Sec3 chapter6 diplomacy & deterrence(singapore)_slideshare
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    Sec3 chapter6 diplomacy & deterrence(singapore)_slideshare Sec3 chapter6 diplomacy & deterrence(singapore)_slideshare Presentation Transcript

    • Diplomacy &Diplomacy &DeterrenceDeterrenceHow Singapore managesHow Singapore managesconflict?conflict?
    • Lesson AgendaLesson AgendaBy the end of the lesson, students shouldBy the end of the lesson, students shouldbe able to:be able to:– Explain the characteristics of deterrence andExplain the characteristics of deterrence anddiplomacy.diplomacy.– Explain how deterrence and diplomacyExplain how deterrence and diplomacypracticed by Singapore.practiced by Singapore.– Explain why these two prongs form the basisExplain why these two prongs form the basisof Singapore’s foreign policy.of Singapore’s foreign policy.
    • DeterrenceDeterrenceDeterrence refers to measures taken by countries toprevent and protect themselves from threats.Nations can deter aggressors by:– maintaining military installations (camps, bases etc.)– Carrying out military exercises.– Installing surveillance devices in key installations.– Sharing information among countries.Why does sharing information among countries help todeter aggressors?
    • DeterrenceDeterrenceWhy is deterrence necessary forWhy is deterrence necessary fornations?nations?– Nations especially small nations are vulnerable (open)Nations especially small nations are vulnerable (open)to threats from aggressors.to threats from aggressors.– Aggressor countries must realise that it is costly forAggressor countries must realise that it is costly forthem to start a war…this will help their leaders to re-them to start a war…this will help their leaders to re-consider attacking these nations.consider attacking these nations.– Watch video on Vietnam WarWatch video on Vietnam War
    • DeterrenceDeterrenceWhy is it important for Singapore toWhy is it important for Singapore tohave deterrence?have deterrence?– S’pore understands the need to be militarilyS’pore understands the need to be militarilyself-reliant after its population experienced theself-reliant after its population experienced theJapanese Occupation and “Konfrontasi”.Japanese Occupation and “Konfrontasi”.British defences crumbled - Singaporeans suffered.British defences crumbled - Singaporeans suffered.During Konfrontasi – S’pore had to wait for KL toDuring Konfrontasi – S’pore had to wait for KL toauthorise troops to defend it against Indonesianauthorise troops to defend it against IndonesianTerrorists.Terrorists.
    • How is deterrence practicedHow is deterrence practicedin Singapore?in Singapore?Method 1: A citizen Armed forceMethod 1: A citizen Armed force– Singapore cannot afford a standing (permanent)Singapore cannot afford a standing (permanent)armed forces.armed forces.– 1967 National Service (NS) was introduced. All able-1967 National Service (NS) was introduced. All able-bodied male citizens called up to serve.bodied male citizens called up to serve.– Learnt:Learnt:how to defend Singapore.how to defend Singapore.to develop a common identity,to develop a common identity,to develop a sense of loyaltyto develop a sense of loyalty
    • How is deterrence practicedHow is deterrence practicedin Singapore?in Singapore?Method 2: 3Method 2: 3rdrdGeneration SAFGeneration SAF– Warfare has become more complex.Warfare has become more complex.– SAF must therefore constantly improve its capability.SAF must therefore constantly improve its capability.– SAF must review its method of warfare throughSAF must review its method of warfare throughresearch & development.research & development.– Worked with research institutes and universities toWorked with research institutes and universities todevelop 3G SAF.develop 3G SAF.– It equips soldiers to fight decisively in war andIt equips soldiers to fight decisively in war andrespond (take actions) in a flexible manner inrespond (take actions) in a flexible manner inpeacetime.peacetime.
