plateauAksai Chin plateau && NorthNorthEastern Frontier AgencyEastern Frontier Agency. (See map on 159). (See map on 159)
China’s Point of ViewChina’s Point of View 1950s – China began to contest India’s1950s – China began to contest India’spresence along the frontier.presence along the frontier. China rejected British defined border.China rejected British defined border.– Britain was an imperial power. CommunistBritain was an imperial power. Communistgovernments rejected colonialismgovernments rejected colonialism– Britain never consulted China on border -so notBritain never consulted China on border -so notvalid.valid.– Claim what disputed areas belonged to the peopleClaim what disputed areas belonged to the peopleof China.of China.
Sino-Indian WarSino-Indian War 1958 – China built a road at_________1958 – China built a road at_________ 1959 – Indian and Chinese armies broke1959 – Indian and Chinese armies brokeout along ______ and Aksai Chin Plateau.out along ______ and Aksai Chin Plateau. Mid-1961 China occupied territories whichMid-1961 China occupied territories whichIndia regarded as its own.India regarded as its own. 1962 Official war broke out between India1962 Official war broke out between Indiaand China.and China.
Sino-Indian War 1962Sino-Indian War 1962 Was a short war. Ended as quickly as itWas a short war. Ended as quickly as itbegan.began. Territorial conflict has not yet beenTerritorial conflict has not yet beenresolved.resolved. India and China signed an agreement inIndia and China signed an agreement in2005 to address the border issue in a fair2005 to address the border issue in a fairand reasonableand reasonable
Lesson 2: Conflict amongLesson 2: Conflict amongnationsnations Three reasons:Three reasons:a)a) Competing territoryCompeting territoryb)b) Conflict over scarce resourceConflict over scarce resourcec)c) Conflict over ideological differencesConflict over ideological differences
Lesson 2: Conflict AmongLesson 2: Conflict AmongNationsNations You may have learnt from GeographyYou may have learnt from Geographyclass that the Earth’s resources areclass that the Earth’s resources areunequally distributed.unequally distributed. Some countries have more of oneSome countries have more of oneresource than another. These includeresource than another. These includeorganic and non-organic resources.organic and non-organic resources.
Iceland’s Point of viewIceland’s Point of view Iceland main natural resource is fishing.Iceland main natural resource is fishing. Depends on fishing for survivalDepends on fishing for survival Wanted zone of fishing around Iceland.Wanted zone of fishing around Iceland. Fishermen from other countries could notFishermen from other countries could notfish there.fish there. Believed that Over fishing caused FishBelieved that Over fishing caused Fishstocks to decreasestocks to decrease Iceland’s National interest threatened.Iceland’s National interest threatened.
Britain’s Point of viewBritain’s Point of view Britain also had fishing industry.Britain also had fishing industry. By limiting the areas they could fish,By limiting the areas they could fish,revenue for British fishermen wouldrevenue for British fishermen woulddecrease.decrease. Refused to acknowledge Iceland’s newRefused to acknowledge Iceland’s newboundary.boundary. Need to protect their interests even if forceNeed to protect their interests even if forcehad to be used.had to be used.
ReferencesReferences Prices of Atlantic Cod: 1400 British pounds perPrices of Atlantic Cod: 1400 British pounds pertonne of landed Cod.tonne of landed Cod. http://www.thefishsite.com/articles/163/the-atlantic-cod-http://www.thefishsite.com/articles/163/the-atlantic-cod-the-potential-for-farming-in-shetlandthe-potential-for-farming-in-shetland http://g4bp.freeuk.com/nigelhadley/codwar.htmhttp://g4bp.freeuk.com/nigelhadley/codwar.htm http://www.vanaqua.org/aquanewshttp://www.vanaqua.org/aquanews
Lesson 2: Conflict amongLesson 2: Conflict amongnationsnations Three reasons:Three reasons:a)a) Competing territoryCompeting territoryb)b) Conflict over scarce resourceConflict over scarce resourcec)c) Conflict over ideologicalConflict over ideologicaldifferencesdifferences
The Korean War 1950-The Korean War 1950-19531953• End of WWII: USA and USSR two majorEnd of WWII: USA and USSR two majorpowers.powers. (why were they major powers?)(why were they major powers?)• USSR =USSR = Communism – No elections.Communism – No elections.Leaders are appointed.Leaders are appointed.• USA =USA = Democracy – ElectionDemocracy – Electioncampaigns, citizens get to choosecampaigns, citizens get to choosebyby
Korea DividedKorea Divided After the war, Japan was defeated and leftAfter the war, Japan was defeated and leftKorea.Korea. USSR (Soviet Russia) occupied the NorthUSSR (Soviet Russia) occupied the North US & Allies occupied the SouthUS & Allies occupied the South UN (United Nations) called upon KoreanUN (United Nations) called upon Koreanleaders to hold elections to elect aleaders to hold elections to elect agovernment to reunite North and Southgovernment to reunite North and South
Korea DividedKorea Divided 1947 - USSR refused the election and1947 - USSR refused the election andinstalled a communist regime in the North.installed a communist regime in the North. 1948 – South Korea held elections, US1948 – South Korea held elections, USsupported elected South Koreansupported elected South Koreangovernment.government.
Korean WarKorean War North to reunite Korea under communism.North to reunite Korea under communism. South to reunite Korea under democracy.South to reunite Korea under democracy. Fearing spread of communism, USA and itsFearing spread of communism, USA and itsallies defended South. Under UN forces.allies defended South. Under UN forces. North Korea supported by China defendedNorth Korea supported by China defendedNorth against Korean attacks.North against Korean attacks. China did not join the war yet.China did not join the war yet.
Korean WarKorean War 1951 – fearing that China itself would be1951 – fearing that China itself would bethreatened (Why?). China also joined thethreatened (Why?). China also joined thewar against the US and allies (UN).war against the US and allies (UN). China pushed UN troops into SouthChina pushed UN troops into SouthKorea.Korea. Stalemate from 1951 to 1952.Stalemate from 1951 to 1952. August 1953 – an agreement was signedAugust 1953 – an agreement was signedto stop the fighting and a DMZ* betweento stop the fighting and a DMZ* betweenNorth and South Korea was created.North and South Korea was created.
RecallRecall What were the causes of the KoreanWhat were the causes of the KoreanWar?War? Why did China, US and USSR becomeWhy did China, US and USSR becomeinvolved?involved? How was the Korean War resolved? IsHow was the Korean War resolved? Isit a satisfactory solution?it a satisfactory solution?
How do countries manageHow do countries manageconflictsconflicts Take a look at Figure 6.5 in textbook. With yourTake a look at Figure 6.5 in textbook. With yourpartners, work out:partners, work out:– Which ways are peaceful ways of resolving conflictsWhich ways are peaceful ways of resolving conflicts– Which ways are non-peacefulWhich ways are non-peaceful 2 mins to do this.2 mins to do this.
Simple QuizSimple QuizArrange the steps towards conflict in orderArrange the steps towards conflict in order Countries resolve crisis through talkingCountries resolve crisis through talking(negotiation).(negotiation). Sometimes conflict spreads beyond nationalSometimes conflict spreads beyond nationalboundaries.boundaries. Armed conflict will followArmed conflict will follow Stronger side will force weaker side to agree toStronger side will force weaker side to agree tocertain terms.certain terms.1234