Classification of periodontal  diseases
Periodontium   The periodontium consist of the investing & supporting tissues of the teeth which include gingiva . periodo...
DISEASE <ul><li>A pathological condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism resulting from various causes, such as...
Systematic collection of data or knowledge & its arrangement in sequential manner in order to facilitate its understanding...
USES OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>IDENTIFICATION OF THE ETIOLOGY & UNDERSTANDING OF THE PATHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>FOR DIAGN...
HISTORICAL DEVLOPMENT OF CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM <ul><li>CLINICAL CHARACTERISTIC PARADIGM </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSICAL PATHOL...
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTIC PARADIGM <ul><li>Very little to know about the etiology & pathogenesis of periodontal disease  </l...
G. V. BLACK CLASSIFICATION (1886) <ul><li>CONSTITUTIONAL GINGIVITIS  </li></ul><ul><li>PAINFULL FORM OF GINGIVITIS  </li><...
CLASSICAL PATHOLOGY PARADIGM  <ul><li>TWO FORMS OF DESTRUCTIVE PERIODONTAL DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>1. INFLAMMATORY </li...
ORBAN CLASSIFICATION (1942) <ul><li>INFLAMMATORY </li></ul><ul><li>DYSTROPHIC  </li></ul><ul><li>NEOPLASTIC  </li></ul><ul...
W.HO. EXPERT COMMITEE ON DENTAL HEALTH IN 1961 SUGGESTED   <ul><li>ETIOLOGY PLAYS SECONDARY & IMPORTANT PART IN CLASSIFICA...
INFECTION / HOST RESPONSE PARADIGM <ul><li>ROBERT KOCH IN 1876 – GERM THEORY OF DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>W. D. MILLER SUG...
PRITCHARD CLASSIFICATION {1972} <ul><li>INFLAMMATION WITH SURFACE DESTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASE AFFECTING SURFACE ...
RAMFORD & ASH CLASSIFICATION (1979)  <ul><li>GINGIVITIS </li></ul><ul><li>GINGIVAL ATROPHY  OR RECESSION </li></ul><ul><li...
GRANT , STERN & LISTGARTEN CLASSIFICATION {1988} <ul><li>BACTERIAL INDUCED DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>GINGIVITIS </li></ul...
<ul><li>FUNTIONALLY INDUCED DISEASES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRAUMATIC OCCLUSION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><...
Page & schroeder classification (1982) <ul><li>1)Prepubertal periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized </li></ul><ul><li...
Topic’s classification  (1986)  <ul><li>Acute </li></ul><ul><li>gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>specific , non specific </li>...
<ul><li>Periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>  localized </li></ul><ul><li>generalized </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontitis </li></u...
Suzuki classification  (1988) <ul><li>Adult periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>Early onset periodontitis  </li></ul><ul><li>J...
Genco classification  (1990)  <ul><li>Periodontitis in adult  </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontitis in juvenile </li></ul><ul><l...
Weatherford classification  (1987)   <ul><li>Disease affecting surface of gingiva </li></ul><ul><li>Disease affecting deep...
CLASSIFICATION OF THE WORLD WORKSHOP, 1989 <ul><li>PERIODONTITIS </li></ul><ul><li>a. Adult periodontitis. </li></ul><ul><...
EUROPEAN WORKSHOP, CLASSIFICATION  1993 <ul><li>A. PRIMARY DESCRIPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>a. Adult periodontitis </li></ul>...
CURRENT CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP FOR A CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODONTAL DISEASES & CONDITION –(1999) </l...
<ul><li>I. Gingival Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>A. Dental plaque-induced  gingival diseases * </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gingivit...
<ul><li>b. associated with blood dyscrasias </li></ul><ul><li>1) leukemia-associated  gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>2) othe...
<ul><li>B. Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gingival diseases of specific bacterial origin </li></...
<ul><li>3. Gingival diseases of fungal origin </li></ul><ul><li>a.  Candida -species infections </li></ul><ul><li>1) gener...
