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The Application of Contemplative Practice in Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership Development

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Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership (PiPL) considers the essence of leadership as progressively cultivating higher levels of self and potential optimisation, resulting in authentic …

Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership (PiPL) considers the essence of leadership as progressively cultivating higher levels of self and potential optimisation, resulting in authentic self-expression which will add value to self and others (Smith, 2007a). Contemplative practices are technologies of mind that cultivate eudemonic wellbeing and optimal of potential through transformation of mind states. This research project explored the field of contemplative practices to determine an application within the terrain of PiPL. The research concludes that contemplative practice promote enhancement in all life domains and has a potential value for PiPL and PiPL practitioners

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  • 1. Page 1 of 68 The application of contemplative practice in Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership Development by Marikie Hersey ARTICLE Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Masters in the Philosophy in Personal and Professional Leadership Development in HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT in the FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES at the UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG Study leader: Prof. DPJ Smith MAY 2007
  • 2. Page 2 of 68 THE APPLICATION OF CONTEMPLATIVE PRACTICE IN PERSONAL, INTERPERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT “Contemplative prayer is the world in which . . . our private, self-made worlds come to an end; a new world appears within and around us and the impossible becomes an everyday experience. Yet the world that prayer reveals is barely noticeable in the ordinary course of events.” Father Thomas Keating from Open Mind, Open Heart (2007) ABSTRACT Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership (PiPL) considers the essence of leadership as progressively cultivating higher levels of self and potential optimisation, resulting in authentic self-expression which will add value to self and others (Smith, 2007a). Contemplative practices are technologies of mind that cultivate eudemonic wellbeing and optimal of potential through transformation of mind states. This research project explored the field of contemplative practices to determine an application within the terrain of PiPL. The research concludes that contemplative practice promote enhancement in all life domains and has a potential value for PiPL and PiPL practitioners. Persoonlike, Interpersoonlike and Professionele Leierskap ( PiPL) beskou die essensie van leierskap as die progressiewe kultivering van die self en die optimatisering van potensiaal, wat waarde sal toevoeg aan outentieke self-ekspressie (Smith, 2007a). Reflekterende praktyke as tegnologie van die verstand bevorder eudainomiese welvaart en optimalisering van potensiaal deur transformasie van gedagte patrone. Hierdie navorsingsprojek het die veld van reflekterende praktyke bestudeer om te bepaal wat die implikasies vir die speelveld van PiPL is. Die navorsing bevestig dat reflekterende praktyke alle lewensdimensies bevoordeel en ‘n potensiele waarde inhou vir PIPL sowel as vir PiPL praktisyns.
  • 3. Page 3 of 68 ORIENTATION Background Context A large variety of literature exists about leadership development providing theories and concepts about cultivating leadership qualities and personal transformation. Within the Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership ( PiPL) terrain various frameworks and models have been developed by Smith (2007a). These are supported by the research of acknowledged experts in fields of  Psychology  Anthropology  Education  Human movement studies  Physics  Self development experts, such as Cashman, Covey, Goleman, Zohar & Marshall and McGraw. Within PIPL the active and willing cultivation of the human life domain potential is the ultimate practice of leadership, thus ensuring the individual adds value to self and others (Smith, 2007a). Despite an abundance of literature on the subject of personal growth, the road to personal transformation appears to be out of reach of most individuals, or obscured in some mystery, the domain of the mystics, experts and academia or simply too expensive to embark on with prices ranging up to R 5,000 for weekend workshops. Increased interest in contemplative practice by the scientific community and academia Currently there is a rising interest in the subject of human development by neurosciences, consciousness researchers and health industries. The field of technologies of mind, including contemplative practice, is of particular interest due to recent scientifically validated measured impact thereof on physical brain structures and physical health
  • 4. Page 4 of 68 indicators as prediced in the 1994 Psychology Today article, “Desperately Seeking Spirituality” (Taylor, 1994). The number of studies on mindfulness or meditation published in scientific journals from 1990 to 2004 increased fivefold. Between 1979 and 2005 over 16,000 medical patients completed the mindfulness based stress response program at the Stress Reduction Clinic at UMass Medical Centre (Kabat-Zinn, 2005). Within the Mind and Life Institute “The Cultivating Emotional Balance Program” is a research project that teaches and evaluates the impact of meditation combined with emotional regulation strategies (Mind and Life Institute, 2006). Some 10 million Americans say they practice some form of meditation (Ellison, 2006). The research problem, objective and articulation Research problem The field of contemplative practice and potential application for leadership development is relatively unexplored within the PIPL terrain as well as leadership development in general. Initial research revealed that the contemplative literature contains confusing information. Only a few authors, such as Budilovsky and Adamson (2003), expand on various theories, practices, approaches and concepts in the field, both from a spiritual tradition as well as scientific body of knowledge. This might explain why contemplative practice is not yet developed as part of leadership theory and practice. Research objective The main aim of this research is to explore contemplative practices to discover and clarify the essential nature, typology of approaches and contributions for application within PiPL through addressing the following research questions:  What is contemplative practice?  What are main approaches in contemplative practice?
  • 5. Page 5 of 68  What is the purpose and application of contemplative practice?  What are the benefits of contemplative practice as indicated by contemplative practitioners as well as scientific research?  Are there any criticisms or negative side-effects related to contemplative practice?  Based on the above, what are the implications of contemplative practice for the field of PiPL? The secondary objective is to provide more clarity in the field of and therefore contribute towards the body of knowledge for the purpose of facilitating human development. Motivation for the research PiPL continues to grow in knowledge and understanding of new theories and practices that contribute towards optimizing human existence (Smith, 2007a). With the strong emphasis on spiritual mastery with the PiPL field, the emerging interest in contemplative practice, a fundamental spiritual practice and technology of mind, cannot be ignored. This research could contribute towards elucidating contemplative practice as a potential field of study through clarification of the concept, approaches, purpose and potential benefits. Paradigmatic perspective and scope The paradigmatic perspective that will be applied in this research is the Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership (PiPL) perspective as developed by Smith (2007b). The scope of this research will focus on gaining more understanding of contemplative practice from an intellectual and knowledge perspective, and exclude details of practical application. The new interest in contemplative practice will be investigated in the context of the PiPL terrain and framework.
  • 6. Page 6 of 68 Concept clarification Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership (PiPL) According to Smith (2007a), founder of Personal, Interpersonal and Professional Leadership ( PiPL), PiPL confirms the potential and ability of each human being to excel and to succeed. The PIPL focus is on three main areas of leadership development: credible leadership (self-mastery under personal leadership), servant leadership (relationship mastery under interpersonal leadership) and competent leadership (professional mastery under professional leadership) (Smith, 2007a). In terms of the PiPL transformer model the dominant mind state of the individual affects the manner in which that person interacts with reality, which will ultimately result in either positive or negative consequences and experiences for the individual (Smith, 2007c). Contemplative practice Contemplative practices are technologies of mind consisting of skillful methods for purposeful training and cultivating of the mind and heart (including thought patterns, feelings and behaviors) and are applied in a structured and gradual manner over a period of time with the aim of transforming dominant states of mind. This is done through self- regulation of unproductive conditioned habits in thoughts, feelings and behaviour, sustained attention increasing self-awareness as well as enhanced awareness in unconscious mental processes (Eagar, 2003; Blackmore, 2004; Winkelman, 2000). The desired outcomes of contemplative practices are eudemonic wellbeing, including full spiritual awakening (referred to as “enlightenment”). Practices include yoga, Zen- archery, mindful walking, insight meditation and contemplative prayer (Blackmore, 2004; Budilovsky and Adamson, 2003; Kabat-Zinn, 2005; The Forum for Contemplative Studies, 2006, Keating, 2007; Smith, 2007d).