    • How is deterrence practicedHow is deterrence practicedin Singapore?in Singapore?Method 3: Singapore’s defence industryMethod 3: Singapore’s defence industry– Armies need to use the latest technology and equipment.Armies need to use the latest technology and equipment.Singapore does this by building up its own defence industry toSingapore does this by building up its own defence industry toenable SAF to be self-reliant.enable SAF to be self-reliant.– Chartered Industries of Singapore (CIS) was established in 1967Chartered Industries of Singapore (CIS) was established in 1967was established to produce ammunitions.was established to produce ammunitions.– DSTA was formed in 2000 to provide cost-effective and modernDSTA was formed in 2000 to provide cost-effective and moderntechnology to the SAF and the Ministry of Defencetechnology to the SAF and the Ministry of Defence– Focuses on:Focuses on:buying and upgrading weaponsbuying and upgrading weaponsdeveloping new weapon systems for SAF’s usedeveloping new weapon systems for SAF’s usedefence related research & developmentdefence related research & development
    • How is deterrence practicedHow is deterrence practicedin Singapore?in Singapore?Method 4: Total DefenceMethod 4: Total Defence– Total Defence was introduced in 1984 to involve everyone in theTotal Defence was introduced in 1984 to involve everyone in thedefence of the country.defence of the country.– Total Defence can be effective only when all SingaporeansTotal Defence can be effective only when all Singaporeansbelieve that Singapore is worth defending.believe that Singapore is worth defending.Civil DefenceCivil DefenceEconomic DefenceEconomic DefenceSocial DefenceSocial DefencePsychological DefencePsychological Defence– TD is about the different ways Singaporeans can do every day inTD is about the different ways Singaporeans can do every day inevery sector of the society to strengthen the people’s resilienceevery sector of the society to strengthen the people’s resilienceas a nation.as a nation.
    • How is deterrence practicedHow is deterrence practicedin Singapore?in Singapore?Method 5: Multi-Agency coordinationMethod 5: Multi-Agency coordinationon securityon security– Set up the National Security Coordination Secretariat (NSCS).Set up the National Security Coordination Secretariat (NSCS).– To coordinate the work of the various ministries and agencies.To coordinate the work of the various ministries and agencies.– The close networking and coordination among the variousThe close networking and coordination among the variousagencies further improves Singapore’s national security.agencies further improves Singapore’s national security.– Meets regularly and works with private sector organizations.Meets regularly and works with private sector organizations.– This integrated approach to security aims to:This integrated approach to security aims to:preventpreventprotect andprotect andeffectively respond to any security threats.effectively respond to any security threats.
    • How is deterrence practicedHow is deterrence practicedin Singapore?in Singapore?Method 6: Military co-operation with otherMethod 6: Military co-operation with othercountries.countries.– Singapore fosters friendly ties with the armed forces of otherSingapore fosters friendly ties with the armed forces of othercountries.countries.– This is conducted mainly through bilateral (between 2 countries)This is conducted mainly through bilateral (between 2 countries)and multilateral (more than 2 countries) agreements.and multilateral (more than 2 countries) agreements.– Examples:Examples:Bi-lateral military agreements – with France, Australia, New Zealand andBi-lateral military agreements – with France, Australia, New Zealand andIndiaIndiaMulti-lateral military agreements and exercises: Five-Power DefenceMulti-lateral military agreements and exercises: Five-Power DefenceArrangements (1971) – S’pore, Malaysia, UK, Australia and NZArrangements (1971) – S’pore, Malaysia, UK, Australia and NZ– In the event of an external threat against S’pore or Malaysia,In the event of an external threat against S’pore or Malaysia,members will consult and take appropriate measures..members will consult and take appropriate measures..
    • Lesson RecapLesson RecapHere are three methods through whichHere are three methods through whichS’pore deters aggressors:S’pore deters aggressors:– A citizen armed force.A citizen armed force.– 33rdrdGeneration Singapore Armed Forces.Generation Singapore Armed Forces.– Singapore’s Defence Industry.Singapore’s Defence Industry.Which one of these methods is aWhich one of these methods is a moremoreimportantimportant means of deterring anmeans of deterring anaggressor?aggressor?
    • DiplomacyDiplomacyDiplomacy is a way countries conductDiplomacy is a way countries conductrelations with one another.relations with one another.– Promotes common interestsPromotes common interests– Resolves conflicts in a peaceful mannerResolves conflicts in a peaceful manner
    • Why is Diplomacy needed?Why is Diplomacy needed?Countries are connected through:Countries are connected through:– Trade relations,Trade relations,– Political, historical and cultural ties.Political, historical and cultural ties.Countries coordinate on several areas:Countries coordinate on several areas:– Global warmingGlobal warming– HazeHaze– SARS and other epidemicsSARS and other epidemics– Assistance in times of need – Asian TsunamiAssistance in times of need – Asian Tsunamiand Air crashes – Any other areas?and Air crashes – Any other areas?
