Emotional intelligence and leadership

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Article summarizing research in emotional intelligence and emotional leadership, including functional strategies to cultivate emotional leadership.

Article summarizing research in emotional intelligence and emotional leadership, including functional strategies to cultivate emotional leadership.

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  • 1. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004 M Phil (HRM) (PPL) Emotional Leadership module May 2004 This report contains 18 pages Report for RAUEmotional Intelligence and Leadership
  • 2. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004Contents1 Emotional leadership 11.1 What is emotional leadership? 11.2 What are the qualities of developed emotional domain? 11.3 The potential for developing emotional competence 31.4 Benefits and importance of developing emotional leadership? 42 The functional strategies and techniques to develop emotional leadership 72.1 The PPL perspective on developing emotional leadership 72.2 Functional strategy from the PPL perspective 82.3 Reality awareness of current areas for development in the emotional domain (problems experienced due to stuntedness in development in emotional domain) 92.4 The specific abilities to cultivate (adapted from Mayer-Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) 112.5 Techniques for developing emotional leadership 123 References 15Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
  • 3. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 20041 Emotional leadership1.1 What is emotional leadership?For this purpose of this report, emotional intelligence relates to your potentialcapability in the emotional domain. Emotional leadership is the inside-outdevelopment of the emotional capability and potential of a person to improveinfluence over self. In other words, the continuous development of thebehaviour you are capable of. Thus the emotional leader continues todevelop his/her emotional intelligence competencies.Hein, S quoting Mayer & Salovey (2004) summarises emotional competenceas knowing how to separate healthy form unhealthy feelings, and how to turnnegative feelings into positive.Research on emotions indicate that there are various aspects of emotionsthat can be developed, and that emotional response can become aconscious choice.1.2 What are the qualities of developed emotional domain?Below are the qualities of the developed emotional domain, as proposed bysome authors in the field.Emotional awareness (Le Roux and De Klerk :2001:10)  The ability to perceive, recognise, understand and react to the feelings of yourself and those of others.Emotional literacy (Le Roux and De Klerk :2001:10)Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 1
  • 4. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004  The ability to distinguish between various feelings and to name them.Emotional control (Le Roux and De Klerk :2001:10)  The ability to express and control your emotions appropriately.  The ability to listen to others, to have empathy with them and to communicate effectively in terms of emotions and thoughts.  To use the information in directing your thoughts and actions so that you live effectively, are motivated and have a goal in mind (relation between thoughts, feelings and behaviour.Self-awareness (Le Roux and De Klerk :2001:10)  Observing yourself and recognising a feeling as it happens.Managing emotions (Salovey & Mayer:1990)  Handling feelings so that they are appropriate, realising what is behind a feeling, finding ways to handle fears and anxieties, anger and sadness.Motivating oneself (Salovey & Mayer:1990)  Channeling emotions in the service of a goal, emotional self-control, delaying gratification and stifling impulses.Empathy (Salovey & Mayer:1990)Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 2
  • 5. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004  Sensitivity to other’s feelings and concerns, and taking their perspective; appreciating the differences in how people feel about things.Handling relationships (Salovey & Mayer:1990)  Managing emotions in others, social competence and social skills.Emotional resilience (Salovey & Mayer:1990)  The ability to perform well and consistently in a range of situations and when under pressure.Interpersonal sensitivity (Higgs and Dulviwicz :2000)  The ability to be aware of the needs and feelings of others and to use this awareness effectively in interacting with them and arriving at decisions impacting on them.1.3 The potential for developing emotional competenceThe PPL perspective on emotional leadership is that it is possible to developthe emotional domain. This is based on various arguments, some of whichare listed below:From the anthropological view, man is an emotional being and has thepotential to become emotionally intelligenct. People can learn how tooptimise this dimension in their lives, and have the potential for managingand regulating emotions in self and others. (Smith, D) (2004)Research from the Institute of HeartMath indicates that the heart affects ouremotions through the Heart Rate Variance pattern. The heart rate varianceEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 3
  • 6. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004pattern can be influenced through particular heart based techniques toregulate the pattern and entrain positive heart rate patterns that canestablish new control pathways, which improve our ability to self-manage ouremotions and regulate our physiological state McCraty, R (2003).The way you interpret (think about) information you receive determines to alarge extend your feelings about it. Because you can change the way youinterpret information you will be able to change your emotions(neuroplasticity) Le Roux and De Klerk (2001:19).The internal and external environment impact on your emotions.Understanding how your internal and external environment influence youremotions, mean that you can influence where possible those externalinfluences by changing them.Internal aspects that can be controlled are, for example, ensuring learningto cultivate positive thoughts and change some of your beliefs and values topromote more constructive emotions. External aspects that can be controlledare, for example, your physical environment through surrounding yourselfwith colours, sounds and smells that promote positive emotions.1.4 Benefits and importance of developing emotional leadership?To answer the reason why it is important to develop one’s emotional domain,the list below will provide some reasons as to the benefit and importance offocusing on emotional development as part of a personal, interpersonal andprofessional leadership development program:Geal Lindenfield (2000)  Increased self-respectEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 4