  • 7. Page 7 of 68 INITIAL LITERATURE SURVEY What is contemplative practice? Initial review of literature indicated a wide range of definitions, such as “…a means to cultivate the mind and heart with the aim to pursuit inner happiness, truth and virtue from the “inside” (Wallace, 2005). The Center for Contemplative Mind in Society (2006) “consider various kinds of ritual and ceremony designed to create sacred space and increase insight and awareness to be forms of contemplative practice”. The practice allows for “knowing what is happening while it is happening, whatever it is. It is a state, not an activity (Nairn, 1997)”. The state of panoramic awareness, called, Zen or Samadhi, means a state of total involvement, a stable awareness (Trungpa, 1976:150). Main approaches in contemplative practice The Forum for Contemplative Studies (2006) define activities designed with the purpose of creating sacred space and increase insight and awareness to be forms of contemplative practice. Nairn (1997: 73) indicates that many different practices exist, each with own purpose and application. There are different categories of approaches and purpose in contemplative practice. For example, generative practices focus concentration on cultivating particular qualities, such as compassion and kindness. Stability practices focus on “quieting the mind and body in order to develop stillness and stability” (Budilovsky and Adamson, 2003; Mahathera, 2006; The Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, 2006: Nairn, 1998). Application of contemplative practice Initial literature reviews revealed application within various life domains, for example  Spiritual domain: Cultivating of deeper wisdom, connection with the divine, increase virtuous qualities such as compassion, and interior transformation (Nairn, 1998; Contemplative Quakerism, 2006; Wallace, 2005; Smith, 2007d).  Physical and healthcare: Application for pain relief, stress management and improvement of the immune system functioning (Snyderman, 2005).
  • 8. Page 8 of 68  Emotional: enhancing emotional balance and dealing with disturbing emotions (Pert, 2000). Support treatment for clinical depression through Mindfulness Stress Reduction Therapy (Mind and Life Institute, 2005). Prayer is used to enhance empathy (Karren, Hafen et al, 2002: 448).  Mental: Contemplative psychotherapy (The Forum for Contemplative Studies, 2006) Mental balance and psychological health (Wallace, 2005). Benefits Practitioners report that the mind becomes settled, peaceful and tranquil. Contemplatives gain “insight” into the state of their minds and as a result become more creative. Their awareness and resilience is increased (Nairn, 1998; Budilovsky and Adamson, 2003). They report increased eudemonic wellbeing (Wallace, 2005). It can affect the structure of the brain through changing the pathways (neural networks) of the brain. Mental training can enhance the portions of the brain that control emotions such as anxiety and anger. It can also improve the immune system, and decrease clinical depression. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy contributes towards stress reduction. It also reduced physical pain. (Snyderman, 2005). Contemplative practice enhances our ability to pay attention (Arntz, Chasse and Vicente, 2005) and expand the experiences of the fullness of life (Travis and Ryan, 2004: 185). Misconceptions about contemplative practice Relaxation practices are not considered contemplative practice (Mahathera, 2006; Wallace, 2005). Contemplative practice can be practiced by non-religious people (Budilovsky and Adamson, 2003; Arntz, Chasse and Vicente, 2005). Contemplative practice can be applied outside a spiritual framework. For example, it has been effectively applied in clinical depression (Snyderman, 2005; Pert, 2000).
  • 9. Page 9 of 68 Potential implications for PiPL A high level overview of literature indicates contemplative practices potentially hold an important contribution for the PiPL terrain and leadership development as it focuses on transforming ineffective mind-states. It also confirms the PiPL view that cultivating spiritual leadership is the foundation for overall wellbeing. Furthermore, based on the initial understanding of contemplative practice, it is clear that PiPL group facilitated or individually facilitated interventions are included in the field of contemplative practice and therefore PiPL could also potentially make a contribution towards the field of contemplative practice. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research strategy A non-empirical strategy using the interpretive philosophy was utilised for this research, which aimed to understand the subjective reality of contemplative practice, in order to make sense of and understand it in such a way that it is meaningful for PiPL (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, uknown). The inductive approach was applied, where the data gathered was investigated to discover more about contemplative practices. As the field of contemplative practice is new to PiPL an exploratory study was followed where gradual intelligence and information was gathered with the objective to seek new insights and understanding within the terrain of PiPL (Sanders, Lewis and Thornhill, unknown, Mouton, 2001). Research methods A literature review was performed on theories, data and research on contemplative practice, both from a science (clinical, objective experience) as well as contemplative practitioner (subjective experience) viewpoint, including  DVD and Audio information  Academic journals  Popular magazines and newspapers  Internet articles and electronic resources  Books
  • 10. Page 10 of 68  Lectures by experts in the field The information gathered was then synthesized in terms of the concept, nature, approaches, impact and outcomes of contemplative practice. Thereafter the emerging information was analysed against two PiPL models to determine its potential application within the field of PiPL. The frameworks used were  The PiPL life domains as per the Smith Transformer model (Smith, 2007c) o Inner domains (spiritual, physical, mental, emotional) o External domains (relationships, career, finance and ecology)  The PiPL perspective (Smith, 2007a) The amount of data gathered was considered sufficient once it started yielding consistent information without adding new knowledge and insight into the research questions. RESULTS The results of the research reviewed will be presented as follows  Limitations in research  Conceptualising contemplative practice  The importance of contemplative practice  Approaches to contemplative practice  Benefits of contemplative practice  Potential contra-indication of contemplative practices (limitations in applications and side-effects)  Misconceptions about contemplative practice Limitations in research The data review covered 48 books, 4 lectures, 8 articles, 17 audio and visual media as well as 39 internet articles. During the research of the data, it was discovered that there are various meanings and interpretations and applications of the concept contemplative
  • 11. Page 11 of 68 practice, yielding confusion in concepts such as meditation and mindfulness. Most authors use the terms interchangeably, and the first task of the research project was to focus on characteristics and application of practices to improve understanding of the concept contemplative practice and extract a reliable typology. Secondly, literature was biased in favour of contemplative practices, including current scientific research often supported by contemplative practitioners and their organizations. Some information was uncovered indicating potential side-effects of contemplative practices as well as limitations in application. However it was insufficient data for the purpose of this project (Baars, 2005; Eagar, Hanna, Havens, Hubbard and Tart 2002, 2003; Wikipedia, 2006; Winkelman, 2000). Another research concern was the implication of the majority of literature that a “one solution fits all”. From a scientific perspective this could indicate a skewed result with over-optimistic views of the potential application for personal growth and development and further research would have to be done to investigate this. However, this is not the scope of this project which is mainly exploratory in nature, and therefore only mention is made of this bias for future researchers and research projects. Conceptualising contemplative practice Contemplative practices are technologies of mind. It is considered “technology” as practices are structured processes and require technical skill. In terms of contemplatives, a “scientific method” developed over centuries which was passed down reliably through written and oral instruction with stages in practice clearly identifiable through reporting of experiences by students (Norbu, Sharmapa, Nairn). Contemplative practices focus on working skillfully with the mind; cultivating the mind (Eagar et al, 2002; Nairn:1997; Wallace, 2005). The main aim of contemplative practice is to achieve personal transformation: The Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, 2006 considers contemplative practice not only limited to spiritual or cultural activity, but “a method for developing concentration and deeper understanding, in particular as a means of intellectual and pedagogic revitalisation and change (The Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, 2006)”.
