Information• Where does the information come from?• What is the information need?• What information is appropriate?• How is information evaluated?
Information• Factual vs. Analytical• Objective vs. Subjective• Primary vs. Secondary
Information• Factual • AnalyticalA statement of things done or Interpretations/analysis of facts existing Implications and reasons forShort Usually produced by expertsNon-explanatory Often found in books andOften found in reference periodical articles. materials or statistical info.
InformationObjective –Understood from reviewingmany different points of view Subjective – Understood from one point of view
InformationPrimary SecondaryOriginal from when it first appears. Removed from its original source and repackaged.Not published anywhere else. Restates, examines or interpretsNot filtered, interpreted, filtered, information from one or moreetc. by anyone else. primary sources.Examples: Examples:An original artwork. Artwork reproduced in a book.A professor’s lecture. Student notes taken on a lecture.A diary. A biography.Historical documents. An encyclopedia article.First publication of scientific research. A newspaper article about reporting on a scientific study published elsewhere.
Planning• Research is always a multi-step process.• Research is often interdisciplinary.• Think broadly about your topic, then narrow and refine your focus.Broad Topic Restricted Topic Narrowed Topic Censorship …on the Internet …in China How does China’s effort to censor the internet affect its citizens?
PlanningKeep a record of everything you find and where and how you find it.
Planning• Identify your topic.• Gather background information.• Focus your research• Evaluate your resources
Lifecycle of Information• First hours.• The next day.• The first several weeks.• Months later.• Years later.
Catalogs and Books• Bibliographic record.• Describing existing items.• Providing clues to their value.• Telling us where to find items.
Catalogs and Books
Catalogs and BooksLC Call numbers LC Call numbersA General Works L EducationB Philosophy, Psychology, and Religion M MusicC Auxiliary Sciences of History N Fine ArtsD General and Old World History P Language and Literature (including Film)E History of America Q ScienceF History of the United States and British, R Medicine Dutch, French, and Latin America S AgricultureG Geography, Anthropology, and T Technology (including Photography) Recreation U Military ScienceH Social Sciences V Naval ScienceJ Political Science Z Bibliography, Library Science, andK Law General Information Resources
Catalogs and BooksLC Call numbers LC Call numbersN Visual arts ND PaintingNA Architecture NE Print mediaNB Sculpture NK Decorative artsNC Drawing. Design. Illustration NX Arts in general
Catalogs and Books LC Call numbersN1-(9211) Visual artsN1-58 GeneralN61-72 Theory. Philosophy. Aesthetics of the visual artsN81-390 Study and teaching. ResearchN400-3990 Art museums, galleries, etc.N4390-5098 ExhibitionsN5198-5299 Private collections and collectorsN5300-7418 HistoryN7420-7525.8 General worksN7560-8266 Special subjects of artN8350-8356 Art as a profession. ArtistsN8510-8553 Art studios, materials, etc.N8554-8585 Examination and conservation of works of artN8600-8675 Economics of artN8700-9165 Art and the state. Public art
Catalogs and Books• PAFA Library http://www.library.pafa.edu/• ACCESSPA http://184.108.40.206/search~S1 Interlibrary Loan• WorldCat http://www.worldcat.org/• TCLC http://tclclibs.org/membersReciprocal borrowing with over 45 area college libraries including:Arcadia University, Art Institute of Philadelphia, Community College of Philadelphia,Moore College of Art & Design, Philadelphia University, Saint Josephs University,Villanova University, West Chester University, and Widener University.
Annotated BibliographyContent: What’s it about? Authority: Is it written by someoneIs it relevant to your research? who has the appropriate expertise?Purpose: Currency:What’s it for? Why was it written? Is it new? Is it up to date?Methods: Scope/Limits: What does it cover?Where did the information come from? Are helpful things missing?Usefulness: Arrangement: How is the bookWhat does it do for your research? organized? Any “value added” features?Reliability: Ease of use: What’s the reading level?Is the information accurate? Can a non-specialist use this?
