Lesson Agenda• By the end of the lesson you will be able to:• Identify the features of informal letters• Understand the format and language ofinformal letters• Practice writing an informal letter.
Review Question 1• Review Questions based on the sample informalletter:• How does the author of the letter build on the pointsgiven in the writing task in an interesting wayinstead of merely answering each point andstringing them together in a rigid fashion?
Sequential Structure• What can you tell about how the author structured herinformal letter?• How did she write about the events that happened to her?• Haphazard or sequential.
Review Question 2• What words does the author use to linkideas together?• These are called transitional (linking)words or expressions.
Transitional (Linking)words• The author used what are called Transitional words.• Transitional (meaning: change, shift, move) words areused to help move ideas along in a smooth logicalmanner.• They:• Connect similar ideas• Show time relationships• Point to a contrasting view point or• Signal a change in topic
Examples of Transitional Words• Examples of Transitional (linking) words:• And - (to link two or three similar ideas)• But, although - (to show a contrast between ideas)• So - (to show a cause and effect)• After all – (to introduce a reason to convince the reader)• Before I forget – (to change the subject matter)
Examples of Transitional Words• Examples of how to use some transitional words:• To oppose a viewpoint use: still, but, even so, however,nevertheless.• To emphasize another view so that the previous idea seemsless important use: at least.• To connect similar themes: as for, as far as…is concerned,regarding, concerning
Buzz Break 1• You Try!• With your partner, choose 3 transitional words below andmake two sentences that show a transition of ideas.• Transitional words:• and, but, so, when, although, after, no doubt, nevertheless, asfar as, by the way• Eg. At least: I was annoyed by the bad service. At least, thefood was good.
Review Question 3• How does the author create a friendly and polite tone inthe letter that makes it different from a formal letter?• How does the writing “sound” – friendly? Like that of aconversation between friends?
What are Conversational Markers?• These are expressions used in English to add a dramaticelement to what is going to be said or to soften anopinion.• Examples:• You will never believe…• Believe it or not• Guess what?• What’s more• As you know• Thank goodness• I suppose…come to think of it• Well….
Language Usage: Informal letters• Instead of writing:Something happened to me over the weekend…• We can write:You will not believe what happened to me over the weekend…• Instead of writing:My parents immediately brought me to…I had a broken ankle• We can write:My parents immediately brought me to…and guess what? I had abroken ankle.• Instead of writing:I never thought I would miss the game! But John will be a good reserve.• We can write:I never thought I would miss the game! But I suppose John will be agood reserve.
Buzz Break 2• Work out the appropriate conversational marker ortransitional words that could be used in this letter.• You have 10mins
Formats – In GeneralLetters- For business/ anything official/writing to someone you do notknowFormat 1 - Formal- For writing to someone you knowby name, but not a close friendFormat 2 – Polite- Friends, relatives, those whom youcall by their personal name inordinary conversationFormat 3 – CasualReport- When you are instructed to write anofficial account or reportFormat 4 - Report
Writing Task• Imagine that you are the person the author is writing to. Replyto Siti’s letter. Tell her what has been happening in school thatmight interest her since she has been away.• Include at least 5 transitional words and 5 conversationalmarkers. Your informal letter should be between 250-350words.• Bullet points:• Inform her about the arrival of a new English Language teacher.• BMC has organized a Community Engagement Project with theChildren’s Cancer Society.• Two of your classmates are taking part in Singapore Idol
Key Learning points• What are transitional words? Give 3 examples• What are conversational markers? Give 3 examples
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