• Definition• Function• Anatomic concideration• Physiologic concideration• Vibrating line• Classification of soft palate• Techniques• Errors in recording PPS• Summary
DEFINITION It is a soft tissue along the junctionof hard & soft palate on which pressurewith in the physiologic limit on thetissue can be applied by denture to a inthe retention of the denture. (GPT)
• The peripheral seal of maxillary denture is a area of contact between the mucosa & peripheral polished surface of the denture base, the seal prevent passage of air between denture & tissue.• Retention stability of a denture is achieved from adhesion, cohesion & interfacial surface tension that resist the dislodging forces that act perpendicular to the denture base.
• The adequate PPS resist the horizontal & lateral forces acting on maxillary denture base as the denture border terminate on soft resilient tissue & there by maintain a proper denture seal.
FUNCTION OF PPS• Stability• Prevention & retention• Compressibility• Comfort
• STABILITY:The main function of PPS is to maintain contact with the anterior portion of the soft palate ( the tissue under go shallow displacement ) during functional movement of the somatognathic system ( that is mastication, deglutination & phonation) therefore the main purpose of PPS is the retention of maxillary denture.
• PREVENTION : It also reduce gag reflex as there is no separation between denture base & soft palate during normal functional movement.• COMPRESSIBILITY : It also reduce food accumulation beneath the posterior aspect of denture owing to proper utilization of tissue compressibility.
• COMFORT : reduce patient discomfort contact occur between dorsum of the tongue & posterior end of denture base. The correctly placed PPS creates a partial vaccum beneath the maxillarly denture , this partial vaccum is activated only one horizontal tipping forces act is very small & hence produce no irreversible alternation of the underlying mucosa.
ANATOMIC & PHYSIOLOGIC CONCIDERATION• The PPS is divided in two anatomic separate boundaries-1.Post palatal seal2.Pteriomaxillary seal The post palatal seal is extend one tuberosity to other. Pterygomaxillary seal extend through pterygo maxillary notch continuing for 3-4 mm anterolaterally approximation the mucogingival junction. It also occupies the entire width of pterygomaxillary notch.
• This pterygomaxillary notch is covered by pterygomandibular fold which extend from the posterir aspect of the tuberocity posterio-inferiorly to insert into the retromolar pad.• This fold of tissue influence the posterior border seal if the mouth is wide open position during the final impression process.• Hamular notch should never be covered by denture as only covered by thin layer of mucous membrane.
• Fovea palatina are two glandular opening within the tissue posterior of hard palate lying on the either side of midline.• Fovea palatina should be used only as a guideline for the placement of posterior palatal seal.• Medial palatal raphe which overlies medial palatal suture contain little or submucosa & will tolerate little or no compression .
VIBRATING LINE The imaginary line acrossthe posterior part of thepalate marking the divisionbetween the movable &immovable tissue of thesoft palate which can beidentified when the movabletissue are moving. (GPT)• Anterior vibrating line• Posterior vibrating line
ANTERIOR VIBRATING LINE• It is an imaginary line lying at the junction between the immovable tissues over the hard palate & the slightly movable tissue of the soft palate-GPT.
METHOD OF LOCATING A.V.L.• Instructing the patient to say “AH” with short vigorous bursts due to projection of the posterior nasal spine. The anterior vibrating line is not a straight line between both hamular process.
POSTERIOR VIBRATING LINE• It is an imaginary line as junction of the aponeurosis of tensor vili palatini muscles in the muscular portion of the soft palate.-S. Winkler. It represent demarcation between the part of soft palate that has limited or shallow movement during function (quivers) & the remainder of the soft palate that is markedly displaced during functional movement.
• Thus the placement of PPS across mid-palatal suture demand careful attention.• PPS should also extend into mid palatal fissure to ensure proper peripheral seal.• Cord like band of tissue extending between the posterior nasal spine & aponeurosis of tensor vili palatini muscles should receive slight amount of relief.• If the tours palatini extend to the bony limit of the palate leaving little or no room to place the PPS then its removable is indicated.
• The presence of thick ropy saliva may create a problem for maxillary complete denture retention as it create hydrostatic pressure in the area anterior to PPS resulting in a downward dislodging force everted major denture base.
