Bmc hist unit 2_authoritarian_regimes_stalin&policies_slideshare
The Rise of Stalin andStalin’s policiesDo the ends always justify the means?
Lesson Agenda By the end of today’s lesson you willlearn:◦ How Stalin made use of circumstances torise to power.◦ Stalin’s policies and their impact◦ Make comparisons
Rise of StalinStalin’s strengths-Outwitted his rivalsWeaknesses of hisRivals-Personal weaknesses(Trotsky’s arrogance)-Allowed themselvesTo be manipulated(Kamenev + Zinoviev)Made alliances toGet rid ofOpponents.(Nobody isindispensable)Used his position asSecretary-General toAppoint his supportersInto important posts.They were now loyal to Stalin.
Reasons for the rise ofStalin External circumstances (beyond Stalin’s control)◦ Lenin’s Will Stalin acted as Lenin’s go-between during Lenin’s semi-retirement – but Lenin was suspicious of Stalin’s characterand ambitions. Lenin urged the Party to have Stalin removed as Gen-Sec ofthe Party – this was stated in his will. Lenin’s will was read after his death – but only to the Partymembers. But did not carry out Lenin’s wishes on removingStalin. Party leaders believed that Trotsky was a greaterthreat. Meanwhile, Kamenev and Zinoviev allowed their distrust ofTrotsky to make them open to manipulation by Stalin. Lenin’s will was not made known to the public. As there were
Reasons for the Rise of Stalin External circumstances (Beyond Stalin’scontrol)◦ Trotsky’s unpopularity Trotsky = head of the Red Army and led the Bolsheviksto victory in the Russian Civil War. Considered asLenin’s right-hand man. Trotsky was outspoken – clashed with Lenin and CP onmany occasions. Criticized Lenin’s New EconomicPolicy (NEP). Advocated “Permanent Revolution” – spreadrevolutions all over the world. Stalin argued for“Socialism in One Country” – which called forstrengthening Soviet Union internally first.
Reasons for the Rise of Stalin Stalin’s Manipulations◦ Pretended to have been close to Lenin Stalin made himself look as if Lenin favored & trustedhim. He did this by: Organizing Lenin’s funeral to be a grand affair and; renaming Petrograd as “Leningrad”. Stalin also kept Trotsky from attending Lenin’s funeral bygiving him the wrong date. These actions damaged Trotsky’s reputation in theParty.
Reasons for Rise of Stalin Stalin’s manipulations◦ Power of party organization Stalin was appointed Secretary-General of theCommunist Party in 1922. It did not seem to bean important post, but Stalin used it to replaceTrotsky’s allies with his own. Trotsky’s support base shrunk and in 1925Trotsky was forced to resign as leader of the RedArmy. Expelled from the party in 1927. Assassinated in 1940 while in exile in Mexico.
Stalin as Leader Stalin became the undisputed leaderof the Soviet Union by 1928. He firmly believed in autarky (rule byone man), territorial expansion andwar He focused on feeding the peoplethrough a government controlledeconomy.
Stalin’s Policies (Economic) Rapid industrialization.◦ Soviet Union very backward. Stalin feared that Western powerswould attack the Soviet Union because it was economicallyweak. USSR had to industrialize to protect itself.◦ Stalin decided to centrally plan the economy. Governmentdetermined what and how much to produce.◦ Came up with 3 five-year plans (1928-1942) to coordinateproduction: 1st Plan – emphasized heavy industries like coal, iron and steel. Result wastremendous increase in production. More than 1500 plants set up and 100new cities built. 2nd Plan – Also heavy industries and transport. Road, rail and canal networksimproved tremendously. 3rd Plan - could not be completed as WW11 had begun and Nazi Germanyhad attacked the Soviet Union. All resources channeled to defence and thewar industry.
Stalin’s Policies (Economic) EvaluationPositive Impacts Negative ImpactsOutput of coal, oil, Iron andsteel significantly rose.People paid terrible price.Workers lead difficult lives.Full employment in USSR, eventhough Western countriesexperiencing highunemploymentWages low and food shortageswere common. Worked verylong hours under very badconditionsInfrastructure: roads and railand canal networks expandedand improved upon.By 1940 – USSR recognized asa major industrial power.Homes were sub-standard andlacked basic amenities
Stalin’s Policies – (Economic) Agricultural Policy – Collectivization◦ Stalin modernized the agricultural sector through setting upcollective farms.◦ Peasants in an area would combine their individual plots ofland together to form a kolkhoz. Tools and animals usedcollectively. Schools and amenities built on the farms◦ Peasants sold a % of crops at low price to government – Govtgave them tractors and machinery. Farms managed bygovernment officials.◦ Collectivization important as it would lead to more efficientfood production and less shortages in the cities. Less labor-intensive.