  • 7. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004  Firmer sense of personal identity) as you act more authentically and consistently  Ability to improve the way you use your brain  Saving time through improved decision making and acting more rapidly  A better team player  Able to take more risks  Be a better parent  Improved physical health  Increase happiness and long-lasting success  Have the type of friendships and relationships you wantLe Roux and De Klerk (2001:10)  Increased self-knowledge to recognise your own emotions and behavior, and know the difference between the two  When to express your emotions at the right time in the right way with the right people  Able to respond more constructively to your emotions  Improved assertivenessEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 5
  • 8. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004  Improved relationships as you can moderate negative emotions in yourself and others, as well as enhance positive emotions in yourself and others.Goleman, D (2003)  Ability to come to peaceful state of being more rapidly after being startled or traumatised  Ability to motive through contagious positive emotionsHein, S quoting Mayer & Salovey (2004)  Reduced extreme mood swings and able cultivate constructive moods which will ultimately become optimistic temperament, changing you from a skeptical person to a more open and creative person.  Able to prioritise thinking through using emotions effectively.Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 6
  • 9. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 20042 The functional strategies and techniques to develop emotional leadershipEmotional leadership can be developed, and some authors propose variousstrategies, including neuro-linguisting programming to change internal filtersand beliefs, hypnotherapy to strengthen thoughts and visualise potentialnegative situations, and psycho-analysis to attempt to find the root cause ofdistressing emotions, or emotional numbness.One approach is proposed by Gael LIndenfield (2000) who proposes a threestep process to achieve emotional leadership, namely  obtaining understanding of emotions and skills to manage them,  starting a program of emotional healing, and  harnessing habits to curb run-away emotions2.1 The PPL perspective on developing emotional leadershipFrom the PPL perspective, an emotional leadership strategy will focus on themost important starting point, which is reality awareness. This will includeviewing a person’s existence problems (internal and external) and utilisingthe PPL perspective to assist in enhancing their meaning of life.Using PPL, the strategy for emotional leadership will focus on change fromthe inside out, with the objective to enrich not only the person’s live, but alsoempower the individual to enrich the lives of other people throughinterpersonal leadership.Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 7
  • 10. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004Although this approach would appear similar to that of other perspectivesabove, the main difference would be the focus on value creation for otherpeople (transcendence of self) and not only the person involved.2.2 Functional strategy from the PPL perspectiveThe report below provides an overview of a proposed functional strategy todevelop the emotional domain of a person. It basically addresses thefollowing objectives for an individual to:  Increase your knowledge of emotions – the function, origin, physical impact  Perform a reality awareness on yourself (internal) and external in terms of problems caused by limited development of the emotional domain  Determine what qualities you want to cultivate, and the future desired behaviour to be achieved  Determine which action/steps to take to achieve the desired future state of behaviorThe first part of the report is to provide information about the areas wheredevelopment needs to take place. This would be done through analysingcurrent problems experienced that are symptomatic of emotional stuntedness(either totally cut-off from emotions or over-whelmed by emotions).Then knowledge about the emotional domain would be provided to empowerthe person and provide background about the importance of development ofthis terrain, as well as the potential to develop.Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 8
  • 11. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004Included in this would be to find a motivation link to development by focusingon the negative consequences of emotional stuntedness in areas especiallyimportant for the person (what matters most). It would not serve any purposeto force a development program on a person who is not committed or do notsee the value. Such meaning needs to be created uniquely by eachindividual, especially when linked to governing values.Once the person is convinced of the need for development, as well asknowledge about the potential to heal and develop this domain, it would beimportant to provide practical tools that will assist in emotional development.2.3 Reality awareness of current areas for development in the emotional domain (problems experienced due to stuntedness in development in emotional domain)Various problems (symptoms) would be manifesting in a person’s life thatwould be indicative of development need in the emotional domain.Physical symptoms (excellent source is EQMap) Cooper, R K and Sawaf, A (1996)  Constant backpain  Overweight or underweight  Tension headaches  Stomach problems  Chest pain  Unexpected aches and pains  Frequent colds/flu  Respiratory problems  Chronic illnessEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 9
  • 12. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004Behavioral symptoms (EQ Map) Cooper, R K and Sawaf, A (1996)  Eating (loss of appetite or uncontrolled eating)  Taking tranquilisers  Frequent taking of alcoholic beverages  Critizing, ridiculing or blaming others  Feeling victimised or taken advantage of  Playing video games, using the internet or watching TV more than 2 hours a day  Resenting people that I encounter  Accident prone  Disaster prone (bad luck always follow you)  Withdrawing from close relationshipsEmotional symptoms (EQ Map) Cooper, R K and Sawaf, A (1996)  Trouble concentrating  Overwhelmed at work  Being easily distracted  Feeling depressed, dejected or hopeless  Can’t get things off my mind/constant worrying or dwelling  Feeling lonely  Mind goes blank  Feeling fatigues or overwhelmed  Trouble making up mind or making decisionsEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 10
