Professional leadership and the circle of influence

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Professional leadership model addressing authentic and principle-centered leadership as well as the leadership circle of influence.

Professional leadership model addressing authentic and principle-centered leadership as well as the leadership circle of influence.

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  • 1. MaRi EagarM Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) M Phil (HRM) (PPL) Professional Leadership –The PPL Pyramid and the Circle of Influence “He who thinks he leads without followers, is only taking a walk” (John Maxwell, 1998: 20) Competent Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis September 2004 This report contains 41 pages Report for University of Johannesburg
  • 2. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 Contents1 Theme 3: The PPL-Leadership Perspective – The PPL Pyramid of Leadership 11.1 How current leadership thinking is unable to resolve the problems of the day 21.2 Leadership as influence – the PPL Pyramid to cultivate the Circle of Influence 61.3 The PPL Pyramid as framework for professional leadership development 81.4 Level One: Authentic leadership: A principle-, value- and character centered basis 101.5 Level Two: Relationship Leadership through encouragement, caring and service 141.6 Level Three: Competent Leadership and the Leadership Cycle (Return on Investment) 211.7 The Circle of Influence and Credibility 271.8 Building dimensions of influence using the three layers of the PPL Pyramid and enhancing the circle of influence 341.9 The impact of the PPL Pyramid of Leadership as influence over self and others 372 Personal reflection and learning Error! Bookmark not defined.3 REFERENCES 38Professional Leadership Pyramid
  • 3. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 20041 The PPL-Leadership Perspective – The PPL Pyramid of Leadership“Attending to the triple bottom line means meeting the financial, ecologicaland social needs of the present while maintaining the ability of futuregenerations to meet their own needs.” (Sarah Schley and Joseph Laur fromLeverage™, no 22, 2003)Companies face many problems today that would be described as uniqueto our times. While our population growth and increased health andwellness result in increasing demand for products and service (thus moreopportunities for business), our Earth’s capacity to provide us with we needto produce and live here, is declining. (Schley and Laur: 2003)Schley and Laur emphasise that, previously companies need only focus onfinancial success in determining how they will operate and how they will belead. Now they also have to consider the impact of their operations on thenatural environment they effect. The impact of our business activities ontheir communities and society is under regular spotlight. Business analystsand investor communities are starting to review the value of companyshares for long term investment recommendations if they do not have a clearunderstanding of how the company address the above. Reducedshareholder confidence reduces the share-price and ultimately the future ofthe company.Employees in companies have a different work-ethic and make newdemands on companies. The knowledge creator employees can moveglobally and do not accept the traditional view of command and controlcompanies. They are loyal only to themselves, and do not commit to theirProfessional Leadership Pyramid 1
  • 4. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004employers anymore. To retain these talented employees have become a veryexpensive and mostly “hit and miss” exercise in companies.Even lower skilled employees with access to technology, are demanding tobe treated in a more humane manner and will refuse to give theircommitment to companies they do not believe in. As a result productivitysuffers through absenteeism and tactics to withhold work. Employees (at alllevels in business) think nothing of stealing from their employers (time andgoods). This affects profitability dramatically.1.1 How current leadership thinking is unable to resolve the problems of the dayThe essence of leadership, when condensing the many definitions ofleadership, is the influence over self and others (Smith, D:2004). This,Smith says, implies that for leaders to exist, there also are those who follow.Traditionally companies are using classroom management developmentfocusing on classic MBA programs to develop their leaders. “Contemporarybusiness education focuses on the functions of business more than thepractice of managing.” (Henry Mintzberg and Jonathan R Gosling on MBAprograms: 2004)This results in focused attention on a selected few in the organisation toachieve business success with the support of their (assumed) willingfollowers. MBA programs provide techniques to learn how to motivatepeople and learn how to provide common objectives and vision foremployees to follow them. Leadership magazines abound with the anecdotesof hero leaders who (apparently) single-handedly achieved dramaticProfessional Leadership Pyramid 2
  • 5. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004profitability growth and are even able to fix the problems of the world throughtheir visionary leadership in world affairs.Although historically some individuals have been able to exert enormousinfluence over society, influence depends on the power you have beengranted, as well as the amount of followers.In other words, your power is related to the circumference of your circleof influence which is dependent on the number of followers. To be aleader in the workplace, one would have to grow an empire of followers – atime consuming and energy draining task if she is to achieve success in aworld with increasing demands on company profitability and sustainability asdescribed above.When there is overemphasis on a few leaders, the results they obtained areoften not sustainable and disappear when they leave. Take Ghandi, forexample. Although he obtained the liberation of India, extreme poverty andthe caste system still dis-empowers the majority of people living in India.Fundamentally they are still not liberated and Ghandi’s vision is not yetachieved in full.Professional Leadership Pyramid 3