<ul><li>5. Gingival manifestations of  systemic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>a. mucocutaneous disorders </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>b. allergic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>1) dental restorative materials </li></ul><ul><li>a) mercury </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>6. Traumatic lesions (factitious, iatrogenic, </li></ul><ul><li>accidental) </li></ul><ul><li>a. chemical injury <...
<ul><li>II. Chronic Periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>A. Localized </li></ul><ul><li>B. Generalized </li></ul><ul><li>III. A...
<ul><li>IV. Periodontitis as a Manifestation of  Systemic Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>A. Associated with  hematological    ...
<ul><li>B. Associated with genetic disorders   1.Familial and cyclic neutropenia </li></ul><ul><li>2 Down syndrome </li></...
<ul><li>V. Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>A. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis  (NUG) </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>VII. Periodontitis Associated With Endodontic Lesions </li></ul><ul><li>A. Combined periodontic-endodontic lesions...
<ul><li>B. Mucogingival deformities and conditions around teeth </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gingival/soft tissue recession </li><...
<ul><li>C. Mucogingival deformities and conditions on edentulous ridges </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vertical and/or horizontal ri...
Conclusion <ul><li>The 1999 classification system has been approved by the AAP, is now official terminology for that organ...
Referances <ul><li>Clinical periodontology Carranza, Newman </li></ul><ul><li>8 th  edition & 9 th  edition </li></ul><ul>...
 
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  1. 1. Classification of periodontal diseases
  2. 2. Periodontium The periodontium consist of the investing & supporting tissues of the teeth which include gingiva . periodontal ligament ,cementum & alveolar bone.
  3. 3. DISEASE <ul><li>A pathological condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism resulting from various causes, such as infection, genetic defect, or environmental stress, and characterized by an identifiable group of signs or symptoms </li></ul>
  4. 4. Systematic collection of data or knowledge & its arrangement in sequential manner in order to facilitate its understanding or knowledge CLASSIFICATION
  5. 5. USES OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>IDENTIFICATION OF THE ETIOLOGY & UNDERSTANDING OF THE PATHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>FOR DIAGNOSIS PROGNOSIS & TREATMENT PLANING </li></ul><ul><li>FACILITATES COMMUNICATION AMONG THE CLINICIAN , RESEARCHER’S EDUCATORS , STUDENT, EPIDIMIOLOGIST & PUBLIC HEALTH WORKER’S </li></ul><ul><li>PREDICTING TREATMENT OUTCOMES </li></ul>
  6. 6. HISTORICAL DEVLOPMENT OF CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM <ul><li>CLINICAL CHARACTERISTIC PARADIGM </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSICAL PATHOLOGY PARADIGM </li></ul><ul><li>INFECTION / HOST RESPONSE PARADIGM </li></ul>
  7. 7. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTIC PARADIGM <ul><li>Very little to know about the etiology & pathogenesis of periodontal disease </li></ul><ul><li>C. G. DAVIS CLASSIFICATION(1879) </li></ul><ul><li>Gingival recession with minimum or no inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal destruction secondary to time deposits </li></ul><ul><li>“ RIGG’S DISEASE” the hallmark of which was loss of alveolus without loss of gums </li></ul>
  8. 8. G. V. BLACK CLASSIFICATION (1886) <ul><li>CONSTITUTIONAL GINGIVITIS </li></ul><ul><li>PAINFULL FORM OF GINGIVITIS </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE GINGIVITIS </li></ul><ul><li>INFLAMMATION OF THE PERIODONTAL MEMBRANE </li></ul><ul><li>PHAGEDENIC PERIODONTITIS </li></ul><ul><li>LITTLE OR NO EVIDENCE WAS USED TO SUPPORT THE OPINION OF CLINICIAN OF THE TIME </li></ul>
  9. 9. CLASSICAL PATHOLOGY PARADIGM <ul><li>TWO FORMS OF DESTRUCTIVE PERIODONTAL DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>1. INFLAMMATORY </li></ul><ul><li>2. NON INFLAMMATORY </li></ul><ul><li>GOTTLIB CLASSIFICATION {1928} </li></ul><ul><li>1. INFLAMMATORY – SCHMUTZ PYORRHOEA [POOR ORAL HYGINE ] </li></ul><ul><li>2. DEGENRATIVE OR ATROPHIC- </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFUSE ALVEOLAR ATROPHY </li></ul>SYSTEMATIC METABOLIC
  10. 10. ORBAN CLASSIFICATION (1942) <ul><li>INFLAMMATORY </li></ul><ul><li>DYSTROPHIC </li></ul><ul><li>NEOPLASTIC </li></ul><ul><li>PATHOLOGIC REACTION PRODUCED BY OCCLUSAL TRAUMA </li></ul>
  11. 11. W.HO. EXPERT COMMITEE ON DENTAL HEALTH IN 1961 SUGGESTED <ul><li>ETIOLOGY PLAYS SECONDARY & IMPORTANT PART IN CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CLINICAL ASSESMENT LACK SUFFICIENT PRECISION TO SERVE AS </li></ul>
