Lifting & procedure

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Lifting & procedure

  1. 1. Lifting Equipments and Procedure Compiled by Safety Trainees PECL 15 January 2011.
  2. 2. 2. Factories Act-Section 28 (1):Hoists and Lifts <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(a) In a factory hoists and lifts should be of : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(i) - good mechanical construction </li></ul><ul><li>- sound material </li></ul><ul><li>- adequate strength </li></ul>© SWL to be distinguishly marked and no load greater than this be lifted or carried.
  3. 3. Sec 29. LIFTING MACHINES, CHAINS, ROPES AND LIFTING TACKLES
  4. 4. The Factories Act, 1948 Sec:2(ca): Competent Person <ul><li>Means: </li></ul><ul><li>A person or an institution recognised as such by </li></ul><ul><li>CIF for carrying out tests, examination and </li></ul><ul><li>inspections required to be done in a factory under provisions of this Act regarding: </li></ul><ul><li>qualifications and experience of person and </li></ul><ul><li>facilities available at his disposal; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) qualifications and experience of persons </li></ul><ul><li>employed in such institution and facilities a/v </li></ul><ul><li>therein, with regard to conduct of such tests, </li></ul><ul><li>examinations and inspections, and more than </li></ul><ul><li>one person or institution can be recognised </li></ul><ul><li>as a competent person in relation to a factory. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Factories Act, 1948 Sec:2(j): Machinery Includes prime movers, transmission machinery and other appliances whereby power is generated, transformed, transmitted or applied.
  6. 6. Lifting Equipments: <ul><li>Hydra’s </li></ul><ul><li>CRANES: limit switches </li></ul><ul><li>Fork lifts </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic lift crane </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile cranes: wheel ,crawler </li></ul><ul><li>EOT </li></ul><ul><li>Gantry </li></ul><ul><li>Chain pully:spur gear,worm wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Winch machine </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lifting tackle : <ul><li>Slings </li></ul><ul><li>Ropes </li></ul><ul><li>Shackles </li></ul><ul><li>Swivel </li></ul><ul><li>Rings </li></ul><ul><li>Couplers </li></ul><ul><li>Sockets, Eyebolts. </li></ul><ul><li>Frames & spreaders </li></ul><ul><li>Plate lifting clamps </li></ul><ul><li>Tailor-made tackles. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Overview <ul><li>Terms & definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Planning the lift </li></ul><ul><li>The lift </li></ul><ul><li>Landing the load </li></ul><ul><li>Do’s & Don’ts </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>Slinging methods </li></ul><ul><li>Safe slinging practice </li></ul>
  9. 9. Terms & Definitions <ul><li>Competent person : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who has acquired, through a combination of qualifications, training or experience, the knowledge and skill to perform the task required. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grommet : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endless wire rope sling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MBL : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum breaking load of the lifting tackle. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SWL : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe working load. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Definitions <ul><li>Tag line : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rope of suitable strength, construction and length attached with an appropriate recognised bend or hitch to the load, used to control the load during lifting or positioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test certificate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A certificate issued by an authorized person </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. SIMPLE CHAIN PULLEY BLOCK
  12. 12. Planning the lift Planning the lifting operation is essential to ensure that the lift is carried out safely and efficiently
  13. 13. Planning the lift Absence of planning leads to Short cuts, using unsafe procedure, equipment & It may cause An ACCIDENT OR DELAY
  14. 14. Planning the lift <ul><li>The following points must be considered during planning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the load is to be picked up from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the load is to be placed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What areas to be passed over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any obstructions in the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the load is to be slung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the slings are to be removed and access to them </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Planning the lift <ul><li>For complex lifts, following points may have to be considered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special lifting accessories such as spreader beams to ensure that the load is safely lifted and without damage to the product (large machineries, generators, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special connectors to connect special built in connecting points. The operations may involve: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turning loads over or standing them upright </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using more than one crane to lift a load. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The lift <ul><ul><li>Are the slings undamaged and properly attached to the load? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the crane hoist rope vertical? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the load free i.e not attached to any thing else? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the legs of multi legged sling equally loaded? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all spare all spare legs of the sling are hooked up to the master link on the lifting hook? </li></ul></ul>After slinging but before lifting, the following must be considered
  17. 17. The lift <ul><ul><li>Are all personnel clear of the load? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the landing site prepared to take the load? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If required, is hand/tag lines attached to the load? </li></ul></ul>After slinging but before lifting, the following must be considered