  • 6. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Follower Follower Follower Leader Follower FollowerThe more effective solution which is to achieve more with the sameamount of effort is self-evident. A leader should be able to expandinfluence using, for example, the same number of followers as before. If eachfollower would be able to exert influence over one more person each, yourpersonal circle of influence as leader could expand with at least 5 morepeople using the same effort with which to influence 5 people. This is avery economical way of achieving results. The diagram below illustrates thisidea.Professional Leadership Pyramid 4
  • 7. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 Follower Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Competent Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI and ROI Follower Leader Leader Follower Relationship Leadership: Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Through encouragement, Caring and service Caring and service Competent Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Leadership Circle of influence Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis and ROI Character Centered Basis Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Leader Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Competent Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI and ROI Relationship Leadership: Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Through encouragement, Leader Leader Caring and service Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Character Centered Basis Follower FollowerThe logical conclusion of this way of thinking is then to ensure the newfollowers become influencers too, and ultimately you could create a vastcircle of influence consisting of influence creating communities asshown below. This means one person could influence exponentially,and is an effective method for achieving results that are also sustainable asthe network of influencers are stronger than a model with a few influencersand mostly followers.Professional Leadership Pyramid 5
  • 8. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Leader Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and and ROI Character Centered Basis Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Competent Leader Leadership Circle of influence Relationship Leadership: and ROI Through encouragement, Caring and service Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Competent Competent Character Centered Basis Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and and ROI and ROI Character Centered Basis Leader Relationship Leadership: Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Through encouragement, Caring and service Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Competent Leadership Circle of influence Competent and ROI Leadership Circle of influence Leader Leader Relationship Leadership: and ROI Competent Through encouragement, Leadership Circle of influence Caring and service Relationship Leadership: and ROI Through encouragement, Leader Leader Relationship Leadership: Caring and service Through encouragement, Caring and service Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Caring and service Competent Character Centered Basis Leadership Circle of influence Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and and ROI Character Centered Basis Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence Leader Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Relationship Leadership: and ROI Character Centered Basis Through encouragement, Caring and service Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Competent Competent Caring and service Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI and ROI Competent Competent Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence Relationship Leadership: Relationship Leadership: Leader Leader and ROI and ROI Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Through encouragement, Through encouragement, Character Centered Basis Caring and service Caring and service Relationship Leadership: Relationship Leadership: Leader Leader Through encouragement, Through encouragement, Caring and service Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Character Centered Basis Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Leader Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and and ROI Character Centered Basis Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Competent Competent Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI and ROI Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Relationship Leadership: Relationship Leadership: Leader Leader Leadership Circle of influence Through encouragement, Through encouragement, and ROI Caring and service Caring and service Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Character Centered Basis Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Competent Character Centered Basis Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Competent Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Leader Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Competent and ROI Character Centered Basis Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Competent Leader Leadership Circle of influence Relationship Leadership: and ROI Through encouragement, Leader Leader Relationship Leadership: Caring and service Through encouragement, Caring and service Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Leadership Circle of influence Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and and ROI Character Centered Basis Leader Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Competent Competent Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI and ROI Relationship Leadership: Relationship Leadership: Leader Leader Through encouragement, Through encouragement, Caring and service Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Character Centered Basis Competent Competent Leadership Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI and ROI Relationship Leadership: Relationship Leadership: Leader Leader Through encouragement, Through encouragement, Caring and service Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered Basis Character Centered Basis1.2 Leadership as influence – the PPL Pyramid to cultivate the Circle of InfluenceAs the exponential approach above is self-evident, many peopleacknowledge the powerful impact of this concept, and various organisationshave adopted empowerment programs with the aim of achieving this.However, it appears that employees and managers are not always able toexecute on this good intention.Using the PPL perspective, the problems facing the workplace today can bedescribed through articulating them in a structured format from personalProfessional Leadership Pyramid 6
