By the end of the lesson you will learn to: Understand what are reports Identify the features of a report Be familiar with the format of a report Plan and write a report (based on an actual assignment)WHAT YOU WILL LEARN TODAY!
A report is concerned with everything that you hear,see smell, touch or taste. Anything that can be verifiedas real and concrete. Usually written for the following reasons: Document an action, fact or observation Provide proof of something or to account for some activity. Recommend a course of action to address problems or issueshighlighted by your observationsWHAT ARE REPORTS?
Tone & register: Formal…no such thing as a informal report! Formal because it might need to be authoritative and/or convincing. Language Features: Reports are written in the passive voice Reports make use of clear concise verbs Reports make use of pronouns (not personal pronouns) Reports are written in paragraphs.FEATURES, TONE AND REGISTER OFA REPORT
Feature 1: Use of Passive Voice The focus of the sentence is on the recipient of the action or the“object” of the sentence. E.g. “The tree was cut down by the lumberjack”. Purpose of passive voice: To place emphasis on the issues,activities or processes that are being addressed. Gives the report a sense of objectivity.LANGUAGE FEATURES OF AREPORT
Feature 2: Clear concise verbs Reports are not written in a casual manner – this means thatthere are no verb phrases in the writing. E.g. of a verb phraseis: “…data management systems can help out users in diagnosingproblems with data storage… Reports are written in a formal manner – this meansreplacing verb phrases with a concise (single) verb ratherthan a phrase: “…data management systems can assist users in diagnosingproblems with data storage…”LANGUAGE FEATURES OF AREPORT
Feature 3: Use of Pronouns (other than personalpronouns) The use of personal pronouns makes the writing moreinformal – The writer wants to build a personal relationshipwith his/her readers. For effective reports, the writer must sound a bit moredetached and not directly involved with the matters beingraised by the report. E.g. “We have estimated that about 80% of mobile phoneusers use the Short Message Service (SMS) to communicatewith their friends and relations…” Can you change it to a third person pronoun?LANGUAGE FEATURES OF AREPORTS
Feature 4: Write in paragraphs All reports (and for that matter) any written piece of work shouldbe written in paragraphs. Here is the structure of a standardparagraph: Topic sentence: The main idea or theme the writer wants to convey. Supporting sentence(s): Add a point or points to support the stand orthe main idea expressed in the Topic sentence. Concluding paragraph: Write a sentence that summarises or concludesthe main ideaLANGUAGE FEATURES OF AREPORT
Written in paragraphs: Logical sequence to improve understanding - First paragraph clearly states what the report is going to be about. Second paragraph through to the end must focus on the facts arranged insystematic order. (Chronologically if required) Conclusion: Clearly summarises what is the main idea behind the report and; recommendations you are prepared to make (check your question to see if you have covered all the areas)STRUCTURE OF A REPORT
To:(the name of the person the report is sent to)From:(the person writing the report)Date: (the date when the report was written)Title of Heading (Not indented but must be underlined)Body of the report(No need for signature line)FORMAT OF A REPORT
Candidates must be able to select what is importantand relevant from the mass of ideas and informationprovided in the question. The points selected should be then included in theirreport.PLANNING A REPORT