Lesson AgendaO By the end of today’s lesson you would be ableto:O Appreciate the principles behind disarmamentO Why did disarmament fail?O Practice inference skills
Why Disarmament?O Disarmament arose out of the strong desireamong the Western powers to stop theability of states to wage war.O What is Disarmament?O It is the dismantling of armed forces and thebreaking up of weapons. It is also the placingof a nation in a position where war is notpossible.
Principles of DisarmamentO It was the key part of collective security.O The leaders at the Paris PeaceConference felt that Disarmament was theonly way to create a safer world.O Unfortunately it was very difficult toachieve
Disarmament among nationsO German Disarmament:O The treaty of Versailles ordered Germany to bedisarmed.O Germany disarmed slowly and took advantageof the loopholes in the treaty of Versailles.O It did not make sense to have an army thatconsisted mainly of officers.O Hence the Nazi government in power wassecretively training people to be ordinarysoldiers.
Disarmament and the rest ofthe worldO The League of Nations sort to reduce armsand weapons around the world as well.O They did this through concluding severaltreaties and arranging for regular disarmamentconferences. These were:O Washington Naval Conference – 1921-1922O Treaty of Locarno – 1925O Kellogg-Briand Pact -1928
Reasons why DisarmamentfailedO Despite the best intentions, disarmament failed.This was because:O Though nations thought about collective security yettheir main focus was individual security.O The big problem was trust, as we have seen thatthe lack of trust was the long term cause to WWI.O Governments felt that, as individual nations theyneeded a level of arms. They all provided various,reasons why they needed armaments.O Thus there prevailed the lack of trust and hostility
Background to Disarmament talksO Following the end of World War I, the UnitedStates, Great Britain, and Japan all commencedcapital ship construction.O In the United States, this took the form of five newbattleships and four battle cruisers,O The Royal Navy was preparing to build its series ofG3 Battle cruisers and N3 Battleships.O For the Japanese, the post-war naval constructionbegan with a program calling for eight newbattleships and eight new battle cruisers.
Background toDisarmament TalksO This building spree led to concern that a newnaval arms race, similar to the pre-war Anglo-German competition, was about to begin.
Disarmament around theworldO Washington Naval Conference: 1921 – 1922O The aim of this conference was to get the majornaval powers to disarm.O The rivalry among the great powers had resulted inan expensive naval arms race that could not besustained.O The USA invited Britain, France, Italy and Japan.Here they agreed to reduce the size of their navies.The most important of the treaties was the FivePower Naval Limitation Treaty.
Disarmament around theworldO Accordingly the countries agreed to maintaina balance in their respective fleets.O Though there were some objections from theJapanese pertaining to the ratio 1:3.O Britain and the USA agreed not to improvetheir facilities in the Pacific and to set up theirbases at away from the striking distance ofJapan, Japan agreed to it.
Disarmament around theworldO Japan also agreed not to:O develop bases on Formosa and;O the Pacific Islands which had beenreceived as mandates from The League ofNations.
Disarmament around theworldO The Locarno Pact 1925:-O Germany had proposed this pact and signed by theformer allied powers. Germany agreed to respect itsnew Western boundaries.O However, no guarantee was offered for the Easternborders with Poland.O Germany agreed not to remilitarise Rhineland, whichimproved Germany’s relations with her formerenemies.O This also enabled Germany, membership in theLeague of Nations – improved hopes for a peacefulEurope.
Disarmament around theWorldO The Kellogg Briand Pact 1928:O This Pact was jointly initiated by the French andthe US leaders.O signed in August 1928 by 15 nations.O This included all the major powers of the daySoon, more than 60 countries joined.O They agreed not to resort to war to achieve theirpolitical and economic ambitions.
Lesson RecallO What was the key principles ofdisarmament?O What were the main agreements of theWashington Conference of 1921-22
Essay PracticeO Was military reduction the main reason why theGermans found it difficult to accept the treaty ofVersailles?
OutlineO Introduction: Make a general point tointroduce the essay…O Germany found it difficult to accept theterms of the Treaty of Versailles whichcalled for a reduction of its armaments,however there were other reasons, namelythe loss of territories and the heavy warreparations.
OutlineO Para 1 – Given factor: (Military reduction/disarmament)O Had negative effect on Germany…why? (F)O Germany has a small army. The armed forces do nothave any artillery and limited submarines. They do nothave the capacity to defend themselves. (E)O These restrictions were imposed on Germany by theWestern powers so that could not compete with Britainand France (Eg.)O Link: Germans could not accept this becauseO Their defenses vulnerable to attack from the Westernpowers.O Although disarmament was for all countries at ParisPeace Conference, only Germany was forced to disarm.This made it difficult for the Germans to accept theTreaty terms.
Outline – Lets work it outtogetherO Para 2: Heavy war reparationsO Germany was forced to accept Article 231 of thetreaty which was called the “war guilt” clause. Thisclause meant that they had to bear the fullresponsibility for the cost of the war.O As a result Germany was forced to repay a debt of6.6 billion pounds to the Western powers that wereinvolved in the war.O Another requirement of the treaty was that Germanycan only repay using physical assets as well asnatural resources such as coal.O This had an equally adverse effect on Germany asthese reparations caused economic problems inGermany. Such as inflation and high unemployment.
Outline – Let’s work it outtogetherO Para 3: Loss of TerritoriesO Resulting from the treaty, Germany was split into 2 halves inthe north. The portion which was in the middle was known asthe Polish Corridor and it contained many German citizens.These citizens were now under the control of Poland. They feltunsafe and vulnerable in this region.O These citizens pressurised the government to return to Germancontrol. Additionally, Germany loss territories which containednatural resources. These resources were used to build up itseconomy.O Therefore, it was difficult for the Germans to accept the treatyof Versailles as it meant a loss of national pride. It also meantthat there was a loss of important sources of natural resourceswhich could been used to support the German economy.
Outline – Weigh and LinkO Which do you think is the main reason?O Military reductionO Territorial reductionO Heavy war reparationsO Clue: analyze using which factor and themost impact…
OutlineO Model conclusion:O The main reason why the Germans found theTreaty of Versailles difficult to accept was theheavy reparations it had to pay. Although theywere angered by territorial loss and militaryreductions, these only affected the nation’s pride.O Reparations on the other hand affected Germansdaily lives adversely. The devastation of theeconomy meant high levels of unemployment andinflation which the German government was notable to rectify as they were forced to pay wardebts.