  • 9. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004problems in the workplace, interpersonal problems in the workplace towardsthe organisational problems, such as culture and performance and ultimatelythe circle of influence inside and outside the organisation.From the PPL perspective individuals in companies cannot be empoweredbefore they have not been effectively equipped to deal with their problemsand learn how to influence themselves first.This means that leadership development starts with changing the individualfirst, moving through towards relationships until ultimately addressing theorganisation.Finding the root cause of work problems, means that ultimate the essencethereof can be addressed, and thus lead to the improvement of theworkplace, resulting in increased sustainable business success, particularlythe triple bottom line which is a more effective way of doing business.As most of these problems are generic and span across different culturesand organisations, this type of leadership approach would be transferableacross different organisations and people, and not be limited in terms ofindustry and other variables.Professional Leadership Pyramid 7
  • 10. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 20041.3 The PPL Pyramid as framework for professional leadership developmentThe PPL Pyramid is based on the concept that there is a structured andhierarchical approach towards leadership development which is based onreality and the problems of existence.This model focuses on an inside-out approach which focuses firstly on thedevelopment of influence over self before consideration of how to influenceothers.In this framework the foundation aspects will be addressed first, then thenext level will be built before reaching the pinnacle. Through commitment,intent and dedication action the continuous development of these levels willincrease the individual as well as ultimately organisational influence.Professional Leadership Pyramid 8
  • 11. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 Competent Circle of influence Leadership Circle of influence and ROI Relationship Leadership: Through encouragement, Caring and service Authentic Leadership: A principle-, value- and Character Centered BasisProfessional Leadership Pyramid 9
  • 12. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 20041.4 Level One: Authentic leadership: A principle-, value- and character cantered basisThe first level to address in leadership in the workplace is the foundation ofthe person. Below is an analysis of the workplace problems experience on apersonal level, and the proposed qualities to be developed to address theseproblems:Level One: Problems in the Level One: PPL Pyramid leadershipworkplace (Class notes: PPL: qualities addressing workplaceSeptember 2004) problems (Smith, D:2004: Handouts)Lack of gratitude Principle-cantered leadershipLack of responsibility (ability to Value driven leadership (moralrespond) compassing)Ego-directedness Character cantered leadershipMoral issues and dilemmas StewardshipDishonesty and lack of integrity Authentic leadership (inside-out)Meaningless of work TrustworthinessDissonance between personal values Constructive attitude and mindsetand workplace valuesLack of self-worthProfessional Leadership Pyramid 10
  • 13. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004Low self-esteemUn-connectednessAnxiety and distressThe importance of the development of these qualities, and thus become aLevel One leader can be illustrated through exploring the impact on theorganisation if these are not in place:Person is …. Potential consequenceNot authentic The person would potentially not be able to develop self-worth and start confusing work and personal worth, resulting in work-addictive behaviour or work-avoidance behaviour. We cannot build trust, because we receive inconsistent messages from this personNot values focused (no This person will focus on the rules and policiesmoral compass) to guide him, and will be adrift when these are not available for decision making. It will be difficult to prioritise activities and achieve goalsNot principle-cantered Judgement in decision making could be flawed, you would be unable to hand over authority and decision making to this person because they will struggle with defining momentsProfessional Leadership Pyramid 11
  • 14. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004Not character cantered There is no integrity and credibility – you will wonder what this person will be like when given a lot of power. You just see personality and masks – different person with different peopleNot a steward Cannot give responsibility and power to this person – they will stay in limited position in organisation, they will work completely from the egoNot trustworthy Cannot rely on this person – have to check in all the time to determine progress, cannot delegate effectivelyNot constructive attitude This person will be unable to resilient duringand mindset difficult times, and might have a poor concept of self (poor self-image and identity). You will have to spend a lot of energy and effort to inspire this person – without having too much effectThe lack of these Level One Leadership qualities will directly impactnegatively towards business success, not only financially, but also theother variables on the triple bottom line measurement.Professional Leadership Pyramid 12