  • 12. Page 12 of 68 “Contemplative practices increase awareness of living reactively from prior conditioning, and change our mental constructions of the world (Contemplative Quakerism, 2006)”. Contemplative practices strive towards personal transformation through focusing on transformation of unproductive mindsets. “A contemplative is someone who has made the choice to modify her life (Ellison, 2006)”. “Contemplative practices originated as formal practices within cultural, ritual and spiritual practices, however currently there is also a strong secular approach. Contemplative practices therefore also include a secular component (Nairn, 2006; The Center for Contemplative Mind in Society; 2006, Wallace, 2005: Mahathera, 2006).” Contemplative activities include mindful practices, rituals and ceremonies, contemplative prayer and yoga (Mahathera, 2006; Contemplative Quakerism, 2006; Nairn, 2006). The following are the key attributes of contemplative practice that emerged from literature as technology of mind:  skillful method and practice  gradual processes over a period of time;  purposeful training or cultivating of the mind and heart which includes thoughts, feelings and behaviour;  with the intent to transform dominant states of mind (mindset and attitude). The desired outcome of contemplative practices is eudemonic wellbeing, including full spiritual awakening (referred to as “enlightenment” or personal liberation). Based then on the research, the difference between an ordinary activity, such as walking, and a contemplative practice, such as mindful walking, is based on intent and purpose to transform a mind state.
  • 13. Page 13 of 68 The importance of contemplative practice – reasons for embarking on contemplative practice Literature indicated underdevelopment in the mental domain, in particular limitations in attention span, poor awareness of the “inner” world and disconnected link between the inner landscape and external reality, as being primary reasons for embarking on contemplative practice. According to Dispenza (Arntz et al, 2005) the average person looses his attention span every six to ten seconds. Research indicates that the average person’s attention is on what they are busy with only 30% of the time, and contemplative practices are investigated as methods for people to realise this and bring their minds more under control (Sapa-AP, 2007). According to experts on contemplative practice, people who are weak in paying attention are also easily distracted by disturbing events, thoughts and emotions and therefore not optimising their emotional life domain. Literature also indicates individuals who lack contemplative skills have poor self-awareness and live a life mostly from limiting conditioned habits of thought, feelings and behaviours, unaware of their potential (Gampopa,1994; Nairn, 1998; Travis & Ryan, 2006; Arntz, Chasse and Vicente, 2005; Smith, 2006). According to Koch (2004:206) it is a fact that large parts of people’s lives are lived without being conscious or thinking about it through the aspect of self which is often referred to as the non-conscious (for example, driving a car, walking ,breathing). Likewise, Wallace (2005) points out that poor skills of self-monitoring (also called meta- cognition) is damaging to a person’s integration. Since most people live mostly thinking about the past or the future, they are out of touch with the present moment and the opportunities it present (Tolle,1999; Tolle, 2006). Authors such as Goswami (Arntz et al, 2005) emphasize that, without contemplative practice, non-ordinary state of higher consciousness cannot be reached and thus the essential nature of mind will stay obscured to most people as their attention is focused on the external world of senses. A leading Tibetan lama, Sharmapa (2006) calls a state of mind where self-awareness is lacking as a “dull” mind. Such a mind is the opposite to the self-reflective, self-aware
  • 14. Page 14 of 68 aspect of consciousness: an enlightened, awakened mind or “higher spiritual mind” as it is coined by Smith (2007d). Purpose of contemplative practices The main purpose of contemplative practice is to transform unproductive, bounded (limited) mindstates into productive, boundless states of being (in the world). When the mind is calmed, the contemplative “discovers” awareness, a previously hidden aspect of consciousness. “Through contemplative practice one finds that awareness is like a spotlight that shines onto the landscape of the mind” (Eagar, 2003; Baars, 2005; Sharmapa, 2006; Mahathera, 2006; Odier, 2004; Blackmore, 2004). Changes in these mind states are used to develop the spiritual life. Others use it for cultivating the emotional domain, for examples cultivating coherent emotions (love, empathy) or management of stress. Some practitioners use it to support physical problems, for example enhance pain management and improve the immune system or enhance physical performance, such as athletic skill. Approaches in contemplative practices A critical part of the research was to obtain more clarity on understanding the different types of practices. The research revealed hundreds of different practices (Gampopa, 1994; Nairn, 1998; Newberg, 2003; Sharmapa, 2006; Budilovsky and Adamson, 2003; Wallace, 2005). The Tree of Contemplative Practice (Appendix A) provides a high level overview of such variety. During this project categories emerged based on the main applications and purpose of the contemplative practices. These categories were reviewed against ancient mind technologies developed by the many Buddhist Schools whose reputable mind training systems are over 2,500 years old (Ellison: 2006, Wallace: 2005). For the purpose of this report, the following typology was used:  Cognitive practices  Stability practices  Insight practices  Generative practices  Absorption practices
  • 15. Page 15 of 68  Whole-system technologies of mind Cognitive practices Research showed that cognitive practices, such as analytical and structured questioning , are used to enhance mental reasoning, logic and the process of learning. The desired outcome is enhanced cognitive skills which will support other contemplative practices. Included are analytical meditation, Jewish Contemplative Practice and QuestionThinking™ (Komito, 1987; Krishnamurti, 1982; Gampopa, 1994; Hafen, Karren, Smith and Frandsen, 2002; Geshe le Pende, 2006; Kline, 1999, Adams, 2004, Contemplative Quakerism, 2006). Contemplatives highlighted that reasoning skills are important for the contemplative practitioner to know what to actually contemplate on. The difference between this and other analytical practices is that cognitive practice analysis is independent and “free from reliance upon any authority of dogma, beliefs, science or opinions of other persons (Krishnamurti, 1982)”. Purpose of cognitive practices The purpose is to enhance skills of logic and mental cognition and refute limiting beliefs and concepts (Gampopa, 1994, Geshe le Pende, 2006, Kline, 1999, Adams, 2004). It is a structured inquiry into particular questions and utilized to increase mental capacity, intelligence and improve skills of perception. Examples of such inquiries are:  Investigation of worldly concerns, such as desire for fame or fear of having a poor reputation, and how these affect one’s state of mental and emotional wellbeing  The benefits of cultivating altruism  The nature of thought, mind, reality and the existence of self  The nature of suffering, and the obstacles to happiness  Limiting assumptions underlying current strategies for dealing with issues Key benefits  Self-realised and Independent understanding of the nature of reality, self and others
  • 16. Page 16 of 68  Increased skills of logical examination as well as improved philosophical and intellectual skills  Improved skill in learning  Enhanced skills of recollection Stability practice Literature on contemplative practice concur that the foundation for all contemplative work to be stability practices (Gampopa, 1994; Saron and Wallace, 2006; HH 17th Karmapa, 2003; Nairn, 2006; Hope and Van Loon, 2005; Sharmapa, 2006; Arntz et al, 2005; Singer, 2005; Pliskin, 2005; Pert, 2000; Travis and Ryan, 2005). Without a stable mind, it would be difficult to effectively practice guided imagery or insight training due to lack of focus and concentration. Stability practices use support mechanisms such as focusing on breath, sound, movement or special words to calm mental processes and train the mind in increasing attention. “Tranquility is the condition where our mind has settled and is happy to be present with whatever is happening (Nairn, 1998)”. Examples of stability practices are shinay meditation, tai chi, yoga, zen archery, mindful walking, the Japanese tea ceremony, biofeedback exercises and Transcendental Meditation™. Done with a contemplative intent, gardening, bathing, painting and playing with children are also effective (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2006; Wild Divine Website, 2006; The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback quoted on Psychotherapy,com, 2006). Research emphasize daily integration practices to cultivate mental stability as habitual skill through practices such as mindfulness, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Therapy and Living in the Now (Tolle, 1999). These practices cultivate “mindfulness in all actions, such as eating, working, driving and paying full attention in the moment (Tolle: 1999, Kabat-Zinn, 2005; Wallace, 2005). Purpose All stability practices have the same underlying purpose: to enable the mind to remain peacefully and uninterruptedly in a stable state of one-pointed concentration over an
