Bmc cold war lect 4_cuban_missilecrisis


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Bmc cold war lect 4_cuban_missilecrisis

  1. 1. COLD WAR – LECTURE 4 Case Study: The Cuban Missile Crisis
  2. 2. LESSON AGENDA  By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:  Appreciate the background to the Cuban Crisis  Analyse the roles of the key players in the crisis (namely the US, USSR and Cuba)  The outcomes of the crisis and its effect on the Cold War.
  3. 3. CAUSES  The USA had been plotting to overthrow Cuba’s non- democratic leader, Fidel Castro ever since he took control of Cuba by force in 1959  The US believed Castro was intent on spreading Communism in the region. The US provided funding and training to exiled to Cuban rebels who wanted to overthrow the Castro government.  These Cubans tried to invade Cuba in 1961 via the Bay of Pigs. The invasion failed .
  4. 4. CAUSES  Castro was angered by the invasion attempt and the economic sanctions imposed by the USA.  He thus sought to protect Cuba through an alliance with the Soviet Union.  The Soviet Union was worried about the US nuclear missiles based in Turkey, because they were only about 240 kilometres away from the nearest Soviet cities. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union, felt that he should respond by building nuclear missile sites near the USA.
  5. 5. CAUSES  Khrushchev offered to protect Cuba, and Castro allowed him to place nuclear missiles secretly on the island, Castro accepted the Soviet Union’s offer of missiles and protection because he feared a US invasion of Cuba
  6. 6. THE COURSE OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS  Initial Stage  US Spy plane (U-2) flew over Cuba and took photographs that showed several Soviet nuclear missiles there.  US President John F. Kennedy saw this as a big threat to the US and was determined that the missiles should be removed from Cuba.  He ordered a naval & air blockade (quarantine) of Cuba.
  7. 7. THE COURSE OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS  Second stage:  US Navy ships took up positions around Cuba, ready to stop Soviet ships from carrying more missiles to Cuba.  Kennedy also warned Khrushchev that if the missiles were not removed, the US would invade Cuba.  He also said that if the Soviet missiles in Cuba were fired at the US, the US would retaliate by firing nuclear missiles at the Soviet Union.  The Soviet ships carrying the missiles and missile parts were ordered by Khrushchev not to break through the blockade.
  8. 8. THE COURSE OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS  Third Stage  President Kennedy received a letter from Premier Khrushchev stating that he would remove the missiles in Cuba if the US promised not to invade Cuba and if the US removed its missiles in Turkey.  These conditions were acceptable to President Kennedy.  Khrushchev then publicly announced that the Soviet Union would remove its missiles from Cuba and the US announced that it would not invade Cuba.  A nuclear holocaust had been averted.
  9. 9. AFTERMATH OF THE CRISIS  The US ended its blockade (quarantine) of Cuba after all the Soviet missiles were removed and were brought back to the Soviet Union.  In 1963, US nuclear missiles in Turkey were quietly removed.
  10. 10. IMPACT  Better US-Soviet Relations  Both countries realized that in a nuclear war no one country would be the victor. As a result, superpower relations were now more stable – both did not want to start a nuclear holocaust.  In 1963, a direct hotline was established between Washington and Moscow – leaders could contact each other quickly in case of an emergency  Both sides supported disarmament and the need to limit the build up of weapons:  1963 both signed a treaty banning atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.  1969 both signed a Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons – both agreed not to share technology with other countries to prevent more countries from developing nuclear weapons.
  11. 11. IMPACT  Cuba remained a Communist State  Castro remained in power with the Soviet Union’s assurance that it would help him if Cuba was attacked by the US.  US gave up its plans to topple Castro
  12. 12. IMPACT  Khrushchev fell from power  The Cuban Missile Crisis led Khrushchev to fall from power in the Soviet Union. His offer to bolster Cuba was criticized by members of the Communist party  In 1964, he was removed from his post as the leader of the Soviet Union.
  13. 13. IMPACT  Tense Soviet-Chinese Relations  After the Soviet Union removed missiles from Cuba, China accused the USSR of being weak by seeking “peaceful co-existence” with Capitalist regimes.  China’s leader – Mao Ze Tung wanted the struggle with Capitalist to continue and claimed that China was the true leader of world Communism  The quarrel between China and the Soviet Union divided the Communist worldwide. Many communist parties around the world broke into groups whose members could not decide whether to follow the USSR or China
  14. 14. LESSON ROUND-UP  Group Work:  Which do you think was the most important impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis? Why?