  • 13. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004  Trouble getting myself going or trouble calming down2.4 The specific abilities to cultivate (adapted from Mayer-Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test)An important part in the development program, would be to identify which ofthe emotional capabilities would assist in addressing some of the specificproblems experienced.For example,Problem:  Constant emotional outbursts irrespective of the potential negative impact on yourself and those around you.Emotional ability which could assist in this problem:  Emotional understanding – knowing the link between thoughts and feelings,  Emotional management – knowing how to control your emotions and express them at the right time, and right place and right wayProblem:  Constant flu, constant tension headaches, feeling tired and drainedEmotional ability which could assist in this problem:Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 11
  • 14. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004  The capacity for emotional self-awareness, being aware of emotions as they are occurring  Emotional literacy  The ability to perceive and identify emotions in faces, tone of voice, body language.  The ability to solve emotional problems2.5 Techniques for developing emotional leadershipThere are many books and courses available in teaching specific techniquesfor improving emotional leadership ability.Based on the emotional qualities that would need to be developed,techniques specifically developed to cultivate that particular quality need tobe identified and a specific, measurable, achievable action plan must bedeveloped which would be suitable for a person in terms of their timeconstraints and current existence.Below is a table showing an example of this approach:Quality TechniqueCultivating of positive HeartFreeze Technique from the Institute ofemotions HeartMath (provide bio-feedback about progress).Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 12
  • 15. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004 Contemplation and meditation on generating positive emotions, such as care, compassion and love. Mindful attention and thoughts about positive emotions, such as continuous thoughts of gratitude, keeping a gratitude journal.Emotional management Identification of situations where emotional outbursts occur, and simulation of desired behavior and emotions before such events occur to start cultivating emotional management Finding practical techniques to manage negative emotions which will focus on activating the rational brain function to overcome amygdale attacks. Self-awareness through techniques to assist the person in stepping away from herself and the situation, and in a detached manner observe herself in the situation.Increased awareness of Use music to become aware of emotionsown emotions and theimpact of emotions(including yours) onothers Study and learn about various emotion toEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 13
  • 16. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004 increase you emotional vocabulary (set a target to increase your current vocabulary with a certain amount of new emotions) Learn to validate your own and other people’s emotions. Encourage others to talk about their emotions and learn to distinguish between their different emotions, as well as potentially the cause thereofEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 14
  • 17. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 20043 ReferencesCashman, K (2003) Awakening the Leader Within – A story of transformationJohn Wiley & Sons IncCooper, R K and Sawaf, A (1996) Executive EQ – Emotional intelligence inleadership and organizations (EQ Map) Grosset/PutnamFrankl, V (1946 – reprinted 1985) Man’s Search for Meaning – Revised andupdated Pocket BooksGoleman, D (2003) Destructive emotions and how we can overcome them –A dialogue with the Dalai Lama narrated by Daniel Goleman BloomsburyHein, S (2004) Website as at 3 January 2004: Steve Hein’s EmotionalIntelligence Webpage http://www.eqi.org/history.htmHiggs, M (2003) Quoted in his article: How can we make sense of leadershipin the 21st century? An article from the Leadership and OrganisationDevelopment Journal, Vol 24, Issue 5 MCB University PressHis Holiness the Dalai Lama (1998) The Art of Happiness – A handbook forliving Thorsons PublishersHis Holiness the Dalai Lama (2002 How to practice – The Way to aMeaningfull Life as translated and edited by Jeffrey Hopkins ThorsonsPublishersHolford, P and Cass, H (2001) Natural Highs: Increase your energy, sharpenyour mind, improve your mood, relax and beat stress with legal, natural andhealthy mind-altering substances PiatkusEmotional Intelligence and Leadership 15
  • 18. MaRi Eagar M Phil (HRM) (PPL)M Phil Personal and Professional Leadership (cum laude) Emotional Leadership May 2004Janis, S (2000) Spirituality for Dummies – A reference for the rest of usPrescott, S (2000) Realizing the Self Within – Expressing Your Spiritual Selfin Everyday Life Kima Global PublishersLe Roux,R and De Klerk, R (2001) Emotional intelligence workbook – the all-in-one-guide for optimal personal growth Human and RousseauLindenfield, G (2000) Emotional Confidence – Simple steps to managing yourfeelings ThorsonsMcCraty, R (2003) Heart-brain neurodynamics: The making of emotionsInstitute of HeartMathMcCraty, R and Childe, R (2003) The Appreciative Heart: Thepsychophysiology of positive emotions and optimal functioning Institute ofHeartMathMcCraty, Atkinson, Toasino and Tiller (date unknown) The electricity oftouch: Detection and measurement of cardiac energy exchange betweenpeople Institute of HeartMathSmith, H W (1994) The 10 natural laws of successful time and liemanagement – proven strategies for increased productivity and inner peaceWarnes BooksSmith, D (2004) M Phil (HRM) (PPL) (Class notes on Emotional Leadership)www.emotion.salk.edu – Emotion Research: Cognitive and ExperimentalPsychology (published on 1 March 2004)Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 16