  • 17. Page 17 of 68 extended period of time (Sharmapa, 2006; Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, 2006; Swami Rami, 2002). The main objectives are to cultivate:  Mental concentration, one-pointed focus, attention and skills in concentration  Mental and emotional stability  Transforming of “dull” (non—attentive states of mind) to more alert, coherent brain functioning  Relaxation (Mahathera, 2006)  Maintain psychological equilibrium, become more resilient and therefore able to reduce stress and related medical conditions  Improve brain functioning and skill  Improved overall physical wellness  Improve sense and experience of quality of life Key benefits  Development of a stable mind as such a mind is less disturbed by events, habitual thoughts and emotions. “The practitioner experiences more clarity and this enables more effective decision making and coping strategies with life (Nairn, 1998)”  Enhanced ability to use left frontal lobe (executive seat of the brain)  Improved concentration, ability to pay attention and increased willpower  Inner sense of peace and tranquility and reduced stress  Improved ability to deal with mental disease  Enduring decreases in physical and psychological symptoms, including improved immune function Insight practice “Insight practices focuses on introspection, looking into your mind and reporting what you discover” (Wallace, 2005). It is a method where the contemplative observe her own distractions and thought processes using practices developed such as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy and PiPL group and individual facilitation. Experts on insight practice stress the point that it should be done under the guidance of a qualified and experience mentor or facilitator, due to the fact that subconscious and previously repressed
  • 18. Page 18 of 68 psychological material could arise which would required expert guidance or even psychotherapy (Nairn, 1998; Mipha, 2003, Hope van Loon, 2005; Mahathera, 2006; Prescott, 2000; Budilovsky and Adamson, 2003; Singer, 2005, Ellison, 2006, Smith, 2007c). Daily integration practices include Mastering the Art of Observation (self-observation of thoughts, emotions and behavior) (also called self-stalking) during daily activities to sustain insight (Tolle, 1999; Adams, 2004, Nairn, 2006, Arntz et al, 2005). Purpose The purpose of insight meditation is an exploration and inquiry into the nature of self, the direct experience of living each moment, and the potential for freedom from suffering (Kabat-Zinn, 2005)”. This is done through focusing attention inward to determine the type of thoughts, emotions and behavior you are producing. This self-monitoring (meta- cognition) is critical in acquiring and maintaining complex types of behavior and in adapting to change (Galin as quoted by Wallace, 2005: 295). Through observing tendencies (patterns of behavior, thoughts, emotions) the actual process of self-stalking starts interrupting the patterns therefore starting a process of releasing those unproductive limiting patterns (Dr Joe Dispenza, quoted in Artnz et al, 2005). Therefore the purpose of self-stalking is to:  Perceive the patterns of mind and recognize when moods are triggered (positive and negative moods)  Through recognition and awareness, prevent and manage unproductive mind states and moods more effectively  Combining with mindfulness practices, the practitioner brings attention back into the moment, and shift mental gears, e. g. through deliberate activities to distract the mind into more productive mind states  Observation of phenomena and relationship to the practitioner, learning to experience the world directly, non-conceptually and non-judgmentally  Learning willingness to experience all mind states and emotions, and not deny or suppress unwanted and painful states
  • 19. Page 19 of 68  Developing courage to allow distressing moods, thought and sensations to come and go without battling with them or repression  Daily investigation into the nature of self, others and reality Benefits  Enhanced self-monitoring process, called meta-cognition (a vital skill in learning, resilience and personal growth)  Cultivation of wisdom: learning through direct perception thus giving rise to personal understanding  Familiarisation with inner states and insight into own thoughts and distraction and workable perspective of our lives  Personal transformation  Enhanced emotional awareness  Ability to stop unproductive tendencies of thoughts, feelings and behavior  Recognition of triggers for depression and negative thinking (including critical, judgmental thinking about self and others)  Awareness aware of itself  Enhanced self-worth and self-concept  Empowerment and confidence in ability to cope with the world  Altruistic mind with enhanced empathy and compassion  Improved relationships  Improved profession and career Some literature hinted at potential negative consequence during insight practices, as previously ignored disturbing emotions and thought patterns will surface (Nairn, 1998; Sharmapa, 2006, Wikipedia, Eagar et al, 2002, WInkelman, 2000; Chodron, 1998).
  • 20. Page 20 of 68 Generative practices Generative practices use guided imagery, self-hypnosis, specific repetitive words, body movements, ritual and ceremony, devotional prayer and other creative methods to obtain particular goals of the practitioner (Warren, 1993; Winkelman, 2000; BBC, 2001; Gromie, 2006; Davidson, 2005; Khandro.Net Website, 2006; Hafen et al, 2002). “It remains a radical notion in the West that benevolent states of mind such as concentration, kindness and happiness can be developed with practice (Ellison, 2006)”. Purpose Practitioners use intentional methods to produce desired qualities, values, behavior and events. For example, visualization techniques have been utilized effectively by athletes to improve their performance (Artnz et al, 2005). The effectiveness of this approach is confirmed with brain imaging techniques that show the same areas in the brain lighting up for imagined or visualized objects versus perceiving the actual object (Newberg as quoted in Arntz et al, 2005). From a magico-spiritual context, shamans have utilised this as a therapy for healing and personal transformation (Winkelman, 2000: 223). These practices also include daily integration methods (Kabat-Zin, 2005; The Secret; 2006; Tolle, 1999; Prescott, 2000; Adams, 2004; Sharmapa, 2006). Benefits  Decreased symptoms of stress, such as enhanced immunity, reduced cortisol and increased DHEA  Enhanced psychophysiological coherence  Generating a positive emotion makes it easier to sustain coherence for longer periods, even during challenging situations, for example using compassion to deal with anger  Increased energy and resilience  Greater mental clarity for decision-making and creativity  Transformed mind states
  • 21. Page 21 of 68  Changes in environment and events taking place in the practitioner’s life (reported by practitioners)  Increased spiritual connection Absorption practices Linking with the divine, the absolute - the ultimate contemplative practice is considered the state called Samadhi, or resting in “the Divine” a state of intense concentration or absorption of consciousness or ecstasy (Mahathera, 2006; Kongtrul, 2005). This state of being is attainable by non-spiritual as well as spiritual people and considered to be the “primordial state of pure and total presence” (Norbu and Lipman, 1986: 75) (Odier, 2004: 20). Most people access this through peak experiences, described as mystical and blissful. It can be triggered through trance dance, moments of intense pain (such as natural childbirth) or absorption in nature (Winkelman, 2000; Smith, 2007c; Odier, 2004; Sharmapa, 2006; Keating; 2006) Purpose According to Zen Buddhism, Samadhi allows the meditator to overcome dualistic subject- object awareness through unity with the object of meditation and therefore complete absorption with loss of identity of the “self” and “anything else” outside of the “self” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007; Suzuki, 1986). Absorption practice is directed at cultivating the experience of the ultimate truth, peace, purity and highest bliss (Wallace, 2005). Practitioners use it to “rest evenly in non-discursive state free from conceptual elaborations (Kongrul, 2005)”. Benefits  “Stable peace: mind resting within mind due to most excellent profound absorption (Gampopa, 1994)”  A form of attention which becomes "an oil lamp unmoved by the air; wherever the awareness is directed, it is steady and sharply pointed (Sharmapa, 2006)”