  • 15. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004The essence of character“Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character,give him power.” (Abraham Lincoln as quoted by John Maxwell) Character is the essence of who we are - the essential nature of the person (Cashman, 1998: 43) – the presence of who we are It is congruent– aligning what we say with what we are The purpose of character is to transform and to open up to possibilities and potentialities (Cashman, 1998: 43) Expressing character allows others to express through their character tooThe essential nature of a person is expressed through character. Charactercomes from expressing the authentic self – allowing the “author” to comeforth, instead of the image or character (persona) that was created.Character is the presence of the person. It is the “real” person, not themask or image that has been crafted to pretend to be someone else.For character to be expressed, we start aligning our thoughts, feelings andactions consistently with our actions and behaviour. We lead by virtue of whowe are, instead of by what we are doing only. This creates congruence, andultimately leads to credibility and trust.When we act from character, we are able to be more open to change andlearning. We do not feel threatened by being exposed, as our persona andexpression of authentic self is now aligned. There is no more fear of being“found out”, and thus we act with more confidence. Because we are so open,we allow those around us to be more open too. Leading through charactermeans we are more able to achieve our potential.Professional Leadership Pyramid 13
  • 16. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004When we express authentically, and live a character based life, we providesecurity and confidence in people around us to start expressingthemselves more honestly and authentically. This is a pre-requisite forempowering people and builds confidence, self-worth and self-esteem.Character is our vehicle to move us forward in life (Cashman, 1998: 52)ConclusionIt is clear, therefore, that the dedicated and committed development of LevelOne qualities will contribute constructively towards addressing problemsexperienced on a personal level in the workplace.It is also clear that employees with this level being developed will be moreproductive and provide more opportunity for their employers to enhanceorganisational effectiveness and performance.1.5 Level Two: Relationship Leadership through encouragement, caring and serviceFrom Level One the Level Two of the model addresses problemsexperienced in the relating aspect in business. Relationships are veryimportant in business. Not only do people work for money, but also for thesocial community aspect of the workplace. Furthermore, companies need tointeract effectively with their customers to sell their products and services.The organisation also is dependent on effective relationships with suppliers,communities, the government and other stakeholders.Professional Leadership Pyramid 14
  • 17. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004Below is a list of some problems experience in the relating aspect of work,and the proposed Level Two qualities that can be developed to constructivelyaddress these problems:Level Two Problems in the workplace Level Two PPL Pyramid leadership(Class notes: PPL: September 2004) qualities addressing workplace problems (Smith, D: 2004: Handouts)Poor communication (do not listen, People – an organisation’s mostdifferent mindsets) important assetUnhealthy competition Leadership as relationship, a connectionPoor working relationships Encouraging, caring and concernLack of diversity or too much diversity(non-alignment) ServiceBrain code focus CommunicationLack of respect Team workGossip and back stabbing RespectSexual harassment Diversity and synergyPhysical violence and lack of safetyPressure to conformLabellingConflictProfessional Leadership Pyramid 15
  • 18. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004RacismPoor service (internally andexternally)The importance of the cultivation of these qualities can be demonstratedthrough considering the alternative, in other words, what would be the impacton the workplace when they do not existQuality not …. Potential consequencePeople are not the The “Dilbert” principle in organisations whereorganisation’s most morale is low and ultimately productivity is low.important asset The organisation would be unable to retain talented people (costly to recruit all the time) and will also not be able to attract talented people. Ultimately this will impact on the ability to generate organic growth and innovation in the business.Leadership is not seen as a Arrogance in leaders who believe they do it onrelationship, as a their own would result in insulation, whichconnection would result in a bubble and ultimately the bursting of the bubble. This is unsustainable over the long term. Disconnectedness also will impact on relationships with suppliers andProfessional Leadership Pyramid 16
  • 19. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 customers, where such relationships determine commitment and loyalty to the organisation. This would directly affect the business success of the organisation.Leaders are not Followers will not know if they are performingencouraging, caring and as expected, and this would result in workconcerned about others avoidance (to prevent mistakes) or work addiction (trying too hard to please). People will feel like numbers and work will not have meaning. During times of rapid change and uncertainty, lack of care and concern would increase anxiety and thus increase distress. This would result in increased stress, job burn- out and depression (increased absenteeism, health cost and lost of productivity).Leaders are not in service When service leadership is present, theof others behaviour will be modelled by followers, and ultimately be felt by customers. A service oriented culture in the business will result in customer loyalty and increased market share.There is no communication People do not have sufficient information to perform their work. There would be insufficient information to understand customer needs and set effective strategies. Lack of empathetic listening would result in misunderstanding customer needs, which would result inProfessional Leadership Pyramid 17