  18. 18. Check Before Lifting <ul><li>Now lift the load a short distance above the ground and check that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The load is balanced and stable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The legs of the slings are at correct angles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any packing pieces used, are in place and sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The load itself is not stressed, especially when lifting packing cases, timber etc, which can fail under the loads applied due to lifting. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Landing the load <ul><li>Before landing the load check that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The landing area will take the weight of the load. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is sufficient space for the load. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are strips of timber or similar on which to land the load such that the slings can be easily removed by hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The load should be landed gently to ensure that it is not damaged and that the crane does not receive any shock loading . </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Do’s & Don’ts <ul><li>Ensure that only authorized slingers/signalers attach or detach loads, or signal the crane operator. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss operations with the crane operator (special operations). </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the capacity of the crane is sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek expert advice when using eye bolts, plate clamp etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use tag line always </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap tag line around hand or body. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave a suspended load unattended. </li></ul><ul><li>Pass loads over people. </li></ul><ul><li>Ride or climb on suspended loads. </li></ul><ul><li>Stand or walk beneath the loads. </li></ul><ul><li>Use pipes to support for landing the load </li></ul>Always Never
  21. 21. SWL OF SLINGS SAFE WORKING LOAD OF SLING INCLUDED ANGLE θ SAFE WORKING LOAD WITH ANGLE θ G = 10 TON at 90 90 10 TON 160 3.45 TON 140 6.80 TON 120 7.07 TON 60 12.25 TON P = G / Cos 45 0 14.14 TON SWL at angle =P X Cos θ /2
  22. 22. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>90˚ angle at hook corresponds </li></ul><ul><li>to 45˚ sling angle </li></ul>
  23. 23. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>. </li></ul>When L = S Sling angle is 60˚
  24. 24. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Calculating SWL </li></ul><ul><li>H is the vertical distance from the saddle </li></ul><ul><li>of the hook to the top of the load. </li></ul><ul><li>L is the distance measured along the </li></ul><ul><li>sling from the saddle of the hook to the </li></ul><ul><li>top of the load. </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio H/L will be same as the ratio h/l </li></ul>
  25. 25. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Determining capacity of 2-Leg Bridle </li></ul><ul><li>Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>SWL </li></ul><ul><li>= SWL (of single vertical hitch) X H/L X 2 </li></ul>
  26. 26. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>When sling legs are not of equal length </li></ul><ul><li>use smallest H/L ratio . </li></ul>
  27. 27. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Determining capacity of 3-Leg Bridle </li></ul><ul><li>Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>SWL </li></ul><ul><li>= SWL (of single vertical hitch) X H/L X 3 </li></ul><ul><li>When sling legs are not of equal length </li></ul><ul><li>use smallest H/L ratio. </li></ul>
  28. 28. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Determining capacity of 4-Leg Bridle </li></ul><ul><li>Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>Load may be carried by only 3 legs while </li></ul><ul><li>the fourth merely balances it. Therefore </li></ul><ul><li>the recommended SWL is: </li></ul><ul><li>SWL </li></ul><ul><li>= SWL (of single vertical hitch) X H/L X 3 </li></ul><ul><li>When sling legs are not of equal length </li></ul><ul><li>use smallest H/L ratio. </li></ul>
  29. 29. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Determining capacity of Single Basket </li></ul><ul><li>Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>For Vertical legs ( fig A ): </li></ul><ul><li>SWL = SWL (of single vertical hitch) X 2 </li></ul><ul><li>For inclined legs ( fig B ): </li></ul><ul><li>SWL </li></ul><ul><li>= SWL (of single vertical hitch) X H/L X 2 </li></ul>
  30. 30. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Determining capacity of Double Basket </li></ul><ul><li>Hitch with inclined angles </li></ul><ul><li>SWL </li></ul><ul><li>= SWL (of single vertical hitch) X H/L X 4 </li></ul>
  31. 31. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Determining capacity of Double Wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Basket Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the configuration, SWLs </li></ul><ul><li>are the same for the Single Basket Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>or the Double Basket Hitch . </li></ul>
  32. 32. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Sling angles less than 45˚ (formed by the </li></ul><ul><li>choker) are not recommended. If they </li></ul><ul><li>must be used the formula is: </li></ul><ul><li>SWL </li></ul><ul><li>= SWL (of single vertical hitch) X H/L X </li></ul><ul><li>A/B X 2 </li></ul>
  33. 33. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Determining capacity of Double Wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Choker Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the configuration, SWLs </li></ul><ul><li>are the same for the Single Choker Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>or the Double Choker Hitch. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Endless or Grommet Sling in Vertical Hitch Endless Sling choker Hitch Configuration
  35. 35. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS <ul><li>Endless Sling in Double Basket Hitch </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration </li></ul>
  36. 36. Endless or Grommet Slings Standard Eye-to Eye slings
  37. 37. SLING ANGLES AND SAFE WORKING LOADS
  38. 38. Effect of sling angle on Webbing
  39. 39. Twisted Eye Slings
  40. 40. What can happen, if, adequate safety is not observed?