  • 22. Page 22 of 68  “A state of being where all concepts of object, subject and any relationship between these completely disappear. It is the ultimate bliss, the ultimate ecstasy (Mahathera, 2006)”  The final stage is accompanied by full and total realization of one’s wholesome or “divine” potential (Nairn, 1997) Whole system mind technologies Comprehensive whole-system mind technologies are structured applications of the different categories of practices described above. Examples are the well-known Tibetan system of Seven Point Mind Training, an ancient mind training practice where one’s situations in everyday life is transformed into spiritual practice with the purpose of cultivating the limitless potential of complete spiritual awakening (Nairn 2007, Kongtrul, 2005; Chodron, 1998). From the Torah is the Jewish Contemplative practice and mystical Kabbala system with similar objectives (Pliskin, 2005). Eagar developed the Nine Gates approach under the Apeiron Memeticon (Eagar, 2006). These systems provide roadmaps for contemplatives, with application and benefits as described within the various categories of contemplative practices. Contra-indication of contemplative practice (limitations in applications and side- effects) Authors with long term experience in contemplative practice stress the importance of an experienced and qualified mentor to address specific concerns listed about sub-conscious and repressed material that surface especially during insight practices (Nairn, 2006; Sharmapa, 2006; Smith, 2007c; Mind and Life Organisation, 2006). Potential negative side-effects include experiences of the “dark night of the soul”, paranoia, psychological distress, hallucinations, feelings of insanity and mental tiredness, all which require guidance and support from an experienced mentor (Wikipedia, 2006). There was insufficient information available to indicate research that countered the beneficial aspects of contemplative practice. One author highlighted that contemplatives are dismissive of scientific evidence that points to such negative research (Baars, 2005:
  • 23. Page 23 of 68 20). The other constraint about scientific method and contemplative practice, is that science can tell us a lot about the workings of the brain and the body during contemplative practice, but very little about the subjective experience for the contemplatives (Papineau and Selina, 2000:14). Therefore the problem of contemplative practice is the subjective experience and describing such subjective experiences adequately for scientific research and validation. Critics of contemplatives accuse them of being too inwardly focused and thus avoiding engagement with reality in a more influential manner and through that bring about social change. Many Westerners find the Eastern contemplative technologies tedious and overlaid with cultural issues, making it difficult to extract the essence of practice. There is little research done on which methods would be appropriate for different temperaments and cultures and there is a danger of “one solution fits all” as contemplative teachers only teach their methods irrespective of the requirements or abilities of their students. Within western context about 95% of contemplative students discontinue the practice within one year (Eagar et al, 2002; Winkelman, 2000). Misconceptions about contemplative practices Experts in contemplative practices agree about various misconceptions held by the general public. PiPL practitioners need to take cognizance of these should they attempt to prescribe contemplation practices for personal growth facilitation:  Relaxation practices are not considered contemplative practice (Mahathera: 2006, Wallace: 2005)  It can be applied outside a religious, spiritual or philosophical context (Budilovsky and Adamson: 2003, Arntz et al: 2005). For example, it has been effectively used in treatment of clinical depression (Snyderman: 2005, Pert,:2000)  It is not about being “blissed out” or having no thoughts anymore. It is also not a quick fix to life’s problems. It consists of precise methods with various applications with the
  • 24. Page 24 of 68 ultimate objective awakening to full human potential (Sharmapa: 2006, Nairn, 2006, Geshe La Pende:2006, Gampopa: 1994).  It is not some pure mystical technique known to only a few gurus. There is no need to isolate yourself from reality, or follow some rituals or embrace a radical new lifestyle. It is practical, with a series of defined actions, that work on the physiology of the person practices (Sears, 1999). DISCUSSION: RELEVANCE OF CONTEMPLATIVE PRACTICES FOR THE FIELD OF PiPL The results of the data gathered on this project is analysed against two important PiPL frameworks to determine the potential application for leadership development in terms of the PiPL field:  The PiPL Transformer Model developed by Smith (2007c)  The PiPL perspective (Smith, 2007a) The PIPL transformer model developed by Smith Smith (2007c) uses a transformer model as metaphor to explain how humans can enhance or reduce their potential especially in dealing with external reality. This model was inspired from a systems theory view of wellness, called the Wellness Energy System (Travis and Ryan, 2004: xxix – xxxvi). In terms of this model, your “potential” which consists of various internal and external life domains, impact on how you are able to cope in a less or most optimal manner with the external realities. Within this model, the experience of external reality and genetic inheritance provide the input aspects of the model. Inner life domains (spiritual, physical, mental and emotional domains) as well as external life domains (social, career, finance) are the transformer aspect, considered the “potential” where individuals can transform the input and therefore enhance or reduce the effect of the input aspects. The impact of transformation is considered individual purpose and expression (influence) in life (called the output aspect). Negative outputs reinforce a limiting mindset and result in unproductive mindstates for the individual, creating a self-fulfilling downward spiral and ultimately the individual will not
  • 25. Page 25 of 68 effectively utilizing her potential. Positive outputs result in positive reinforcement, therefore promotes and supports optimizing potential. An important aspect of the transformer model is the focus on the dominant mindset of the individual. Smith, through creating awareness of the impact of more productive dominant mindstates, aims to motivate individuals into cultivating positive and productive mindstates and reach their purpose and potential. The Smith House model is depicted below (Smith, 2007c:6) OUTPUT Purpose Potential INPUT TRANSFORMER Reality Genetic inheritance POTENTIAL Inner domains External domains Analysis of contemplative practice data in terms of PIPL transformer model developed by Smith Contemplative practices, as technologies of mind, aims to transform limiting mindstates into productive ones, ultimately cultivating eudaimonic wellbeing. Therefore contemplative practices focus on techniques for improving and optimizing the
  • 26. Page 26 of 68 “transformer” aspect of the Smith Transformer Model. Under-development or problems in spiritual, mental, emotional and physical domains motivate embarkation on the journey of contemplative practice. Furthermore, the outputs of contemplative practice indicated benefits in terms of improvement of inner and external life domains and therefore also the output aspects of the model. Below these are analysed against the PiPL outputs for wellbeing: Inner life domains per the Smith Transformer Model (2007c) Spiritual domain  Reduced ego-centricity and increase realisation of the nature of the selfless self  Experiencing states of being where all concepts of object, subject and any relationship between these completely disappear: complete transcendence (non-dual awareness, Advaita)  Conscious awareness  Insight, inspiration and a loving and compassionate approach to life  Deep absorption in primordial wisdom or pure consciousness Physical domain  Improvement in over 150 disorders (biofeedback)  Enhanced immune system  Improved muscle control and stamina  Slowing down of ageing  Physical benefits, such as reduced blood pressure, improved eicosanoid functioning Mental domain  Enhanced ability to use front lobe (executive seat of the brain) resulting in increased concentration, sharper intellect, alertness and precision of thought  Improved ability to deal with mental disease  Increased coherence in brain functioning and thus more effective brain functioning  Greater creativity and ability to focus  Mental stability – a mind that is no longer carried away by thoughts and emotions Emotional domain  Reduced anxiety and distress
  • 27. Page 27 of 68  Enhanced emotional awareness and improve emotional management, including extreme emotions such as anger  Reduce depression and prevents relapses  Development of greater empathy and positive emotions  Inner sense of peace and tranquility External life domains Relationship domain  Fulfilling relationships  More appreciation and love towards family and friends  Greater tolerance and patience, harmony and happiness  Deeper appreciation of self and others  More authenticity in relationships Career domain  Ability to make better decisions and solve problems faster  More job satisfaction and productivity  More efficiency in learning new concepts, improved academic achievement, better grades  Ability to develop more effective leadership  More workable perspective of personal life, career and purpose Finance domain  Lower medical costs and hospitalisation  Reduced materialistic outlook and need to acquire material goods for personal happiness.  Increased generosity and support of others  Enhanced awareness of value of money and appreciation for material goods Ecology  Reduced alcohol use, drug use and smoking  Deep insights into the nature and issues of fundamental human existence  Reduced reactivity to life