  • 20. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 incorrect marketing strategies. Internally there would be duplication of effort and misalignment of effort.There is not team work Individuals will steam ahead without consulting others, which could result in duplication of effort. There would be limited focus on common goals. There would be the potential of reverting to the “lowest common denominator” where the majority would rule (interpreting teamwork as conformity). The “old guard” would rule, thus preventing novelty and change.There is not respect There would be insufficient boundaries in interactions, resulting in political activities which would result in more focus being placed internally than externally as people battle for turf and existence in the organisation.There is not diversity and Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety states that,not synergy for an organism to survive it needs equal or more amount of diversity inside to match the external diversity. Without allowing for such diversity inside the organisation to match the external diversity, the organisation would be unable to effectively adapt to changes in the environment. Where diversity is not managed properly, too much divergence could result inProfessional Leadership Pyramid 18
  • 21. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 lack of focus or cohesion, which would prevent synergy.Business cannot operate without effective relationships and the lack ofintent and committed action in cultivating social intelligence at the workplacewould have a detrimental consequence on the sustainability of theorganisation.The essence of encouragementKouzes and Posner see encouragement as the “Heart” of leadership. “At theheart of leadership is caring, and without caring leadership has no purpose.”(Kouzes and Posner, 2003: xi)The authors quote research which indicates that only about 40% of NorthAmerican workers received recognition for work well done, and about thesame percentage said they never received recognition for outstandingperformance.Receiving feedback about how we are doing is an important human need.We do not operate in isolation, and we do better when others let us know thatwe are on the right track and praise our effort. When we encourage otherswe engage with them in a very personal way, and it will contribute towardsbuilding effective relationships.It builds self-esteem in others, and a hope that you are making a positivecontribution in the world. And without encouragement, it will be difficult toempower, thus handing a person more ownership in business.Professional Leadership Pyramid 19
  • 22. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004Encouragement is about Recognising another Personalising another Showing appreciation of anotherWhen we recognise another person, we validate their existence. Weacknowledge their importance in our lives. A leader cannot achieve successon her own, and through acknowledging this with other people, you will drawpeople towards you.Seeing another person as unique by personalising encouragement, we alsoshow that we are sensitive to diversity and the contribution of variety inhuman beings. It sends a message to others that individual efforts do andcan make a difference.People are social beings. We need to hear that our efforts were noticed andthat we were able to touch the lives of other people. This is done throughappreciation of what we have done. When someone says “thank you” wefeel that our efforts have not only been recognised, but that we are valued forwhat we contributed. When we do not feel appreciated, we loose hope thatour efforts are making a difference, and it can result in withdrawing ourefforts. Through appreciation of others we cultivate a culture of gratitude.ConclusionThe qualities cultivated with Level Two leadership will contributeconstructively towards addressing problems experienced on a relating levelProfessional Leadership Pyramid 20
  • 23. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004in the workplace and contribute significantly towards improving businesssuccess.Level One qualities are a pre-requisite for the effective cultivation of LevelTwo qualities. For example, being authentic as a person will improve yourcontribution in a team and thus improve team work.1.6 Level Three: Competent Leadership and the Leadership Cycle (Return on Investment)At Level Three the competence aspect of the leader is reviewed in terms ofthe problems that exist at the level where you perform your work, whetheryou are an unskilled labourer or the CEO of a large corporation.Level Three Problems in the Level Three PPL Pyramid leadershipworkplace (Class notes: PPL: qualities addressing workplaceSeptember 2004) problems (Smith, D: 2004: Handouts)Job burn-out and long hours of work Empowerment and capacity: Building a sense of competence (freeing upProduction and cost relationship that resources)is inadequate to support long termprofitability VisionPoor career planning as well as Performance orientation: deliveringsuccession planning results beyond the bottom line (motivation)Technology requiring new skills andremoving jobs Generating a mindset shiftPoor skills, for example, numeric and Sustained changeProfessional Leadership Pyramid 21
  • 24. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004literacy skills in school leavers Total quality leadershipPoor performance or overemphasis Super leadership: The Leadershipon performance without balance CycleUnfair dismissal and unfair labourpractice, resulting in active unionactivities which could block efforts toincrease profitAffirmative action resulting in stressfor white employees (feelingvictimised) and black employees(feeling under pressure to perform inwork they are not ready for and livingup to their society’s expectations)Lack of foresight and reflectivethinking with action orientation andresults driven behaviour onlyIncompetence (lack of skills,knowledge and right behaviour forthe job)Bureaucracy and policies and rulesto bring about changeAutocratic and command leaders withpassive followersProfessional Leadership Pyramid 22
