Pictorial Analysis Table (P.A.T)Characters What are they doing?1. German delegates Have been invited to a meeting to negotiate the end of the war. But there is no “food” (benefits) given to them. Support: empty platters. Have no opportunity to discuss or negotiate the treaty terms. They have to accept the terms/ they are forced to accept the terms,2. Big Three (Britain, France and US) Are bringing out platters that are empty – suggesting that they are not prepared to offer any benefits to the Germans. Are also seen to be insincere in inviting the Germans to the peace table but not wanting them to be treated fairly.
Source Based Question• Inference 1: • Delegates welcomed to the peace conference but not offered any beneficial terms for Germany. • Support: empty platters are being served to the delegates • Explain: This shows me that the Big Three powers were not sincere in wanting peace with Germany. They were more interested in punishing Germany for starting WW1.
Source-Based Question• Inference 2: • The delegates are being forced to accept whatever the terms of the treaty has stipulated and that the treaty is not open for discussion. • Support: Chairs are lined with nails so that delegates cannot sit to discuss terms properly. There are also handcuffs visible…this means that they are not allowed to leave the negotiations. • Explanation: This shows me that the Big Three Nations were so powerful that they were able to manipulate the conference so as to force whatever outcome they desired on Germany. It also shows the weakness of Germany after the war.
Structured Essay Question - History“Britain and France were responsible for the failure of theLeague of Nations to keep the peace in Europe in the1920’s. How far do you agree? Explain your answer. [10m]
Introduction• Even though Britain and France were the leaders of the League of Nations, which was set up to keep the peace in Europe in the 1920s, their half-hearted attitude and lack of cooperation made them responsible for the failure of the League in the 1920’s.• However, the structural weaknesses of the league and the absence of major powers also led to the failure of the League.
First Paragraph – The Given Factor• Britain and France were the major powers and leaders in the League of Nations, but their half-hearted attitude contributed to the failure of the League. (F)• Most of the member countries were devastated by WW1 and were war weary (tired of war). Despite their losses, Britain’s Royal Navy and the French Army would have been strong enough to deal with military threats. However both were unwilling to impose economic sanctions and be involved in military conflicts.• For example: When Italy invaded Abyssinia in 1935, instead of resolving the conflict through the LON, Britain and France sought to strike a secret bargain to give Mussolini two-thirds of Abyssinia to end the conflict. They did so in order not to offend Mussolini as Britain and France were allies with Italy.• Thus Britain and France’s half-hearted attitude towards the LON as well as their self-interests made them responsible for its failure in resolving conflict in the 1920’s.
Second Paragraph – Other factor• On the other hand, Britain and France were also not totally responsible for the failure of the LON. It was also hampered by structural weaknesses such as the lack of authority.• The Secretariat was understaffed and disorganized. The roles of the Assembly and the Council were not clearly defined. Any action required unanimous votes by the Council and majority vote in the Assembly.• The need for unanimous decision meant members of the council had veto powers. Once decisions were vetoed, actions could not be taken. Some decisions required the consent of the entire Assembly. Hence, the League found itself unable to come to an agreement on how to resolve conflicts that arose.• This made the League look incompetent and slow in decision-making, thus destroying its credibility in resolving conflicts in the 1920’s
Third Paragraph – Other Factor• The League of Nations was also hindered by the limited membership of the League.• The American President Woodrow Wilson had pushed for the formation of the League of Nations. However, the US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, as it was unwilling to be involved in the affairs in Europe.• Thus, although the USA was the world’s largest economy at the time and a military power, it did not join the League. This was a setback, as the League lacked the necessary economic and military support of the US to enforce its decisions. Moreover, countries such as the Soviet Union were not allowed to join the League until 1934 because of the fear of the spread of Communism.• The absence of these major powers negatively affected the League’s efforts to maintain and enforce peace in Europe as it needed strong countries to enforce sanctions effectively.
Conclusion – Weigh and Link• In conclusion, the attitudes of Britain and France were a major reason for the failure of the league.• Even though the League had structural weaknesses, Britain and France as leading members of the League could have led member-states to cooperate in making decisions instead of vetoing (disapproving) resolutions.• Even if powerful countries like the US and Soviet Union joined the League, the League would still have failed if the members adopted half- hearted attitudes like Britain and France. Hence the post-World War 1 attitudes of Britain and France were a key factor in leading to the failure of the league to keep peace in Europe in the 1920s.
Structured Essay Question• Introduction • An increasingly ageing society is one of the challenges that Singapore is facing. To meet these challenges the government has adopted a many-helping hands approach. Three of these approaches are: Individual efforts, family approaches and Government policies.
Structured-Essay Question• First Given Factor: Individual Efforts • One approach to meeting the challenges of an ageing society is through encouraging senior citizens to make individual efforts to prepare for old age. • The government encourages citizens to live a healthy lifestyle by eating healthy food and exercising regularly. This would help them remain in good health and therefore not require medical help in the later years. • Besides this, the government also encourages citizens to plan early for their retirement. This means that they should have enough savings to cater for their needs as they age. By being financially independent, senior citizens would not be a burden to their families and to the state. • Hence, individual efforts are a good way of meeting the challenges of an ageing society.
Structured Essay Questions• Second Given Factor – Family Support • Another way citizens can meet the challenges of an ageing society is through the consistent support of their family members. • As citizens grow older, they may have to endure the loss of loved ones and friends through death and illness. They may become lonely and depressed. In this state they may be susceptible to illness and may not be able to enjoy a good quality of life. • Family support is vital during this period as by including senior citizens in family activities and recognizing their contributions, they give them a sense of purpose and value. • Therefore, through family support and encouragement the elderly may improve the quality of their lives. In this way they feel welcomed and acknowledged in society. This will in turn help them overcome the challenges of ageing.
Structured Essay Question• Third Given Factor: Government policies • Yet another approach to meeting the challenges of an ageing society is through the role of government policies. • The government has developed policies to care for the elderly. To encourage families to look after their elderly family members, tax relief is given to families looking after elderly members. This reduces the cost burden of looking after elderly members. The CPF scheme helps citizens save money for their future retirement years. This encourages citizens to be financially independent and be self-reliant later in life. • For those senior citizens who are not financially independent, the government has set up a Tribunal for the maintenance of parents. This organization, reviews and makes decisions on the regular maintenance of these people either by seeking the assistance of their children or through referral to community organizations. • Thus Government policies are also a good way of ensuring that even the more dependent seniors are being cared for.
Structured Essay Question• Weigh and Link: • As can be seen, all these approaches work together in helping senior citizens and their families meet the challenges of an ageing society. • While individuals and their families should strive for greater self- reliance, they should also make use of the various schemes and policies that the government has set in place to improve the quality of life in their later years.