  • 28. Page 28 of 68  Awareness of interconnectedness of mental, sensory and external phenomena  Broader comprehension of role in society Other benefits for PiPL areas of interest  Personal insight  Increased strength in self-concept  Increased self-knowledge and personal awareness  Self-actualisation  Clarity of sources of frustration, discontent and suffering  Enhanced resilience  Value in attending to thoughts, emotions, impulses, awareness itself as well as sensations where a new dimension of being is discovered  Change habitual patterns that are unproductive to our growth  Radical personal transformation  Personal empowerment and confidence in participation in own healing process Conclusion on analysis of contemplative practices in terms of PiPL Transformer Model The analysis of results of research on benefits derived from contemplative practice and ultimately transformation in mindstates, indicates that benefits gained through contemplative practices align with the Smith Transformer model (Smith, 2006). The PIPL Perspective and contemplative practice Perspective means the lenses through which you view the world or particular objects/ideas. The importance of understanding the perspective of a field of study is that it will highlight particular aspects that the particular study will include as well as provide background to that which will be excluded (Smith, 2007a). The understanding of contemplative practice within the PiPL perspective will provide information to determine the potential application within the PiPL field of leadership
  • 29. Page 29 of 68 development. Below is a table comparing the PiPL perspective and results of research and potential application of contemplative practice: Table 1 Contemplative practice and the PiPL perspective PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development “ PiPL is the study of the awareness of the fundamental problems facing mankind in the context of our personal realm, our relationships with people and our professional environment.” (Smith, D:2007a). PiPL strives to discover the essence of leadership.” . Contemplative practice cultivate awareness of self, others, the fundamental problems facing mankind. Through cognitive and insight practices, contemplatives obtain direct insight into the fundamental nature of self, others and reality. The purpose is an exploration and inquiry into the nature of self, the direct experience of living each moment, and the potential for freedom from suffering (Kabat-Zinn, 2005). “An important difference of PiPL is the contribution towards meaningful human existence. This will be achieved through creating awareness on values and purpose, finding a balance between living one’s values and fulfilling one’s purpose/” The aim of contemplative practice is to cultivate eudaimonic wellbeing. “Eudaimonmic wellbeing is the integrated pursuit of inner happiness, truth and virtue, a growing sense of fulfillment not contingent upon pleasant things happening to you. “Meditation means to cultivate the mind and heart with the aim to pursuit inner happiness, truth and virtue from the “inside” (Wallace, 2005). “Lastly, it also wants to contribute towards The ultimate goal of contemplative practice
  • 30. Page 30 of 68 PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development progressively higher levels of self/potential realisation in alignment with credible leadership, servant leadership and competent leadership.” is the realisation and cultivation of the full potential of the human being (Winkelman, 2000). “As quoted from Smith (2007a) the aim of the PiPL focus is on contribution towards authentic self-expression that adds value to others and thereby leaving a legacy.” Through contemplative practice the authentic self naturally emerges and is expressed (Nairn, 2006). “ PiPL starts with looking at society and existence, and then place theory thereon. This perspective studies phenomenology (what is manifesting?), describes the reality of mankind today, and study the essence of human experience. A holistic view of a person is applied with the PiPL structured leadership development approach to assist in helping people find a more meaningful existence (Smith, D:2007a). Insight practice investigate the nature of self, other and reality through direct perception and experience, without only reliance on theory and knowledge. Through the understanding of self, others and reality a profound understanding of connection and holistic view of the world emerges (Nairn, 1998). PURPOSE OF PiPL PURPOSE OF CONTEMPLATIVE PRACTICE “Thus the essence of the ultimate purpose of PiPL is to study the fundamental problems facing mankind, and contribute Contemplative practice aims not only to understanding the nature of suffering and issues facing humanity, but how to develop productive strategies for dealing with it, as
  • 31. Page 31 of 68 PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development towards meaningful human existence.” well as transcend it (Geshe Pende, 2006). Some of the greatest problems in the individual and society have to do with the essence of our existence in our spiritual, physical, emotional, mental and career realms. Thus, an integrated leadership approach would contribute towards those realms to assist a person in realising potential. Contemplative practice is a holistic approach to address not only the problems that face people, but also to improve and cultivate their potential (Sharmapa, 2006). The PiPL Pyramid of Leadership and Influence has developed around the acknowledgement that, because the human being is an integrated and synergistic being (holism); all these aspects of the person affect each other. The PiPL Pyramid thus reflects a constructive approach towards leadership development, indicating that the foundation of personal leadership will assist in building the foundation for interpersonal leadership, which will form the next foundation, which is for professional leadership. Contemplative practice investigations by scientists reveal a strong correlation between personal mastery and personal wellbeing, relationships and engagement with reality (Singer, 2005). The PiPL Pyramid reflects the basis of Contemplative practices are based on
  • 32. Page 32 of 68 PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development our reality frameworks that acknowledge the importance in understanding the interrelation of the nature of self, relationship to others and the environment, however there are different models to reflect their interpretation of reality, such as the Kalachacra (Wheel of Time) (Wikipedia, 2006). PiPL also focuses on the inside-out leadership approach of authors such as Covey as well as Kevin Cashman. Cashman is clear from his years of research and experience around leadership, that leadership that creates sustainable value for the self and others, is only possible through an inside-out approach where the person authentically will express himself in terms of various domains in his life. This is a different approach towards traditional leadership, where the development of leadership qualities are often at the cost of society or other people, and has shown lately the life-destroying effects (corporate failure, destruction to the environment, destroying old cultures). Refer to the comment above. PiPL propagates a principle centered, All contemplative practice focuses on
  • 33. Page 33 of 68 PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development character centred, inside-out approach to change and leadership. internal change which would result in personal transformation. Such personal transformation will ultimately result in changes in the reality experienced by that individual as they respond more effectively to challenges and opportunities (Transcendental Meditation official website, 2006). From the PiPL perspective there are universal laws and principles, which governs our natural and social existence. Thus PiPL seeks to find, study and apply these laws and principles to enhance human existence and increase meaning in life. Examples of these are service, excellence, human dignity and honesty. Contemplative practitioners focus on understanding the natural laws that make up their existence, others and reality. Through personal realisation of these, contemplatives not only find more meaning in life, but naturally become motivated to contribute towards the lives of others (Winkelman, 2000). For the personal leadership perspective, the PiPL states that change starts with the individual, as the individual is the only person with control over and who can exert control over himself/herself. Therefore change and development starts with yourself, your attitudes and your comfort zones, and an increasing responsibility (ability and willingness to respond). Contemplative practice focuses on individual growth and change, and acknowledges that only through each individual learning to work skilfully with her mind, changes can occur that would improve how the practitioner engages with the world (Sharmapa, 2006).