  • 25. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004Paperwork and e-mailOrganisational politicsAmbiguity and moving targets in theorganisationPoor implementation of strategyDownsizing and upsizing andconstant changing of theorganisational structure and rolesWhen Level Three qualities are not cultivated, the consequences could be asfollows:There is not… Potential consequenceEmpowerment and capacity Resources are not freed up and a lot of time is spent on doing things yourself – leading to work overload, increased errors and loss of productivityVision Lack of forward planning and reflection would result in limited foresight. This myopic sight would result in incorrect strategies that become outdated and out of touch with reality.Professional Leadership Pyramid 23
  • 26. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 There is no cohesion in activities, leading to wastage and uncertainty and limited risk takingPerformance orientation to This could result in merely targeting the budgetdeliver results beyond the and financial expectations and not stretchingbottom line beyond to become innovative. Chealse, P (2004) compares this to a situation where not one person scores the winning try which would result in lack of ambition and ultimately lack of morale. He quotes: “The loosing team is always the unhappiest.” (Chealse, P: 2004)Generating a mindset shift Where a person is unable to generate a shift in mindset, he will not be able to move himself and/or the organisation in new directions and way of doing business when required. This would have a direct impact on innovation and ability to adapt to changes in the environmentSustained change Inability to adapt to changes in the environment would result in extinction. Ultimately companies who cannot change how they do business when the world change, are doomedTotal quality leadership Customers demand quality in products and service. Forgetting about quality, and, for example, only focusing on cost savings and increasing sales would result in lack of a quality experience, which would diminish theProfessional Leadership Pyramid 24
  • 27. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 brand and identity of the organisation. Lowered expectation of quality results in lowered quality (Pygmalion effect)Super Leadership The creation of an amorphic mass and group mentality, with increased dependency on a few leaders which could result in the collapse of the organisation or vision when those leaders leave. Poor culture of ownership and initiative, with limited risk taking. This could result in limited entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship.The essence of Super Leadership and the Leadership CycleEmpowerment is a powerful tool to increase influence. When leaders startgenerating other leaders, even to the extend of growing more influentialleaders than themselves, there is an exponential capacity for growth anddevelopment not available to those who do not truly empower.The essence of empowerment is to remind a person of their true potential,and then to give provide them with the knowledge and resources to achievethis potential. People live up to our expectations (Pygmalion effect). This isdone through Leading others to lead themselves Teaching others to stand on their ownProfessional Leadership Pyramid 25
  • 28. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 Tapping into the creativity and uniqueness of each individual Leading others to lead themselvesSuper leaders facilitate self-leadership within each person. They enableothers to influence themselves, so that these people can eventually alsoincrease their circle of influence over others. This means starting an inside-out approach in development of their people. The result is people who cannotbe forced to follow the leader, but will follow because of the influence of theleader. The leader will be surrounded by strong people who follow becauseof the belief in what they do, making their effort more purposeful. Learning to stand on your ownSuper leaders teach others to stand on their own, and to not be sodependent on the leader. This means super leaders have to teach theirfollowers to unlearn their follower behaviour and mindset. It also means theleader needs to unlearn about always being the leader and allow followers tolead in a safe manner that will build confidence for both. This unlearning isalso difficult for the leader – because ultimately there is a question about thevalue of the leader in a community of leaders (leading to a feeling of notbeing needed anymore). Tapping into the creativity and uniqueness of each individualWhen people become more confident, their personal power is unleashed.The super leader starts tapping into their potential. This is a growth process,including encouragement and allowing for failure. It will cultivate ownershipand authentic self-expression of each person. This will create a synergywhere the sum total of contribution of the team is more than one person.Professional Leadership Pyramid 26
  • 29. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004ConclusionThe qualities cultivated with Level Three leadership will contributeconstructively towards addressing problems experienced on a competenceand business performance level in the workplace and contribute significantlytowards improving business success.Level Two qualities are a pre-requisite for the effective cultivation of LevelThree qualities. For example, encouraging and caring for others areimportant aspects of empowerment.1.7 The Circle of Influence and Credibility“Her husband had everything: wealth, privilege, position and a royal title. Yes,instead of him, Princess Diana won over the whole world. Why? Sheunderstood the Law of Influence” (Maxwell, J, 1998: ix)A person needs followers to be able to influence others beyond him. Anorganisation needs followers to be able to influence industry and ultimatelyother stakeholders, such as the government and society. Below is ananalysis of the problems experienced when people do not have influence orfeel they have limited impact on their world.Circle of Influence and Credibility Circle of Influence and CredibilityProblems in the workplace (Class PPL Pyramid leadership qualitiesnotes: PPL: September 2004) addressing workplace problems (Smith, D: 2004: Handouts)Feeling powerless and at the mercy Leadership as influenceProfessional Leadership Pyramid 27
