2. LESSON AGENDA•By the end of today’s lesson, you would be able to: • Understand the differences between power and authority and the definition of an authoritarian state •Analyse the conditions that gave rise to an authoritarian state in Russia from 1901 to 1917. •Analyse sources
3. WHAT IS POWER? WHAT IS AUTHORITY?•How does power compare to authority and can one be exertedwithout the other? Power Authority Power is the ability to get Authority is the ability to enforce things done by others. law and take command, The principle of power is to The principle of authority is to punish and reward. expect obedience from those without authority. Power can exist with or without authority, e.g. an Authority can exist with or armed robber has power but without power, for example a no authority teacher has authority over the pupils but no real power.
4. WHAT ARE AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES?• Authoritarian regimes are a form of government where: • The state controls many aspects of society. •state control allows them to make changes that improved their economies and made life better.• However the state forces citizens to totally conform to its principles and directions.• Authoritarian regimes demand: • complete obedience • Loyalty and; • A lack of tolerance for any form of dissent or criticism.
5. CASE STUDY:SOVIET RUSSIAThe Bolsheviks, Lenin and Stalin
6. BACKGROUND OF RUSSIA Russia at the turn of the century was a very divided society. It was divided along the following lines: Capital vs. Provinces (90% were from countryside) Educated vs. Uneducated Russian vs. Western ideas Rich vs. Poor Country was ruled by an Emperor called a Tzar. Tzar had absolute power and controlled the people harshly. There was growing resentment from the people. Tired of oppression and poor conditions.
7. FACTORS THAT LED TO REVOLUTION INRUSSIA 1905 Revolution “Bloody Sunday” : Peaceful demonstration led by an influential priest, Fr. Gapon. He wanted to present a petition to the Tsar on improving the working conditions of Russian workers. However the peaceful protest turned bloody when protestors were fired upon by Russian army. As many as 96 innocent civilians were killed and over 300 were injured.
8. BUZZ BREAK 1 – ANALYSE SOURCES• Watch this video clip and jot down your observations on the following: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGM8n2Iq6Wc • Some Source-Based Questions: • In your opinion what effect did the actions of Russian Army have on how citizens viewed the Russian Tsar? • What change would occur in the attitudes of the ordinary Russians towards politics?
9. FACTORS THAT LED TO REVOLUTION INRUSSIA Result of Bloody Sunday Protest: Protests against the Tsar spread across Russia. Image of monarchy took a beating – lost a lot of support. Monarchy viewed negatively by the average Russian peasant…seen to be harsh and uncaring to their plight.
10. FACTORS THAT LEAD TO REVOLUTION INRUSSIA 1905 Russia lost to Japan in Manchuria. Russia was considered a major power. It had large armed forces and these forces were generally regarded as invincible by the average citizen. Entered into a war with Japan over the possession of Manchuria. Russian navy defeated – Humiliation as they lost to an Asian nation.
11. BUZZ BREAK 2 – ANALYSE SOURCES•Watch the following video clip.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bO06clQiO_s•Some Source-Based Questions: • In what ways did the Russo-Japanese War affect Russia’s political system? • How the result of the war affect the political authority of the Tsar?
12. HISTORY OF REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA Result of Russo-Japanese War:• Myth of Tsar’s regime’s invincibility smashed. Rise of political parties, despite these being banned in Russia All these parties had one thing in common – all worked to overthrow monarchy and establish a new and non-autocratic (i.e. rule by one person) political system.
13. FACTORS THAT LED TO REVOLUTION INRUSSIA • Rise of Revolutionary Ideas: • By the early20th century, the ideas of a German thinker, Karl Marx, began to spread their influence. His philosophy was called Marxism. • Marx believed that: • Workers/peasants/ working classes were the most essential part of an economy. • They had power to rise up against the rich to change political systems and abolish class discrimination. • Workers could create a society in which wealth is shared equally among the people, in other words, a communist society.
14. FACTORS THAT LED TO REVOLUTIONIN RUSSIA• Marx’s ideas gain ground: The opponents of Tsar Nicholas II, were inspired by Karl Marx’s ideas. The earliest political party was the Social Democratic Party, established in 1898.• Social Democratic Party: In 1903, the party split into two groups, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. The members could not agree on how to set up a Communist Society.• Rise of Lenin and The Communist Party: The Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin. The Social Revolutionary Party was set up. This was the beginning of the Communist Party. The Party under Lenin appealed to the masses as they promised them a better life.