Stalin’s Policies - EconomicPositives NegativesStalin achieved the aim – obtainedfood supplies from the countrysidecheaply and regularly- Removed private ownership ofland and resources – USSR truly acommunist country.Collectivization forced onpeasants. Rich and efficientfarmers (kulaks) were targeted.Peasants who resisted were shotor deportedAgriculture was now mechanizedand therefore more productive.Horrendous human cost –10million peasants were shot orsent to labour camps. The numberof deaths due to famines was alsoin the millions.
Stalin’s Policies - Political Great Terror (1934-1938) (a) Kirov’s assassination:◦ By 1930, Stalin had removed most of his rivals competing tosucceed Lenin. He then focused on eliminating other potentialrivals.◦ Growing opposition to Stalin’s 5-year plan. High human costs andsuffering. In 1934, Communist Party leadership stripped Stalin ofhis title (Gen-Secretary). He was now to be Secretary togetherwith Kirov◦ Party was divided on whether to continue with the second-fiveyear plan – Kirov in favour of relaxation of the Five-Year plan. Agroup of communists also approached Kirov to replace Stalin.◦ Kirov was assassinated in 1934 – Stalin used this assassinationas an excuse to go after the others Communist leaders who were
Stalin’s Policies - Political Great Terror : (b) Purges and Show trials◦ Using Kirov’s death as an excuse – Stalin tasked the secretpolice to eliminate “anti-Soviet” elements.◦ Show trials for prominent Party officials. Zinoviev, Kamenev,Bukharin and Rykov were accused of crimes against thecountry and executed.◦ Red Army was purged (some members forced to leave) in1937. Roughly half of the army officers had been executed orimprisoned.◦ Ordinary citizens were encouraged to denounce one another.By 1938, the entire population was living in a state of terror.No trust within the society.
Stalin’s Policies - Political Elimination of Intellectuals, skilled workers and officers◦ The execution of large numbers of intellectuals and skilled workershad an adverse effect on the strength of the country.◦ The loss of: …engineers and scientists - affected industrialization …administrators & teachers – affected management of government …RA officers affected leadership of armed forces & prep for WW11 Living in fear◦ Soviet citizens lived in constant fear. Anyone suspected as being anenemy of the state faced dire consequences. Even childrenencouraged to tell on their parents.◦ Those who failed to meet targets – severely punished…they wouldalso find it difficult to apply for housing and jobs.
Stalin’s Policies - Political Propaganda – The cult of the leader◦ Stalin used propaganda to justify his rule.portrayed as a “father figure” – mediadepicted him as a benevolent and wiseleader.◦ All achievements in the Soviet Union wereaccredited to his leadership. Stalin alsoencouraged citizens to support his policies –even to worship him.◦ Views of Stalin’s opponents and theircontributions were removed from historicalaccounts of the Soviet Union.
Stalin’s Policies - Social• Negative Impacts :• Artists could only draw art that glorified Stalin, Communism orRussian workers/peasants. Any work critical of Stalin resultedin the artist or writer spending the rest of his life in labourcamps.• Government controlled education strictly. Any teacher whodisobeyed government orders would be sent to the labourcamps.• History was distorted and the pupils taught that Lenin andStalin were the two great leaders of the Communist party.Trotsky’s contribution was ignored.• Cult of worship of Stalin. Demolished places of worship – no
Stalin’s Policies - Social Positive Impacts:◦ Women were given equal opportunities asthe men in terms of jobs.◦ They were also eligible for appointments tosenior positions in the Party.◦ Women were also not discriminated againstin the workforce.
Stalin’s Policies -Conclusion General Observations:◦ Stalin had laid the model for a Communist country. Therewould be a command economy and harsh dictatorialgovernment.◦ Many Russians benefitted from his policies. These includedthose workers whose lives improved under Stalin’s rule ascompared to when they were under the Tsarist regime.◦ Eventually his policies transformed a backward USSR into amodern industrial & military power on par with WesternCapitalist countries.◦ However, Stalin’s oppressive regime also harmed his people.They did not have basic freedoms or necessities and led a lifeof fear. The command economy and oppression of the peoplewould destroy the economy and eventually the USSR itself in
Study Sources A and BQuestion: How different are thesesources as evidence of the results ofcollectivization?