    • Diplomacy and Deterrence inDiplomacy and Deterrence inSingaporeSingaporeSingapore has to adopt a policy ofSingapore has to adopt a policy ofdeterrence that is supported by diplomacy.deterrence that is supported by diplomacy.Deterrence is being prepared for any formDeterrence is being prepared for any formof threat while maintaining relations withof threat while maintaining relations withother countries.other countries.
    • Buzz Break!Buzz Break!Why is Deterrence not enough?Why is Deterrence not enough?– Discuss with your partner or in your groupDiscuss with your partner or in your group
    • How is Diplomacy Practiced?How is Diplomacy Practiced?Countries practice diplomacy through:Countries practice diplomacy through:– Bilateral relationsBilateral relations– Regional relationsRegional relations– International relationsInternational relations
    • How is diplomacy practiced?How is diplomacy practiced?Practice Steps:Practice Steps:– Step 1Step 1: Recognize the sovereignty of another: Recognize the sovereignty of another– Step 2:Step 2: Establish representatives officesEstablish representatives offices– Step 3:Step 3: Send representatives (AmbassadorsSend representatives (Ambassadorsor High Commissioners)or High Commissioners)– Step 4:Step 4: Leaders of countries visit each otherLeaders of countries visit each otherand strengthen relations.and strengthen relations.
    • Bilateral RelationsBilateral RelationsWhat is It?What is It?- Countries establish relations with another.Countries establish relations with another.- Treaties are signed by both countries.Treaties are signed by both countries.- Promise to assist each other in specificPromise to assist each other in specificareas.areas.
    • Bilateral Relations &Bilateral Relations &SingaporeSingaporeSingapore has benefited from bilateralSingapore has benefited from bilateralrelations:–relations:–– In 1970s Japan and Germany establishedIn 1970s Japan and Germany establishedrelationships.relationships.– Singapore acquired advanced technologies.Singapore acquired advanced technologies.Allowed S’pore to developAllowed S’pore to develop
    • Diplomacy and SingaporeDiplomacy and SingaporeSingapore also contributes to bilateralSingapore also contributes to bilateralrelations.relations.– Sending doctors and nurses during AsianSending doctors and nurses during AsianTsunami in 2004.Tsunami in 2004.– Singapore Red Cross provides medicines,Singapore Red Cross provides medicines,first-aid, food parcels etc.first-aid, food parcels etc.
    • Regional RelationsRegional RelationsWhat is It?What is It?- Countries in the same geographical regionCountries in the same geographical regionband together to form an association.band together to form an association.- ASEAN is one such organization.ASEAN is one such organization.- What would be the benefit of bandingWhat would be the benefit of bandingtogether?together?
    • Regional Relations &Regional Relations &SingaporeSingaporeIn 1967 countries in South-East Asia were inIn 1967 countries in South-East Asia were inan unstable political situation:an unstable political situation:– Vietnam War was raging bet. US and NorthVietnam War was raging bet. US and NorthVietnam.Vietnam.– Newly independent countries with economiesNewly independent countries with economiesthat needed development.that needed development.– Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines,Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines,and Thailand agreed to band together.and Thailand agreed to band together.
    • Aims of ASEANAims of ASEANSee pg 182See pg 182– ASEAN’s strength is that it is the collectiveASEAN’s strength is that it is the collectivevoice of 10 countries.voice of 10 countries.– Strengthen member countries position whenStrengthen member countries position whennegotiating with bigger, more powerful ornegotiating with bigger, more powerful orwealthier countrieswealthier countries
    • What Have We Learnt?What Have We Learnt?Why is diplomacy important to small statesWhy is diplomacy important to small stateslike Singapore?like Singapore?In Bilateral relations, countries signIn Bilateral relations, countries sign_________ and promise to assist in_________ and promise to assist in_________._________.In Regional relations, countries_______In Regional relations, countries_______together to be able to _________bettertogether to be able to _________betterwith bigger countries.with bigger countries.