  • 34. Page 34 of 68 PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development This increased personal mastery is the foundation for interaction with people. Life- enhancing and life-enriching relationships with other people depend on your degree of personal mastery. Our improved relationship with ourselves forms the basis of improved relationships with others. Contemplatives focus on personal mastery. A consequence of contemplative practice is improved relationships and natural emergence of altruism, compassion, empathy and benevolent mindstates that improve relationship with self, others and the environment (Transcendental Meditation Official Website, 2006) Self-transcendence is first before self- actualising. Thus altruism, serving and caring are ultimate virtues in society, and interpersonal relationships will focus on life-enhancing activities. Our leadership self-expression will enrich the lives of others. The ultimate goal of contemplative practice is spiritual enlightenment, which results in a worldview that focuses on altruism, benevolence, kindness and service to others through gradual removal of ego-centric tendencies (Winkelman, 2000). Leadership from the PiPL perspective combines integrity, character and positive attitudes with professional competencies. These are applicable to all people; irrespective of the job or function they perform. It is based on the concept of spiritual fulfilment at work, relationship building, teamwork, mutual trust, appreciation, empathetic listening, Contemplative practitioners report enhanced satisfaction with relationships, profession and financial status (Transcendental Meditation Official Website, 2006).
  • 35. Page 35 of 68 PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development commitment towards common vision, win- win synergy, conflict resolution, professional effectiveness and other related principles and values. Examples of areas where PiPL contribute towards providing more meaningful human existence are:  Resilience in life  Personal local of control  Self-efficacy (believing you can)  Stress-management  Personal physical health Examples of how the PiPL perspective can be used in dealing with the problems of human existence. Stressful lifestyle: purpose mastery and living your true north, governing values, balance awareness and mastery. Meaningless life: purpose mastery, critical choices, connecting to the inner core (spiritual domain), self- transcendence Contemplative practice outcomes include  Resilience  Enhanced personal health and wellness  Contribution towards stress management  Significant improvement in mental issues, such as depression and mental disorders  Pain management  Personal concept and self-esteem  Meaning and purpose  Spiritual growth  Eudaimonic happiness (Mind and Life Institute, 2006).
  • 36. Page 36 of 68 PiPL Perspective (Smith, 2007a) Contemplative contribution towards PiPL and leadership development Conclusion: contribution of contemplative practice in leadership development in term of the PiPL perspective Contemplative practices cultivate awareness of self, others and the fundamental problems facing mankind. Through cognitive and insight practices, contemplatives gain direct insight into the fundamental nature of self, others and reality. The aim of contemplative practice is to cultivate eudemonic wellbeing and the realisation and cultivation of the full potential of the human being. Through contemplative practice the authentic self naturally emerges and is expressed. Insight practices investigate the nature of self, others and reality through direct perception and experience. Through the understanding of self, others and reality a profound understanding of connection and holistic view of the world emerges. Contemplative practice promotes understanding of the nature of suffering and issues facing humanity, as well as how to develop productive strategies for dealing with it. Contemplative practice is a holistic approach to address not only the problems that face people, but also to improve and cultivate their potential. Investigations by scientists into contemplative practice reveal a strong correlation between personal mastery and personal wellbeing, relationships and engagement with reality (Singer, 2005). Contemplative practice does not emphasize leadership per se and most contemplative practitioners do not embark on practice because of the need to be famous or leaders in their field. However, through the practice they become more valuable members of society and increase their sphere of influence.
  • 37. Page 37 of 68 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Potential implications for PIPL Contemplative practice perspectives and objectives are supportive of the PiPL terrain in particular enhanced personal mastery, relationships mastery and professional mastery. As with PiPL, contemplative practices are applied to develop the highest potential in various life domains of the individual, with the ultimate objective being spiritual realisation. Contemplative practices intentionally bring about productive transformation in dominant mind states and therefore has practical implications within the Smith Transformer Model. “To realize our full potential, we must tame our minds. And the good news is that we can use the mind to tame itself. We need to develop new mental habits” (Sharmapa, 2006)”. Based on the results of this research, contemplative practice has a valuable role to play in the practical implementation and cultivation of the principles eschewed by PiPL. Contemplative practice is part of the practice aspect of leadership. Finally, it is clear that PiPL facilitated processes constitute contemplative practice, especially in terms of cognitive and insight practices. Recommended areas for further research and investigation The contemplative practice taxonomy requires additional enhancement to be utilised as practical framework for PiPL practitioner toolkits. The fields of consciousness, neuroscience and technologies of mind have value to offer in term of human development and scope within PiPL. PiPL practitioners can also contribute with confidence within these fields. In terms of the limitations of application of contemplative practice as well as potential side-effects and negative experiences, there is a requirement for more validated scientific research. For example,  Which practices would be more suitable for particular temperaments and personal capacity?.
  • 38. Page 38 of 68  Which techniques are most effective?  What is the essence of the techniques and how can we practically implement these in modern day busy lifestyle without philosophical and spiritual trappings?  What are the side-effects and myths not yet explored in research?  How can we balance subjective reporting versus scientific objective research? “At the beginning of the 21st century humanity is poised for a revolution in our understanding of consciousness, as the first-person modes of inquiry of the contemplative traditions of the world are integrated with the third-person methods of modern science.” (The Santa Barbara Institute, 2006)
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  • 46. Page 46 of 68 Hemi-Sync official website, 10 December 2006 http://www.hemi-sync.com/store/home.php Institute for HearthMath, 26 December 2006 http://www.heartmath.org/ Invitation to Love, 29 March 2007 http://dendurent.com/Invite/invite.htm Japanese Fact Sheet, 5 December 2006 http://web-japan.org/factsheet/tea/tea_c.html Khandro.Net Website, 5 December 20062006 http://www.khandro.net/ Lifespan Website, 5 December 2006 http://www.lifespan.org/ Life Positive Website, 8 December 2006 http://www.lifepositive.com/ Nyingma Website, 11 December 2006 http://www.nyingma.com/ Mahamakuta Rajavidyalaya Foundation, 5 December 2006 http://mahamakuta.inet.co.th/english/b-way(10).html Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER), 5 December 2006 http://www.MayoClinic.com
  • 47. Page 47 of 68 Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, University Oxford Department Psychiatry, 5 December 2006 http://www.mbct.co.uk/about.htm Mind and Life Organisation, 7 October 2006, http://www.mindandlife.org/collaboration.html SAPA-AP, 20 March 2007 The Santa Barbara Institute. 8 October 2006, http://www.sbinstitute.com/ Sharmapa, K u n z i g . S h a m a r . R i n p o c he, 5 December 2006 http://www.shamarpa.org/sham Transcendental Meditation, 5 December 2006 http://www.tm.org Tokokyudojo Website, 10 December 2006 http://www.tokokyudojo.org/info/ Transforming Practices website, 18 September 2006 http://www.transformingpractice.com/bi/toc5.html University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics: Mindfulness Based Programs, 10 December 2006 http://www.uihealthcare.com/depts/mindfulness/index.html Walk here Now Website, 10 December 2006 http://www.walkherenow.com/