Source A:Although some resisted at first and food production decreased initially, the peasantseventually saw that the Party and the government, overcoming difficulties, werebuilding factories to make tractors and new farm machines. Numerous groups ofpeasants visited the new factories, attended workers’ meetings, and were inspired bytheir enthusiasm. Upon returning to their villages, working peasants took the initiativein setting up new collective farms. Food production began to rise as more convertedto collective farms.Official view on collectivization presented in Communist PartyHistory, Adapted from Russia under Stalin, by J.F AyletSource B - Communist party activist’s view on collectivization, publishedin1986. Adapted from the Harvest of Sorrow, by RobertConquestWith the rest of my generation, I firmly believed that the ends justified the means. Ourgoal was the universal triumph of Communism…I saw what “total collectivization”meant – how they mercilessly stripped the peasants in the winter of 1932-1933. Itook part in it myself, scouring the countryside, testing the earth with an iron rod forloose spots which might lead to buried grain. With the others I emptied out the oldfolks storage bins, stopping my ears to the children’s crying and the women’s wails. Ihad to convince myself I was accomplishing the great and necessary transformationof the countryside; that in the days to come the people who lived there would bebetter off. In the terrible spring of 1933, I saw people dying of hunger. I saw womenand children with bloated bellies, turning blue, still breathing but with vacant, lifeless
“How Different” Question Identify 2 differences & 1 similarity First step: Identify ideas/concepts to compare:◦ (Point of view, Content, Tone, Purpose) Second step: Look for clues in the sources thatshows differences or similarities in the sourcesbased on the ideas/concepts. Third step: Write out answer!
Difference 1 Sources A and B are different in their viewsabout the outcome of collectivization.Source A states that collectivization was asuccess, as it states that: “…foodproduction began to rise”, In contrastSource B states that collectivization failedmiserably because the author saw“…people dying of hunger…”
Difference 2 Source A and B differ in their purpose towards presenting thehistory of collectivization to later generations of Russians.Source A’s purpose is to show younger citizens how theCommunist Party successfully won over the peasants andthat collectivization was for the greater good of the SovietUnion and that the whole country was united in ensuring thesuccess of collectivization. In contrast, Source B aims atexposing the extreme measures undertaken by the CP toimpose collectivization. The author acknowledges the harmhe and his colleagues inflicted on ordinary Russians byslavishly supporting the programmes of the CP by saying: “…Ifirmly believed that the ends justified the means…” Hispurpose is to convince later generations to be more forgivingof his generation for their misguidance.
Similarity Sources A and B are however similaras they both agree that collectivizationinitially caused food shortages. SourceA states that: “…food productiondecreased initially’ and the author ofSource B also says that he saw,“…people dying of hunger…” thusshowing that a drop in food productionmeant starvation for the people.
Essay Practice “Stalin’s policies benefitted theUSSR.” How far do you agree with thisstatement? Explain your answer. 
Introduction Stalin’s policies did benefit the people of USSR. Through hispolicies, the USSR was transformed from a backward country into amodern, industrialized state. Although this was achieved at a highhuman cost, had Stalin not utilized such harsh measures, thistransformation of the Soviet Union which benefitted the economyand country as a whole would not have been possible.
Para 1 – RapidIndustrialization Stalin’s policy of rapid industrialization benefitted the USSR. Stalinwas motivated by the conviction that the USSR being the firstcommunist state in the world, would be crushed by non-communistcountries if it did not strengthen itself through industrialization. Hecame out with Five-Year Plans which set targets for industrialdevelopment. Hundreds of new factories were built and theindustrial workforce expanded. Each worker was urged to workharder and shock brigades (or workers who outperformed theirtargets) were recognized and rewarded. A system of reward andpunishment was set up to motivate workers to give their best. Thisensured that Russia became a great industrial nation by the end ofthe 1930s. Thus, Stalin’s industrialization benefitted the USSR, bypropelling it from a backward state into a modern nation so rapidly.
Para 2 - Collectivization However Stalin’s collectivization did not benefit the USSR.Stalin implemented collectivization in order to merge smallindividual firms into larger collective farms called kolkhozy.Stalin hope that through collectivization, a secure food supplywould be available for the workers and support hisindustrialization of the USSR. This meant that farms would nolonger be owned privately, and kulaks farms were confiscatedand the peasants given fixed working hours and wages. Therewas a period of widespread famine as the kulaks resistedcollectivization and even killed their own animals and burnedtheir crops than give it to the state. These attempts at resistancewere met with violence, with those who resisted shot or sent togulags. Hence, Stalin’s policies did not benefit Russia and
Para 3 – The Great Terror Stalin’s policies also did not benefit the USSR as heestablished a climate of fear through his purges and showtrials. He got rid of any possible political competition byplacing many Politburo members on show trials where theywere eventually purged. The secret police also monitoredand persecuted anyone who was suspected of criticizingStalin. Thus, Stalin’s Russia was characterized by fear andterror, and the lack of political freedom. More importantly, hispurges of experienced and capable communist members,engineers and scientists meant that the USSR suffered in thelong run with the lack of capable men to run the country. ThusStalin’s policies did not benefit Russia and instead cost many
Conclusion – Weigh and Link In conclusion, Stalin’s policies brought benefits to the USSRin the long run. Through his Five-Year Plans, the Soviet Unionwas transformed into a formidable world power. It benefittedfrom Stalin’s economic policies as modern machinery wasintroduced and new factories were built. It was Stalin’s harshpolitical policies which enabled him to assume total controlover Russia, making it possible to push through policiesnecessary to modernize Russia. Nevertheless, it must beacknowledged that all these achievements were only madepossible at a high human cost and immense suffering of thepeople.
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