Bmc hist unit 2_authoritarian_regimes_hitler'spolicies_slideshare
THE POLICIES OF THE NAZIREGIMEEvil Empire or Modern State?
ECONOMIC POLICIES• Industrial Policies:– Nazis introduced a four-year plan:• Germany was to move towards ‘autarky’ oreconomic independence.– Stopped imports and provided subsidies for industry.• Autarky prepared Germany for war with othercountries.• Factories set up to produce arms and ammunition.• Production rose for explosives, coal and steel
ECONOMIC POLICIES• Agricultural reforms:– Set up the ‘Reich Food Estate’ – To regulateproduction, distribution, prices of crops and animals.• Strict control of farmers– Nazi government could control food production –more stable.– Food prices were maintained at 1928 levels.– 1933 Farm Law – Farmers assured of sales andsubsidies. Nazis gained support from Germans inrural areas.
ECONOMIC POLICIESECONOMIC POLICIES• Employment:Employment:– In June 1933, the Nazis passed a Law to Reduce Unemployment.– The RAD (National Labour Service) sent men on public works; eg theautobahns.– Government spending rose, 1932–38 from about 5 billion to 30 billionmarks.– Unemployment fell from nearly 6 million to virtually nothing.– German labour front or the DAF was set up. Non-Nazi labour unionssuppressed.– DAF tried to improve lives of workers = “Strength through Joy” programmes- cheap holidays and cruises as well as availability of sporting activities– DAF programme would enable all workers to own cars. Workers would payfive marks a week and when they had paid 750 marks they would receivetheir own “Peoples Car” – Volkswagen. No cars distributed because warbroke out in 1939.
Economic PoliciesEconomic Policies• Creation of Industrial demand– Hitler built up the armed forces (e.g. conscription took 1 millionunemployed).– The increase in armed forces drove demand for soldiers’equipment. This meant more steel mills, coal mines and factorieswere put back into production. The German air force (Luftwaffe)created jobs for fitters, engineers and designers.– The German Civil Service under the Nazis needed thousands ofclerks, prison guards etc.– Unemployment reduced by defying the Treaty of Versailles:• Treaty restricted the number of soldiers to 100,000 men.• Hitler defied the Treaty and increased the size of the military to 1.4 million men.• Increase in armed forces – led to an increase in armaments industry. Thisfuelled further job creation in other sectors.
Economic PoliciesEconomic Policies• Incomplete Autarky (Economic Self-sufficiency)Incomplete Autarky (Economic Self-sufficiency)– Hitler did not want to trade with Britain, France, Russia and theUS. He knew he would have to go to war with them eventually.– Autarky scorecard:• Reliance on food dropped significantly but• …reliance on other countries for other resources still high. Germany’srearmament needed lots of raw materials– In 1939, Nazi Germany still importing more than one third of itsraw materials.– The only way to be self-sufficient would be to invade othercountries.
Social Policies under the Nazis• Women• Children andYouths• The use ofPropaganda
SOCIAL POLICIES• Women:– Nazis saw the role of women as good mothers who were responsible forbringing up their children at home, while husbands worked.– The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage gave newly-wed couples aloan of 1000 marks, and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each childthey had.– Mothers who had more than 8 children were given a gold medal.– But not all women were happy with the Nazi regime:– Job-discrimination against women was encouraged. Women doctors,teachers and civil servants were forced to give up their careers.– Women were never allowed to serve in the armed forces - even during thewar.
CHILDREN AND YOUTHS• Nazis saw the need to cultivate hardworking, obedient andhealthy Aryan citizens for the future:– Exerted control over children’s lives – e.g. toys, exposure topropaganda.– Exerted control over schools and curriculum.– Creation of Hitler Youth:• Further exposed children to the ‘cult’ of Adolf Hitler.• Provided activities for boys.• Treated boys and girls as special.• Created fear amongst parents that their children would report them tothe Gestapo.• Many of these youths would eventually end up in the German Armyduring the Second World War.
PROPAGANDA• Germans were subjected to regular propagandaunder the control of Josef Gobbles.• Propaganda calculated to glorify Hitler and theNazis, encourage people to think highly of Nazismand justify Nazi policies.• All forms of media such as the radio, movies,posters and even stamps was used to put theirmessage across.• Strong censorship of other sources of news.
POLITICAL LIFE• By 1933, Nazis had full control over the stateapparatus:– SS main security force – suppressed the SA.– Gestapo – The secret police to monitor dissidents– Concentration camps created for “enemies of the state”– Intelligence: Informants – Block Warden System.• By 1935, most of the Nazis’ opponents wereimprisoned or killed. No form of dissent allowed.
ANTI-SEMITISM• Jewish people were persecuted in anincreasingly organized manner:– Anti-Jewish laws.– Discrimination against Jewish people• ‘Crystal Night’ or Kristallnacht – OrganizedNazi attack against Jews.
EFFECTS ON THE GERMANPEOPLE• Nazi party members:– Benefited the most from the rule.• Ordinary German people:– Benefits:• Full employment;• Strength through joy programme: Free holidays, sports facilities,subsidised cars.• Law and order.• Improved transportation network• Nazi propaganda gave hope• Trust in Hitler• Nazi racial philosophy gave Germans a sense of self-belief.– Problems:• Loss of freedom• Low wages
EFFECTS ON THE GERMANPEOPLE• Women:– Nazis emphasized the role of women as participatingin “Church, Children, Cooker’.– Many female professionals e.g. lawyers and doctorsforced to give up their jobs.• Youth:– Nazi’s approach did not appeal to all youths.– As the Reich began to lose the war, youth gangsbegan to reject Nazi culture and the Hitler Youth.These gangs were known for opposition to the state.
EFFECTS ON THE GERMANEFFECTS ON THE GERMANPEOPLEPEOPLE• Opponents:Opponents:– Hitler banned all Trade Unions on 2 May 1933.– Communists were arrested or killed.– Religious leaders, e.g. Protestant pastors werepersecuted and killed.– Influence of the Catholic Church and its priestscontrolled and monitored.– Many of those who showed unhappiness or opposedHitler were reported to the Gestapo and arrested.
EFFECTS ON THE GERMANPEOPLE.• The Untermensch or the ‘Sub Human’– Jews persecuted, sent to the concentration camps.– Gypsies also treated as badly as the Jews. 85% ofGerman gypsies were killed.– Black people were sterilized and killed.– Mentally disabled were also killed.– Physically disabled were sterilized.– Anti-social elements, e.g. criminals, prostitutes,alcoholics, pacifists were all put into concentrationcamps.
EFFECTS OF NAZI RULEEFFECTS OF NAZI RULE• Many people did benefit from Nazi rule and preferredthe stability offered by Nazi rule compared to theinstability of the Weimar Republic.• However, Nazi rule = persecution, rule through stateterror and the loss of personal freedoms.• Nazi forced German people through propaganda andthe various Nazi organizations such as the Hitler Youthto support discrimination of the Jews and to support thewar effort.• Minorities were subject to persecution by the Nazis.• Nazi rule set Germany on a collision course with the restof the world in World War 2.
Lesson Recall• What were the three areas of Hitler’seconomic policies?– Reduce unemployment– Increase production of armaments– Establish autarky (self-sufficiency)• Name one negative effect of Nazi rule