Bmc cold war lect 3
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Bmc cold war lect 3 Bmc cold war lect 3 Presentation Transcript

  • COLD WAR LECTURE 3 How did the Cold War affect the rest of the world?
  • AGENDA OF THE LESSON  By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:  Appreciate the impact of the cold war on the other parts of the world.  Explain these impacts.  Analyze a case study of the Cold War: The Korean War
  • HOW DID THE COLD WAR AFFECT THE REST OF THE WORLD  China  China had the world’s largest population and the third largest territory in the world. In China, the Communists came to power after defeating the corrupt Nationalist (non-Communist) government.  The leader of the Communists in China, Mao Zedong – announced the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on 1 Oct 1949.  The US felt threatened by an alliance between China and the Soviet Union. The US saw Communism as a single united enemy that was determined to control the world.  The unfriendly relations between Communist China and the US led the US to refuse to recognize the PRC government and instead recognized the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taiwan – as the legitimate government of China.
  • HOW DID THE COLD WAR AFFECT THE REST OF THE WORLD  Japan  Japan was totally devastated by the war. It faced great poverty, which was the perfect breeding ground for Communism.  To prevent Communism from gaining strength in Japan, the US strengthened occupied Japan’s economy and introduced democratic reforms. The US lifted trade restrictions on Japan and provided it with:  Economic aid  New technologies and business practices  New industrial equipment  US also sponsored Japan’s entry into the UN in 1956 and supported its entry into world economic organizations such as:  International Monetary Fund  World Bank  The US also promised to come to Japan’s defence if it was attacked. Japan allowed the US to station troops on its soil (Okinawa)  These actions prevented Japan from becoming a Communist country.
  • HOW DID THE COLD WAR AFFECT THE REST OF THE WORLD  Other Countries  The communist victory in China also led the US to search for more allies in Asia and Africa. Besides forming alliances with Taiwan, the US also sent troops to support anti-Communist governments in South Korea (1950) and South Vietnam (after 1964).  The US also formed an anti-Communist military alliance called the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954 to contain Communism in Southeast Asia.  The US also competed with the Soviets in the search for allies in the Middle East and in Africa. In their search for allies, both the Soviets and the US:  supported and maintained sometimes cruel and corrupt governments  through financial, military and other forms of aid in return for their loyalty.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Introduction:  The Korean War changed the course of the Cold War. First time the Cold War became a “hot war” as troops from the US and Communist China fought alongside their Korean Allies to gain control of the Korean Peninsula.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Background:  Korea was a Japanese colony from 1910 to 1945. At the 1945 Potsdam Conference (held between the allies) it was agreed that once Japan was defeated:  Korea would be divided at the 38th Parallel (a line of latitude)  Soviet troops occupying the north & US troops occupying the south.  temporary arrangements until free elections were held upon which Korea would be unified.  Both US & Soviets set up governments that supported their ideologies. Soviets gave power to Kim II Sung while the US supported Syngman Rhee. Both Syngman Rhee & Kim II Sung claimed - right to govern unified Korea.  In 1950, Kim II Sung had a chance to unify Korea by force. Persuaded the Soviets & China to give him permission to invade the South. They agreed, providing weapons and advisers to North Korea.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Course of the War:  In June 1950, North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel and invaded the South. The US called for an immediate ceasefire (end to further military operations) through the UN but North Korea ignored the call.  The UN invited member states to send forces to defend South Korea. A UN force made up of 16 countries fought the North Koreans. Half of the soldiers were from US. With the support of UN forces, the North Koreans were pushed back north of the 38th parallel.  The UN forces now invaded North Korea. Seeing that the Communists in the North were going to be defeated, China came to the aid of the North.  With China’s help, North Korea was able to push the UN forces back south of the 38th parallel. War = stalemate at the 38th parallel where neither side could make any progress.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Course of the War  In 1953, a ceasefire was agreed upon. The fighting ended but the two sides could not agree on how to unite Korea. No peace treaty was ever signed.  The Korean War resulted in:  The deaths of about 4million people – both soldiers and civilians. These included:  33,600 Americans,  16,000 UN allies  415,000 South Koreans  520,000 North Koreans  900,000 Chinese
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Impact of the Korean War  Korea:  Half of Korea’s industry was destroyed as well as a third of all homes. Complete disruption to civilian life.  Korea was still divided at the 38th parallel even today.  The Demilitarised Zone, is full of soldiers, barbed wire, land mines and weapons – one of the most heavily armed places in the world.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  China  Its entry into the Korean War showed that it become a military power.  The war proved that the Chinese military could match a world power like the US.  China grew increasingly confident about its position in the world, and demanded a seat in the UN Security Council.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Japan  Became an ally of the US, a commercial partner in the Asia pacific region.  Was the model of American style democracy for other countries in Asia.  Japan turned into a production and supply base for US troops in Korea. This meant that Japanese companies supplied US troops with uniforms, equipment and supplies.  As a result, the Korean war helped Japan’s economy to recover quickly following the devastation of WWII.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Taiwan  The US thought China might use the Korean War as an opportunity to attack Taiwan. Pres. Truman sent US Navy Warships to the Taiwan Straits to protect Taiwan.  China launched artillery attacks against Taiwan’s offshore islands – but never made an attempt to launch a full scale invasion of Taiwan. The presence of the US prevented this.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Lessons Learnt From The War  Military alliances:  The Korean war made the US form military alliances like NATO in other parts of the world. It formed alliance with:  Australia and New Zealand called ANZUS in 1951.  In 1954, it formed SEATO with countries in Southeast Asia.  The US now had a network of military alliances around the world to contain Communism.
  • COLD WAR CASE STUDY 1: THE KOREAN WAR  Lessons Learnt from the Korean War  Cold war now a Global conflict  Before the Korean War, the Cold War was mainly a European conflict. The Korean War brought the Cold War to Asia and made the Cold War a global conflict.  After the Korean war, the divisions between the Communist world seemed to become fixed and tensions became stronger.
  • CONCLUSION  Lesson recall.  How did the Cold War affect China and Japan?  What was one effect of the Korean War?  Name one lesson learnt from the Korean War?  Next week – Cuban Missile Crisis, research this topic on the internet.   