  12. 12. INFECTION / HOST RESPONSE PARADIGM <ul><li>ROBERT KOCH IN 1876 – GERM THEORY OF DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>W. D. MILLER SUGGESTED THAT 3 FACTOR’S ARE CONSIDERRED FOR PYRRHOEA </li></ul>
  13. 13. PRITCHARD CLASSIFICATION {1972} <ul><li>INFLAMMATION WITH SURFACE DESTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASE AFFECTING SURFACE OR GINGIVA </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASE AFFECTING DEEPAR STRUCTURE </li></ul>
  14. 14. RAMFORD & ASH CLASSIFICATION (1979) <ul><li>GINGIVITIS </li></ul><ul><li>GINGIVAL ATROPHY OR RECESSION </li></ul><ul><li>TRAUMA FROM OCCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>PERIODONTITIS </li></ul>
  15. 15. GRANT , STERN & LISTGARTEN CLASSIFICATION {1988} <ul><li>BACTERIAL INDUCED DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>GINGIVITIS </li></ul><ul><li>PERIODONTITIS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADULT TYPE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POST JUVENILE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EARLY ONSET </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> JUVENILE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOCALIZED </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GENERALIZED </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACUTENECROTIZING ULCERATIVE GINGVITIS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACUTE ABSCESS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PERICORONITIS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>FUNTIONALLY INDUCED DISEASES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRAUMATIC OCCLUSION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DISEASE ATROPHY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRAUMA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACCIDENTAL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HABITS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Page & schroeder classification (1982) <ul><li>1)Prepubertal periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized </li></ul><ul><li>Localized </li></ul><ul><li>2)Juvenile periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>3)Rapidilly progressing periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>4)Adult type periodontitis </li></ul>
  18. 18. Topic’s classification (1986) <ul><li>Acute </li></ul><ul><li>gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>specific , non specific </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>periodontal abscess </li></ul><ul><li>pericoronitis </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>plaque associated, symptomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontits </li></ul><ul><li>recession </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li> localized </li></ul><ul><li>generalized </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li> simple </li></ul><ul><li> complex </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidlly progressive – type A </li></ul><ul><li>-- type B </li></ul><ul><li>Prepubertal </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile </li></ul><ul><li>Post juvenile </li></ul><ul><li>symptomatic </li></ul>
  20. 20. Suzuki classification (1988) <ul><li>Adult periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>Early onset periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>Post juvenile periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>Prepubertal periodontitis </li></ul>
  21. 21. Genco classification (1990) <ul><li>Periodontitis in adult </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontitis in juvenile </li></ul><ul><li>localized </li></ul><ul><li>generalized </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontitis with systemic involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Primary neutrophil disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary neutrophil impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Misellaneous condition </li></ul>
  22. 22. Weatherford classification (1987) <ul><li>Disease affecting surface of gingiva </li></ul><ul><li>Disease affecting deeper structure </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal traumaties </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal abscess </li></ul>
  23. 23. CLASSIFICATION OF THE WORLD WORKSHOP, 1989 <ul><li>PERIODONTITIS </li></ul><ul><li>a. Adult periodontitis. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Early-onset periodontitis: </li></ul><ul><li>i. Prepubertal periodontitis: </li></ul><ul><li>1.1. Localized </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. Generalized </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Juvenile periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>1.1. Localized </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. Generalized </li></ul><ul><li>c. Periodontitis associated with systemic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>d. Necrotising ulcerative periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>e. Refractory periodontitis </li></ul>