  41. 41. A case study 1 <ul><li>The incident: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In June 2003, a tragic incident occurred at one of the oil and gas development site in Algeria, resulting in one fatality and two injuries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The incident occurred during the assembly of an onshore drilling rig. A large section of the rig was being lifted when a lifting chain failed. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. A case study 1 Actual measurement to hook position was 9.43 m. 7.5 m to centre of crane slew ring correct jib head/hook position Probably out of alignment in this direction (this would transfer entire load to one sling) Chain being pulled into angle would increase tendency to jam and prevent chain slipping round to equalize loading Sketch of out-of-alignment load path during lift, resulting in lifting chain failure
  43. 43. A case study 1 <ul><li>The causes, as established by an investing team: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of an underrated chain sling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect slinging and lifting techniques. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The crane hook was positioned off-centre, resulting in the load path being out of alignment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined with a hinged load, this prevented the sling from equalizing on all chain legs when raised. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequently, the entire load of 23.1 tonnes was placed on one chain leg that had a breaking load of 18.9 tonnes resulting in failure of chain </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Case Study 2 <ul><li>Job : erection of gantry crane beams </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Accident : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two beams of 11.5m X 1.5m X 0.75m weighing about 6 tones were lying on concrete sleepers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of two beams one beam was lying on sleeper in horizontal position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other beam was in vertical position and was to be positioned to make alignment with the first beam. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Case Study 2 <ul><li>Job : erection of gantry crane beams </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Accident : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slings were placed around the vertical beam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. XYZ went up the beam to adjust the sling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He adjusted the sling and stood in between the two beams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the meantime someone gave signal to lift the beam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crane operator lifted the beam by about 4 mm up its position. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Case Study 2 <ul><li>Job : erection of gantry crane beams </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Accident : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During that operation beam swayed towards the first beam and Mr. XYZ was caught between the two beams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On hearing the scream, crane driver placed the beam back on its original position. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Case Study 2 <ul><li>Job : erection of gantry crane beams </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Accident : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. XYZ got up and tried to get out of two beams but he stumbled and fell down on sleepers, got injury near left eyebrow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was taken to hospital, but was declared as dead . </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Case Study 2
  50. 50. Case Study 2 - Investigation <ul><li>1.  No hand rope (tag line) was used to avoid swinging of the job. </li></ul><ul><li>2   Both the lifting rope used are having N no. of kinks on it., naturally these kinks will have tendency to swing the job. </li></ul><ul><li>No lifting hole or lugs were made to the beam to rotate it. </li></ul><ul><li>Crane operator does not know who gave him signal for lifting the job. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Learning from the incidents <ul><li>Apart from lifting machine, it is also necessary to take care of lifting tackles and lifting procedure </li></ul>
  52. 52. Safe Slinging Practice
  53. 53. Safe Slinging Practice C.G. Crane hook must be on the CG
  54. 54. Safe Slinging Practice This load is not stable. The hook is over the CG, but the CG is above the lifting hook. This load is top heavy, and could overturn while being lifted
  55. 55. Safe Slinging Practice This load is stable The hook is right over the CG.