  • 30. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004of others and the environment in the Organisational spiritworkplace Focus and energyWork has no meaning and purpose Results over timeDisappearance of organisationswithin a few years LegacyLack of investor and publicconfidence in organisations becauseof their inability to change industryActivists targeting companies forunethical behaviour and exploitationof poorer countries – Anti-globalisation movements stoppingthe influence of companiesAutocratic and command and controlcultures in organisations, despite theespoused declarations of theirleaders about empowerment – thuscoercive style of leadership and notthrough influenceMajority of employees unhappy anduncommitted to their organisationsEntitlement mindset of executivesand employeesProfessional Leadership Pyramid 28
  • 31. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004When people do not actively cultivate their circle of influence and theircredibility, the results could be as described below:There is not… Potential consequenceLeadership as influence Leadership based on coercion results in low morale and a workforce being dragged along in terms of the objectives to be achieved. Ultimately the creative and talented people leave the organisation, leaving those who are happy to not be accountable or responsible for results (mindless robots) In government the ultimate result of this lack of leadership is the tyrant and dictator who rules through fearOrganisational spirit Poor organisational spirit has a direct impact on productivity, as people put in just enough to make targets but no commitment to produce more or to contribute towards the growth of the organisation or even their countryFocus and energy Without focus objectives cannot be achieved. Without energy there is no action. Without theProfessional Leadership Pyramid 29
  • 32. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 combination of the two there is no purposeful management (currently only about 10% of managers are purposeful as per Bruch, H and Ghoshal, S, 2002)Results over time Short term focus on results would lead to greed and stripping of the assets of the organisation, resulting in its demiseLegacy When no legacy is created, there is no purpose and ultimately no meaning in work. The need for meaning in work is a fundamental need in human beings, and neglect to address this result in low productivity and limited enhancement of revenue generation capacityThe essence of influenceIt is typical of people to want to leave some footprint in life. This quest givespurpose and meaning to their existence (Smith, D: 2004: PersonalLeadership A class notes).Maxwell and Dornan make it clear that, if you want to leave a footprint, youwould need to be successful in life. And to be successful, you would need tobe a person of influence.The good news is that we influence people all the time because we are socialbeings. “If your life in any way connects with other people, you are ininfluencer.” (John Maxwell and Jim Dornan)Professional Leadership Pyramid 30
  • 33. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004The decision to make is to ultimately determine what type of influence youwant to have, be it destructive (life-draining) or life-enhancing. From the PPLperspective influence would be about value-adding to self and others(Cashman: 1998) and thus always focused on life-giving influence.Life giving influence is ultimately about the effective cultivation of thedifferent levels in the PPL Pyramid, being: Having character (Level one) Authenticity (Level one) Being a trustworthy person (Level two) Connecting with people (Level two) Being your talk (not just walking the talk) (Level three) Empowering others (Level three)In essence, to be able to influence, you would have to be credible. “Credibilityis the foundation of leadership” (Kouzes, J M and Posner, B Z, 2003: xiv).Kouzes and Posner add that, to be credible the leader would have to earnthe trust and confidence of those they lead. If they cannot believe themessenger, they cannot believe the message.The fundamentals of credibility in terms of research done on the qualitiesof the most admired leaders are, per Kouzes and Posner, still Honesty Forward-lookingProfessional Leadership Pyramid 31
  • 34. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004 Inspiring CompetenceWhen a leader is honest, people know the leader is truthful and ethical. Thehonest leader has character and followers know where they stand with thisperson.People also follow more willingly those leaders who are able to see beyondthe current situation and imagine a future world or situation. This ability tosee beyond the constraints of today (foresight) results in innovation and newways of being, and address the need for human beings to learn and to growand adapt to our environment.People also admire leaders who are able to inspire us with their positiveattitude and enthusiasm. Positive energy and focus are contagious and assistus in also feeling m ore positive and optimistic. We do not enjoy being aroundnegative and life draining people, and would not want to follow or beinfluenced by negativity.The important aspect of credibility which is often overlooked by the focus onhero leaders and charisma is that of competence – we follow those whoknow what they are doing. Having competence builds internal confidence,and this confidence in yourself results in people feeling confident around you.What is also very clear from the above is that those qualities are not thedomain of only the charismatic leaders who pose on the front covers ofmagazines.Influencers are also those silent leaders who “blend extreme humility withintense professional will” (Regine and Lewin quoting Collins: 2001, 2003).Professional Leadership Pyramid 32
  • 35. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004They also quote Badaracco who finds that “it is not the heroic types but thequiet leaders who achieve extraordinary results” (Regine, B and Lewin,R: 2003).“Of all the will towards the ideal in mankind, only a small part can manifestitself in action. All the rest of this force must be content with small andobscure deeds. The sum of these, however, is a thousand times strongerthan the acts of those who receive public recognition. The latter, compared tothe former, are like the foam on the waves of the deep ocean” Albert Zweiser,quoted by Joseph Badaracco, Jr (2001)This attitude above towards influence is the essence of the circle of influencein PPL.Professional Leadership Pyramid 33