  24. 24. EUROPEAN WORKSHOP, CLASSIFICATION 1993 <ul><li>A. PRIMARY DESCRIPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>a. Adult periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>b. Early-onset periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>c. Necrotising ulcerative periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>B . SECONDARY DESCRIPTORS a. Tooth distribution. b. Rate of progression. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Treatment response. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Associated with systemic diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Microbiological characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>f. Ethnicity. </li></ul><ul><li>g. Other factors. </li></ul>
  25. 25. CURRENT CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP FOR A CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODONTAL DISEASES & CONDITION –(1999) </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL – “COURSE CORRECTION” OR “FINE TUNING” OF 1989 CLASSIFICATION </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>I. Gingival Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>A. Dental plaque-induced gingival diseases * </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gingivitis associated with dental plaque only </li></ul><ul><li>a. without other local contributing factors </li></ul><ul><li>b. with local contributing factors </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gingival diseases modified by systemic factors </li></ul><ul><li>a. associated with the endocrine system </li></ul><ul><li>1) puberty-associated gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>2) menstrual cycle-associated gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>3) pregnancy-associated </li></ul><ul><li>a) gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>b) pyogenic granuloma </li></ul><ul><li>4) diabetes mellitus-associated gingivitis </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>b. associated with blood dyscrasias </li></ul><ul><li>1) leukemia-associated gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>2) other </li></ul>3. Gingival diseases modified by medications a. drug-influenced gingival diseases 1) drug-influenced gingival enlargements 2) drug-influenced gingivitis a) oral contraceptive-associated gingivitis 4. Gingival diseases modified by malnutrition a. ascorbic acid-deficiency gingivitis b. other
  28. 28. <ul><li>B. Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gingival diseases of specific bacterial origin </li></ul><ul><li>a. Neisseria gonorrhea -associated lesions </li></ul><ul><li>b. Treponema pallidum -associated lesions </li></ul><ul><li>c. streptococcal species-associated lesions </li></ul><ul><li>d. other </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gingival diseases of viral origin </li></ul><ul><li>a. herpesvirus infections </li></ul><ul><li>1) primary herpetic gingivostomatitis </li></ul><ul><li>2) recurrent oral herpes </li></ul><ul><li>3) varicella-zoster infections </li></ul><ul><li>b. other </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>3. Gingival diseases of fungal origin </li></ul><ul><li>a. Candida -species infections </li></ul><ul><li>1) generalized gingival candidosis </li></ul><ul><li>b. linear gingival erythema </li></ul><ul><li>c. histoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>d. other </li></ul><ul><li>4. Gingival lesions of genetic origin </li></ul><ul><li>a. hereditary gingival fibromatosis </li></ul><ul><li>b. other </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>5. Gingival manifestations of systemic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>a. mucocutaneous disorders </li></ul><ul><li>1) lichen planus </li></ul><ul><li>2) pemphigoid </li></ul><ul><li>3) pemphigus vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>4) erythema multiforme </li></ul><ul><li>5) lupus erythematosus </li></ul><ul><li>6) drug-induced </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>b. allergic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>1) dental restorative materials </li></ul><ul><li>a) mercury </li></ul><ul><li>b) nickel </li></ul><ul><li>c) acrylic </li></ul><ul><li>d) other </li></ul>2) Reaction attributable to a)toothpastes/dentifrices b)Mouthrinses / mouthwashes c)Chewing bum additives