15. FACTORS THAT LED TO REVOLUTION INRUSSIA Impact of World War 1 on Russia o Living conditions in Russia deteriorated (F). o WW1 exacted a heavy toll on economy. Most Russians wanted to end the war. But Tsar continued fighting (E) o War affected the Russians badly – many losses. (E) o Citizens unhappy, They wanted Russia to leave the war. (L) o Insufficient food (F) o Food production was low as much was diverted to army (E) o There was also an inadequate transport system which could not distribute food efficiently. (E) o These conditions lead to massive inflation and further unhappiness with the Tsar’s government. (L)
16. FACTORS THAT LED TO REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA Impact of WW1 on Russia. o Peasants – demanded fairer distribution of land. o Peasants were very poor in Russia. Though the worked on land, they never owned it. They had to pay rent for the land. o Peasants had been demanding for a fairer distribution of land since before WW1- but government slow to act. Many landowners supported the Tsar. o Peasants demands were not met and they were treated harshly, hence they turned to radical leaders such as Lenin who promised them land distribution. (LAND)
17. CHANGES OF GOVERNMENT Tsar abdicates in Feb 1917: Tsar did not enjoy the support of the military or people. Unpopular because: Russians were losing badly in WWI. Low morale amongst Army + people. Oppressive regime – harsh treatment of protestors. Provisional Government estab. in Mar 1917: Made up of moderates (i.e. those politicians that do not hold very strongly to their political philosophies). The new government was established to run the country in place of the Tsar.
18. ROLE OF THE PROVISIONALGOVERNMENT• Aims of the Provisional Government were: – To govern Russia temporarily until new elections for seats in Duma. – To hold elections by end of 1917. – To cooperate with committees of workers, peasants and soldiers (known as soviets). These committees were in charge of the major Russian cities.
19. FAILURE OF THE PROVISIONALGOVERNMENT – RISE OF BOLSHEVIKSThe provisional government became unpopular: They chose to keep Russia in WWI: Leaders in government were from middle-class Some leaders served under the Tsar not committed to the issues of the lower classes. Did not carry out land reform. Vested interest of members. Peasants had to take matters into own hands.
20. FAILURE OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT-THE RISE OF THE BOLSHEVIKS Power struggles within the Government: Kornilov Affair: General Kornilov said that Kerensky (leader of the provisional government) had asked for his help to re establish order in Petrograd. But Kerensky said that Kornilov was attempting a military coup. Kerensky turned to the Bolsheviks (a group lead by the Communists under Lenin) for help. This allowed the Bolsheviks to strengthen their political position in Russia.
21. FAILURE OF THE PROVISIONALGOVERNMENTThe Bolsheviks become a major force in Russia Bolsheviks formed Red Guards (Communist army): with weapons provided by Kerensky’s Provisional Government. Appeal of the Bolsheviks: Lenin made three promises to the people: PEACE! BREAD! LAND! People were so caught up with this logic. They supported Lenin whole-heartedly.
22. CIVIL WAR: 1918-1921 Russian Civil War 1918-1921: It was during the Civil War that the Red Army was created. It expanded to include the factory workers as well. Red Army and Bolsheviks on one side vs. the “Whites” or anti-communists forces on the other.
23. CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA Policy of ‘War Communism’: Bolsheviks adopted this principle in order to organise food and supplies for the War effort. Red Army led to the rise of Leon Trotsky – very capable leader. The Red Army was a disciplined and united force. November 1917 Red Guards take action: Lenin led the Red Guards in taking over key buildings in Petrograd. Red Guards under Lenin’s orders arrested members of the Provisional Government.
24. BOLSHEVIKS WERE VICTORIOUS! After gaining power, Bolsheviks established an authoritarian government called the Sovnarkom, with Lenin as the Chairman. Measures introduced were to establish a “dictatorship of the proletariat” (Working class) this mean that the State had: Banned opposition parties Strict media control Established the Cheka (Secret Police) - monitor & eliminate opponents.
25. BOLSHEVIKS WERE VICTORIOUS! At first, Communist Party united under the goals of Lenin. However, Lenin suffered a series of strokes and died in 1924. Power struggle ensued between Trotsky (Lenin’s choice) and Stalin a rising influence in the Party.