Trait theory – a model of personality thatseeks to identify the basic traits necessary todescribe personality. Traits – consistent personality characteristicsand behaviors displayed in differentsituations.
Developed byHyppocrates (460-370 BC) as medicaltheory I. Pavlovresearched howdogs with differenttemperamentsreacts to stimuli Sanguine Choleric Melancholic Phlegmatic
Developed by R. Cattell (1965) using factors analysis List of all 16 traits:• Warm• Reasoning• Emotional Stability• Dominance• Liveliness• Rule-Consciousness• Social Boldness• Sensitivity• Vigilance• Abstractedness• Privateness• Apprehension• Openness to Change• Self-Reliance• Perfectionism• Tension
This theory was also developed using factorsanalysis. R. Cattell used inductive method, while H.Eyesenck used deductive one. 3 main personality traits: extraversion,neuroticism and psychoticism. These 3 traits are largely unrelated.
Five-factor personality inventory was createdin 1985 by P. T. Costa and R. R. McCare. Main 5 personality traits are Extraversion,Neuroticism, Conscientiousness,Agreebleness and Openness to experience. These 5 factors can be abbreviated asOCEAN. Each of 5 factors has 6 subfactors calledfacets. The Big Five is the most popular andinfluential trait approach today.
Extraversion meansenergy, positiveemotions and thetendency to seekstimulation in thecompany of others.
Neuroticism is anenduring tendencyto experiencenegativeemotional states.Neuroticism
Openness to experiencetrait distinguishespeople who prefervariety from whose whoprefer familiar andtraditional things.Itincludes traits likehaving wide interestsand being imaginative.
Everyone has the same personality traits atvarying degree. There are many different trait theories, butno one of them can encompass the wholepersonality. Trait theories allow easy comparisonbetween individuals. Trait theories only describe personality –they do not explain it.