METHOD OF LOCATING P.V.L.• Instruct the patient to say “AH” in a short vigorous burst in a normal unexaggerated fashion. The posterior vibrating line marks the most distal extension of the denture base.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOFT PALATE It is classified in- class I class II class III
• CLASS I It indicate soft palate that is rather Horizontal as a extend posteriorly with minimum muscular activity. There is considerable separation between anterior & posterior vibrating line does having white PPS area yielding more retentive denture base.
• CLASS III it is seen in conjugation with high V shape palatal vault. There is few mm separation of anterior & posterior vibrating line thus there is small PPS area & less retention.
• CLASS II palatal contour lie between classI & classIII.
TECHNIQUES• There are several established techniques for the placement of PPS. The important once are:-1. Conventional approach2. Fluid wax technique
The rational for the placement of a seal in the impression tray as follows:-1. To establish positive contact posteriorly to prevent the final impression material from sliding down the pharynx.2. To serve as a guide for positioning the impression tray, especially if a shim has been used within the tray to establish the borders.
3. To create slight displacement of the soft palate.4. To determine if adequate retention & seal of the potential denture border is present.
CONVENTIONAL APPROACHAfter the special tray is fabricated there are certain instructions given to the patients:-1. To rinse with an astringent mouth wash that is remove to stringy saliva that might prevent clear transfer marking.There are steps to be followed
2. Location of pterygo maxillary notch is done by moving the T burnisher posterior angle to the maxillary tuberosity until it drops into the pterygo maxillary notch. This is necessary as there are times when small depression in the residual ridge may resemble pterygo maxillary notch.3. Identification of posterior vibrating line the patient asked to say “AH” in short burst in an exaggerated fashion.
4. Identification of the anterior vibration line. This is done by asking the patient to say “AH” with short vigorous bursts (Valsalva Maneuver can also be used)
PROCEDURE• A line is placed with an indelible pencil (Thomson sanitary colour transfer applicators) through the pterygo maxillary notch & extended 3-4 mm antero-laterally the tuberosity approximating the mucogingival junction same is done on the opposite side. This complete the out lining of pterygo maxillary seal
• The posterior vibrating line is marked with an indelible pencil by connection the line through the pterygomaxillary seal with line just drown demarcation the post palatal seal• The resin or shellac tray inserted into the mouth & seated firmly to place upon removal from the mouth. The indelible lines will be transferred to the tray.• Sometimes it is necessary to redefine transfer marking. The tray in return to master cast to complete the transfer of the complete posterior border.
• The tray is trimmed until the posterior vibration line so that it decides the post extent denture border.• Returning to the mouth the palatal fissure are palpated with the ‘T’ barnisher or mouth mirror to determine their compressibility in width & depth.• The termination of glandular tissue usually coincides with the anterior vibrating line.• The anterior vibrating line now marked stranseferred to master cast .this complete the transferring the outline of posterior palatal seal area.
(A) A T burnisher is used to palpate for the hamular process.(B) Palpating for the pterygomaxillary notch
• The visual outline is in the shape of cupid bow the area between the anterior posterior vibrating line is usually narrowest in the mid palatal region because of the projection of the posterior nasal spine.• Kingsley scraper used to score the cast the deepset area are located on either side of midline, one third the distance anteriorly from the posterior vibrating line. It is usually scraped to a depth of approximately 1-1.5 mm . The tissue covering the medial palatal raffae as little sub mucosa & cannot withstand same compressive force as the tissue lateral to it
• This area is scraped to depth of approximately 0.5-1 mm within the outline of cupid bow & cast is scrapped to depth of half amoung to palatal tissue in that area can be compressed being tapered posteriorly.• Failure to taper the seal posterior mainly to tissue irritation.
ADVANTAGE1. The trail base will be more retentive. This can produce more accurate maxillo mandibular records.2. Patient will be able to experience the retentive qualities of the trail base, giving them the psychologic security of knowings that retention will not be a problem in the completed prosthesis.
3. The practioner will be able to determine the retentive qualities of the finished denture, leaving nothing to chance at the insertion appointment.4. The new denture wearer will be able to realize the posterior extent of the denture which may ease the adjustment periods.
DISADVANTAGES1. It is not a physiologic technique & therefore depends upon accurate transfer of the vibrating lines & careful scraping of the cast.2. The potential for over compression of the tissue is great.
FLUID WAX TECHNIQUE All of the procedure remain the same as conventional technique that is transfer location & transfer marking of the anterior & posterior vibrating line The marking are recorded in final impression one of the four type of wax can be used for their technique:-1. Iowa wax white developed by Dr. Earl S. Smith.