  32. 32. <ul><li>6. Traumatic lesions (factitious, iatrogenic, </li></ul><ul><li>accidental) </li></ul><ul><li>a. chemical injury </li></ul><ul><li>b. physical injury </li></ul><ul><li>c. thermal injury </li></ul><ul><li>7. Foreign body reaction </li></ul><ul><li>8. Not otherwise specified (NOS) </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>II. Chronic Periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>A. Localized </li></ul><ul><li>B. Generalized </li></ul><ul><li>III. Aggressive Periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>A. Localized </li></ul><ul><li>B. Generalized </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>IV. Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>A. Associated with hematological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>1. Acquired neutropenia </li></ul><ul><li>2. Leukemias </li></ul><ul><li>3. Other </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>B. Associated with genetic disorders 1.Familial and cyclic neutropenia </li></ul><ul><li>2 Down syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>3. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndromes </li></ul><ul><li>4. Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>5. Chediak-Higashi syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>6. Histiocytosis syndromes </li></ul><ul><li>7. Glycogen storage disease </li></ul><ul><li>8. Infantile genetic agranulocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>9. Cohen syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>10. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Types IV and VIII) </li></ul><ul><li>11. Hypophosphatasia </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>V. Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>A. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP) </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Abscesses of the Periodontium </li></ul><ul><li>A. Gingival abscess </li></ul><ul><li>B. Periodontal abscess </li></ul><ul><li>C. Pericoronal abscess </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>VII. Periodontitis Associated With Endodontic Lesions </li></ul><ul><li>A. Combined periodontic-endodontic lesions </li></ul><ul><li>VIII. Developmental or Acquired Deformities and Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>A. Localized tooth-related factors that modify or predispose to plaque-induced gingival diseases/periodontitis </li></ul><ul><li>1. Tooth anatomic factors </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dental restorations/appliances </li></ul><ul><li>3. Root fractures and cemental tears </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>B. Mucogingival deformities and conditions around teeth </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gingival/soft tissue recession </li></ul><ul><li>a. facial or lingual surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>b. interproximal (papillary) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lack of keratinized gingiva </li></ul><ul><li>3. Decreased vestibular depth </li></ul><ul><li>4. Aberrant frenum/muscle position </li></ul><ul><li>5. Gingival excess </li></ul><ul><li>a. pseudopocket </li></ul><ul><li>b. inconsistent gingival margin </li></ul><ul><li>c. excessive gingival display </li></ul><ul><li>d. gingival enlargement </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>C. Mucogingival deformities and conditions on edentulous ridges </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vertical and/or horizontal ridge deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lack of gingiva/keratinized tissue </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gingival/soft tissue enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>4. Aberrant frenum/muscle position </li></ul><ul><li>5. Decreased vestibular depth </li></ul><ul><li>6. Abnormal color </li></ul><ul><li>D. Occlusal trauma </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary occlusal trauma </li></ul><ul><li>2. Secondary occlusal trauma </li></ul>
  40. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>The 1999 classification system has been approved by the AAP, is now official terminology for that organization, and will be used in accredited graduate periodontal programs and board examinations. </li></ul><ul><li>The Parameters of Care4 approved by the AAP have adopted the new classification and future publications will use it as their standard. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Referances <ul><li>Clinical periodontology Carranza, Newman </li></ul><ul><li>8 th edition & 9 th edition </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal therapy Nabers & Stalker </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of periodontic for dental hygienist Jill’s Nield – gehrig, Donald E.william </li></ul>www.perio.org/resources-products/ classification .pdf www.uic.edu/classes/peri/peri323/syallbus/class/index.htm www.odont.lu.se/depts/par/eaop/currclas.html

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