Periodicals and Databases Popular Citation Scholarly/Peer-Reviewed CitationJournal title: Journal title: Contains words likeContains words like magazine, weekly, etc. bulletin, review or journal.Publication frequency: Pub. frequency: Less frequentlyFrequently-weekly, bi-weekly or monthly monthly, quarterly or semi-annually.Authors: Often one. Authors: Frequently many co-authors.Staff, freelance, contributors, etc. Scholars or researchers in the field. University affiliation or professional titles.Article length: Usually short Article length: LongerArticle title:Popular or catchy article titles Article title: Relate to research question or results…not catchy and often long.
Periodicals and Databases Popular Journal Scholarly/Peer-Reviewed JournalLayout: Eye-catching covers. Layout: Plain covers. Often matte-Glossy paper. Photos, illustrations, etc. paper. Mostly text, figures and charts.Advertising: Many consumer products. Advertising: Little/no advertising.Audience: Educated but not expert. Audience: Scholars and researchers.Purpose: To entertain or persuade. Purpose: To inform/report or makeGeneral interest, geared to sell advertising. available original research.Availability: Newsstand, bookstore. Availability: Not usually on newsstands. Access via subscription or through library.Articles: No abstract at the beginning,No citations at the end Articles: Often an abstract at the beginning. Bibliographies, footnotes, etc.
Periodicals and DatabasesGeneral Databases Subject Specific Databases• Academic Search Premier: Scholarly • Art Full-Text: Full-text plus abstracts collection provides journal coverage for most and indexing of peer-selected, art related academic areas of study (biological sciences, publications Indexes over 500 journals economics, communications, computer from 1983 to the present. Full-text coverage sciences, engineering, language, linguistics, of nearly 200 journals from 1997 to the arts and literature, women’s studies, etc.). present. Full text of 2,027 scholarly publications (of those, 1,581 are peer-reviewed). Indexing and abstracts for 3,534 scholarly journals (of • ArtBibliographies Modern: those, 2,778 are peer reviewed) with many Abstracts of journal articles, books, essays, dating back to 1985. exhibition catalogs, PhD dissertations, and exhibition reviews on all forms of modern and contemporary art. Coverage begins in• JStor Collection III: 150 titles. Journals 1974. No Full-Text in languages and literature, music, film studies, folklore, performing arts, religion, and the history and study of art and Articles architecture. Full-text coverage as far back as http://www.library.pafa.edu/articles-1.html 1913. No full-text of the the last 3 to 5 years.
Periodicals and DatabasesSearch statements• Key concepts• Synonyms/alternative phrasing• Boolean operators [ and / or / not ]• Wildcards• Controlled vocabulary
Periodicals and DatabasesConcept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3Smoking Depression TeenagersOr Or OrCigarettes and Mood and TeensOr Or OrTobacco Mental Health AdolescentsOr OrNicotine Youth Or High School Students
The web and scholarly research• Anyone can create or host a Web page• There is no official body, such as the US Government, that oversees or polices the content on Web pages• Search engines are not capable of locating all the information that is available on the Internet• All of the worlds information is not available online.• The overwhelming majority of information found in libraries and archives is not available via the Web
The web and scholarly researchKnow your search engines Know your domains• Google • .com -- Company• Yahoo • .edu -- Higher Education• Ask.com • .gov -- Government• Dogpile • .org -- Non-Profit• Bing • .net -- Network• Blekko • .mil -- MilitaryBasic search? Advanced search?How does it organize search results?By what criteria? In what order?Do results change based on word order?
The web and scholarly researchPurpose / intended audience Authority / Credibility• Goals stated? • Author…can you identify one?• Who is the audience? • Who is responsible? A group?• Is there advertising? • Is there contact info?• Is the site scholarly or popular? • Author’s qualifications?• Overall… • Expertise on the subject? …to inform? • Author affiliations, such as an …to persuade? educational institution, a non-profit …to entertain? or a company? …to sell a product? • Is the site connected to an organization? What is their mission?
The web and scholarly researchAccuracy / Reliability Objectivity / Bias• Goals stated? • Goals clearly stated?• Who is the audience? • Many opinions or just one? • Mostly opinions or facts?• Is there advertising? • Sponsored by a company or org.?• Is the site scholarly or popular? • Political/religious/social group?• Overall… • Advertising separate? …to inform? …to persuade? Currency …to entertain? • When was the info published? • When was the page last updated? …to sell a product? • Are there any “dead links” to sites that no longer work?