  • 36. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 20041.8 Building dimensions of influence using the three layers of the PPL Pyramid and enhancing the circle of influenceUsing the three layered approach towards leadership from the inside out –the PPL Pyramid is useful in providing a structured approach towardsbuilding various leadership dimensions. The application of this isdemonstrated below to indicate how it results in increasing influence overself, the organisation and the bigger environment (thus increasing the Circleof Influence.Layer one Layer two Layer three How it in increases the Circle of influenceConscious Conscience Consciousness Higher purpose thatBeing aware of Leading to Leading to transcendsself increase increased (great work) conscience of consciousness in how you impact the workplace in Resulting in on others terms of your behaving in purpose and ways that contribution contribute positively towards others and how you act towards themProfessional Leadership Pyramid 34
  • 37. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004Attention Appreciation Actualise CommitmentWhat you give You realise how You assist others Your disciplinedattention to others contribute in realising their focus andbecomes more towards your potential energy providespurposeful success and give credibility them appreciationResponsible Relationship Return on Triple bottom investment line results forYou develop your You can focus on sustainabilitycapacity to improving You contributerespond and take relationships more positively A quality leaderownership because you are towards achieving with character, more respons- business success who cares for able) because of being others and responsible and focus on return having effective on investment relationships, will influence business to achieve sustainable results that are not harmful to self, others and the environmentLeadership as Leadership as Leadership as a Communitieslearning service bridge of influenceProfessional Leadership Pyramid 35
  • 38. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004On a personal In relationships You learn how to You createlevel there is a you focus on create bridges communitiesdedication and being of value to through who influencecommitment to others empowerment of others tolife-long learning others and continue toand development expanding vision learn, serve and empowerCharacter Care Competence Circle expandsLiving a character Showing care You are credible More people arebased life draws people to when you are drawn to youenhances trust you competent because of yourand reliance in authentic self-you expressionEnergy Empathy Empower Super leadershipA person with This increases People stand onhigh levels of understanding of their own feet A community ofenergy others, thus around you leadersaccomplish more showing more following aactivities and care purposeproduce moreProfessional Leadership Pyramid 36
  • 39. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 20041.9 The impact of the PPL Pyramid of Leadership as influence over self and othersThe qualities contained in the PPL Pyramid of leadership are the potential ofall human beings. The intent, commitment and active cultivation anddevelopment of this potential are the focus of leadership from the PPLperspective.Through the increased Circle of influence more leaders are created. Thefinal result is that power is not only in the hands of the few heroes in society,but that we develop an empowered organisation and ultimately society.The journey towards the expanded Circle of Influence thus starts with thehumble attitude of awakening towards self and realising that othershave same potential.Professional Leadership Pyramid 37
  • 40. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 20042 REFERENCESBadaracco, J L (2001) We don’t need another hero Harvard Business ReviewSeptember 2001 Harvard Business School CorporationBruch, H and Ghoshal, S (2002) Beware the busy manager HarvardBusiness Review on Becoming a high performance manager HarvardBusiness School CorporationCashman, K (1998) Leadership from the Inside Out: Becoming a leader forlife Executive Excellence PrintingChealse, P (2004) quoting him directly in a conversation around the themes(organisational consultant in service performance)Kouzes, J M and Posner, B Z (2003) Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it,why people demand it Jossey BassKouzes, J M and Posner, B Z (2003) Encouraging the Heart: A leader’s guideto rewarding and recognising others Jossey BassMaxwell, J C (1998) The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership: Follow them andpeople will follow you Thomas Nelson PublishersMaxwell, J C and Dornan, J (date unknown) Becoming a person of influence– how to positively impact the lives of others (Extract from the book) ThomasNelson PublishersMinzberg, H and Gosling, J R (2004) Reality programming for MBAs –Practically speaking is it time to rethink core concepts of managementeducation Strategy + Business online magazine as extracted onhttp://www.strategy-business.com/press/article/11430?pg=all&tid=230 asviewed on 2 August 2004Professional Leadership Pyramid 38
  • 41. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Professional Leadership September 2004Regine, B and Lewin, R (2003) Third possibility leaders: the invisible edgewomen have in complex organisations The Learning Organisation, Volume10 Number 6 2003 pp 347 – 352 MCB University PressSchley, S and Laur, J (2003) Redefining business success: The “triple”bottom line (Pegasus Communications as extracted onhttp://www.pegasuscom.com/levpoints/triplebottom.html as viewed on 25 July2003Smith, D (2004): Personal Leadership A Module – Class notesSmith, D (2004) Class notes taken during Professional Leadership: Module 6M Phil (HRM) PPL at Rand Afrikaans UniversitySmith, D (2004) Handouts: Module 6: Professional Leadership M Phil (HRM)PPL at Rand Afrikaans UniversityProfessional Leadership Pyramid 39