  56. 56. Safe Slinging Practice The hook is not over the centre of gravity The load will shift until the CG is under the hook. This will make landing the load very difficult, and could cause major problems in crainage Unstable
  57. 57. Safe Slinging Practice 1000 kg 1000 kg 1000 kg 1000 kg 45 90 90 45 30 30 15 15 707 Kg 500 Kg 500 Kg 707 Kg 1000 Kg 1000 Kg 1932 Kg 1932 Kg
  58. 58. How to identify the correct angle? 45 H L At 45 degrees, H = L As the angle becomes less than 45 degrees, H will be less than L Therefore ensure that H is always = or > L
  59. 59. Safe Slinging Practice Can carry 88% of rated load Can carry 100% of rated load Can carry 80% of rated load Can carry 70% of rated load Can carry 40% of rated load Balanced load ¼” off centre 1/2” off centre 3/4” off centre Point loading Safety latches omitted
  60. 60. Safe Slinging Practice Softeners, padding or use of blocking..
  61. 61. Safe Slinging Practice Tag line should be attached to the load swinging and to help it landing in the right place.
  62. 62. Unsafe Slinging Lift and lower the load smoothly, do not jerk
  63. 63. Unsafe Slinging
  64. 64. Unsafe Slinging
  65. 65. Unsafe Slinging Is it right method to extend a chain sling?
  66. 66. Unsafe Slinging
  67. 67. Sling storage
  68. 68. Hand Signals <ul><li>When should the crane operator follow hand signals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A crane operator should always move loads according to the established code of signals, and use a signaler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand signals are preferred and commonly used. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Hand Signals <ul><li>Who can give the hand signals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a person qualified to give crane signals to the operator, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there should be only one designated signaler at a time, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a crane operator should move loads only on signals from one signaler, </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Responsibility of the signaler <ul><li>The signaler must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be in clear view of the crane operator, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a clear view of the load and the equipment, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keep persons outside the crane's operating area, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>never direct a load over a person. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Standard Hand Signals For Controlling Overhead Cranes With forearm vertical, forefinger pointing up, move hand in small horizontal circle HOIST
  72. 72. Standard Hand Signals For Controlling Overhead Cranes With arm extended downward, forefinger pointing down, move hand in small horizontal circle. LOWER
  73. 73. Standard Hand Signals For Controlling Overhead Cranes Arm extended forward, hand open and slightly raised, make pushing motion in direction of travel. BRIDGE TRAVEL
  74. 74. Standard Hand Signals For Controlling Overhead Cranes TROLLEY TRAVEL. Palm up, fingers closed, thumb pointing in direction of motion, jerk hand horizontally. TROLLEY TRAVEL
  75. 75. Standard Hand Signals For Controlling Overhead Cranes Arm extended, palm down, hold position rigidly. STOP
  76. 76. Standard Hand Signals For Controlling Overhead Cranes Use one hand to give any motion signal and place other hand motionless in front of hand giving the motion signal. (Hoist Slowly shown as an example.) MOVE SLOWLY
  77. 77. Standard Hand Signals For Controlling Overhead Cranes Crane operator spreads both hands apart – palms up. MAGNET DISCONNECTED
  78. 78. Finally, we must remember….
  79. 79. Objective Of Good Slinging <ul><li>The sling and its method of use should be suitable for the load. </li></ul><ul><li>The method of attachment of the sling to the load and the sling to the lifting appliance should be secure. </li></ul><ul><li>No part of the sling should be overloaded either by the weight of the load or by the method of slinging. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Objective Of Good Slinging <ul><li>The slinging method should ensure that the load is secure and that the load will not fall from the sling. </li></ul><ul><li>The load should be balanced and stable and should not violently change its attitude when lifted. </li></ul><ul><li>The load must not be damaged by, or cause damage to, the sling. </li></ul>
  81. 81. If we remember & achieve this Objective….. The probability of accident will be minimum
  82. 82. Sling storage
  83. 83. THANK YOU

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