2. Korecta wax no. 4, orange developed by Dr. O.C. Applegate.3. H.L. physiologic paste, yellow-white developed by Dr. C.S. Harkins.4. Adaptol green developed by Nathan G. these wax are designed to flow at mouth temperature. The melted wax is painted into the impression surface & in the outline at seal area , the wax applied in slightly & excess of the estimated depth & allowed to cool to blow mouth temperature to increase its consistency & make it more resistent of flow.
The impression is carried to mouth &held under gentle pressure 4-6 minuteto allow the material flow position ofhead & tongue during this is procedure.The soft palate should be impression init most functionally depressed positionsthat is by keeping frankfort plane 30°below the Hz & the tongue is firmlypositioned against mandibular anteriorteeth.
ADVANTAGE-THIS POSTION1. Soft palate is impression in its most functionally depressed position.2. The flow of saliva & impression material into the pharynx is prevented. After 4-6 minutes impression tray is removed from the mouth & examined for uniform contact. If the tissue contact has not established the wax will appear dull.
If the tissue contact has been establishedit will appear glossy. If excess wax protruded out of the tray itshould be removed. A Secondary impression is reinserted & heldfor 3-5 minutes under gentle pressurefollowed by 2-3 minutes of firm pressureapplied to mid palatal area of the impressiontray, upon removal of tray from the mouth itis careful examined to see wax terminate infeathered edge near the anterior vibratingline.
It a butt joint is present & properflow has not been taken place &impression tray is reinserted. If the wax is over extended it shouldbe careful trimmed the scalpel.
ADVANTAGES1. It is physiologic technique displacing tissues within their physiologically acceptable limits.2. Over compression of tissue is avoided.3. Posterior palatal seal is incorporated into the trail denture base for added retention.4. Mechanical scrapping of the cast is avoided.
DISADVANTAGES1. More time is necessary during the impression appointment.2. Difficulty in handling the materials & added care during the boxing procedure.
ERROR IN RECORDING OF PPS1. Under extension2. Under post damming3. Over post damming4. Over extension
1. UNDER EXTENSION This is the most common cause for poor posterior palatal seal. It may be produced due to one of the following reason:-1. The denture does not cover the fovea palatina, the tissue coverage is reduced & the posterior border of the denture is not in contact with the soft resilient tissue which will move alongwith the denture border during functional movements.
2. Reduce the patient anxiety to gagging.3. Improper delineation of the anterior & posterior vibrating line.4. Prevention: Excessive trimming of the posterior border of the cast.
2. OVER EXTENSION1. The denture base can lead to ulceration of the soft palate & painful degulutition.2. The most frequent complaint from the patient will be that swallowing is painful & difficult.3. The hamuli are covered by the denture base , the patient will experience sharp pain, specially during function.4. Prevention: These region are trimmed & poslished
4. The pterygoid hamuli must never be covered by the denture base.5. The overextension can be removed with a bur & then carefully repolished.
3. UNDER POSTDAMMING1. This can occur due to improper head positioning & mouth positioning. E.g. the mouth is wide open while recording the posterior palatal seal the mucosa over the hamular notch becomes stretched. This will produce a space between the denture base & tissue.
2. Inserting a wet denture into a patient’s mouth & inspecting the posterior border with the help of mouth mirror. If air bubble are seen to escape under the posterior border it indicates under damming.3. Prevention: The master cast can scraped in the posterior palatal area or the fluid wax impression can be repeated with proper patient position.
4. OVER POSTDAMMING1. This commonly occur due to excess scraping of the master cast. It occur more commonly in the hamular notch region.2. Pterygo maxillary seal area, then upon insertion of the denture the posterior border will be displaced inferiorly.
3. Prevention: Reduction of the denture border with a carbide bur, followed by lightly pumishing the area while maintaining its convexity.
SUMMARY So, it is concluded that theexistence of posterior palatal seal playsa major role in the development ofstability, retention & prevention,compressibility & comfort of thecomplete denture.
REFERENCES• Sheldon Winkler, Essentials of complete denture prosthodontcs.second edition.• Zarb Bolender,Prosthodontic Treatment for edentulous patients,twelfth edition.• Boucher,s Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patient,ninth edition.• Deepak Nallaswamy,Text book of prosthodontics,first edition.