  • 48. Page 48 of 68 Wild Divine Website, 5 December 2006 http://www.wilddivine.com/WildDivineAboutBiofeedback/ Yoga: I love India, 8 December 2006 http://yoga.iloveindia.com/ Yoga Vidya Dham, 8 December 2006 http://www.yogapoint.com/ Zen Archery Website, 10 December 2006 http://www.paralumun.com/zenarchery.htm Audio and visual media Chodron, 1998 Noble Heart: a self-guided retreat on befriending your obstacles (Sounds True Audio Learning Course) USA,Sounds True (Audio CD) Davidson, 2005 The Science and Clinical A Applications of Meditation: Investigating the Mind 2005 Georgetown University Medical Centre and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Constitution Hall, Washington Mind and Life Institute (DVD) Dispenza, J 2005 Our immortal brain: Mastering the Art of Observation KZK Incorporated www.drjoedispenza.com (DVD) Eagar, Hanna, Havens, Hubbard and Tart 2002 Altered states of consciousness Towards a Science of Consciousness 2002 Berkeley, CA www.conferencerecording.com (Audio Tape) Kabat-Zinn, J 2005 The Science and Clinical A Applications of Meditation: Investigating the Mind 2005 Georgetown University Medical Centre and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Constitution Hall, Washington Mind and Life Institute (DVD)
  • 49. Page 49 of 68 HH 17 Karmapa, Ogyen Trinley Dorje 2003 Three teachings by karmapa Kunzang Productions, www.kunzang.com (DVD) Krishnamurti, J 1982 Meditation & the thinking machine California: Krishnamurti Foundation of America, www.kfi.org (DVD) Newberg, A B 2003 Consciousness Conference Alsbury Films, directed by Gregory Alsbury Distributed by Novice Effect, producer Cordell Alsbury www.noviceeffect.com (DVD) Pert, C 2000 Your body is your subconscious mind Boulder: Sounds True (Audio) Shapiro, M S 2005 The Science and Clinical A Applications of Meditation: Investigating the Mind 2005 Georgetown University Medical Centre and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Constitution Hall, Washington Mind and Life Institute (DVD) Singer, W 2005 The Science and Clinical A Applications of Meditation: Investigating the Mind 2005 Georgetown University Medical Centre and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Constitution Hall, Washington Mind and Life Institute (DVD) Segal, Z V 2005 The Science and Clinical A Applications of Meditation: Investigating the Mind 2005 Georgetown University Medical Centre and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Constitution Hall, Washington Mind and Life Institute (DVD) Snyderman, R 2005 The Science and Clinical A Applications of Meditation: Investigating the Mind 2005 Georgetown University Medical Centre and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Constitution Hall, Washington Mind and Life Institute (DVD) Tai Situ, 2003 Mahamudra Kunzang Productions, www.kunzang.com (DVD)
  • 50. Page 50 of 68 The Secret 2006 The secret has traveled through centuries… to reach you TS Productions LLC www.thesecret.tv (DVD) Wallace, B A 2005 The Science and Clinical A Applications of Meditation: Investigating the Mind 2005 Georgetown University Medical Centre and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Constitution Hall, Washington Mind and Life Institute (DVD) Arntz, W Chasse, B Vicente, M 2006 What the Bleep – Down the Rabbit Hole – One Movie, Infinite Possibilities Lord of the Wind Films LLC http://www.whatthebleep.com/rabbithole/ (DVD) Lectures Eagar, M 2006 Xaos Club : www.xaosclub.co.za to be refreshed on www.apeiron.co.za Geshe La Pende, Lam Rim Center – Lecture notes, 2006 series lectures, Johannesburg http://www.lamrim.co.za/ Nairn, R 2007 Seven Point Mind Training lecture at Randburg Buddhist Kagyu Centre, Johannesburg http://www.kagyu.org.za/ Nairn, R 2006 Introduction to Emptiness Retreat at Kensington Kagyu Buddhist Centre, Johannesburg http://www.kagyu.org.za/
  • 51. Page 51 of 68 APPENDIX A: TREE OF CONTEMPLATIVE PRACTICES
  • 52. Page 52 of 68 APPENDIX B: TABLE OF BENEFITS LISTED AGAINST PIPL TRANSFORMER MODEL LIFE DOMAINS Research on benefits/outcomes Author Spiritual – Smith (2007c) It remains a radical notion in the West that benevolent states of mind such as compassion, kindness and happiness can be developed with practice Wallace, 2005 Such adepts are the Lance Armstrongs of meditation, says Davidson, whose pioneering brain scans of monks provide tantalizing evidence that emotions like love and compassion are in fact skills—and can be trained to a dramatic degree. Studies also suggest that the monastic life is not a requirement; even brief, regular meditation sessions can yield substantial benefits. Ellison, 2006 Urging seekers of happiness to not only shake off egoism but to understand the amorphous nature of the ego itself remains a subversive idea in the West, even though some leading neuroscientists have come to the same conclusion. Wolf Singer, director of the Max Planck Institute in Frankfurt, Germany, for instance, describes the brain as Singer, 2005
  • 53. Page 53 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author lacking any decision-making "coherence center." It's like an orchestra without a conductor Transcendence consciousness is a state of consciousness outside of the ordinary waking, dreaming and deep sleep. Research has confirmed the reality of Transcended Consciousness. TM website, 2006 Long term meditators are able to produce conscious awareness: A coherent, metastable state of a highly distributed, dynamical system characterized by synchronization of oscillatory activity. Segal, 2005 Physical (Smith, 2007c) Research on transcendental meditation indicates benefits, such as  Meditation can be an effective treatment for ADHA (ABC News, Washington, 6 March 2006)  TM twice a day improves cardio vascular health (Prevention Magazine, 12 Sept 2005)  Enhanced creativity  Reduction of death rates by nearly a quarter (The Guardian, 2 May 2005) Lowered blood pressure through relaxation of blood vessels (Medical College of Georgia) Transcendental Meditation Website, 2006
  • 54. Page 54 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author A quantitative review of 198 studies found that the Transcendental Meditation program is the most effective means of preventing and treating drug and alcohol abuse. A study of high school and college drug users in a rehabilitation center found an 89 percent reduction in drug usage, and even transient, chronic alcoholics were found achieve a 65% abstinence rate. Transcendental Medication Website, 2006 Flu vaccine worked more effectively through triggering more antibodies in novice meditators. Davidson, 2005 IHM has collaborated with Stanford University and other institutions in studies which have shown that heart centered techniques and psychophysiological coherence facilitate the body's healing processes and improve physical health outcomes. For example, improvements in clinical status have been demonstrated in individuals with hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, asthma and AIDS.7-11 Institute for HeartMath Website, 2006 Japanese Ministry of Labour commissioned a five month study of the effects of the Transcendental Meditations program on 447 employees in a major heavy industry. The study found decreased physical complaints, decreased anxiety, decreased depression, decreased smoking, decreased insomnia, decreased digestive problems, and a decreased tendency towards neurosis and psychosomatic problems, among those who learned this technique compared to non-meditating controls. Transcendental Medication Website, 2006
  • 55. Page 55 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author Meditation is also closely associated with a marked alteration of cortisol patterns; long term practitioners show reduced cortisol output through the day (thought this data is preliminary and many factors could account for these differences). Davidson. 2005 Psychology Today, March-April 1998 discussed a study of 65 patients who listened to guided imagery tapes for three days before and six days after surgery. The patients reports less stress and physical pain than a control group and needed only half as much pain medication as those who had not listened to the tapes. Travis & Ryan, 2002 A review of 46 studies conducted from 1966 to 1998 by the American Cancer Society found that guided imagery was effective in managing stress, anxiety, depression, pain and the side effects of chemotherapy. Travis & Ryan, 2002 American Journal of Health Promotion, July 2001, noted the effects of a “mindfulness training program” on 32 highly stressed individuals. Following the two month program, during which participants learned stress-coping and meditation methods, an average 54% reduction in psychological distress was reported together with a 46% drop in medical symptoms accompanied to the control group. Transforming Website, 2006 Transcendental Meditation practitioners with 5 years experience were biologically 12 years younger than chronological age. Trancendental Meditation Website, 2006
  • 56. Page 56 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author Scientific research shows positive effects of Transcendental Meditation program prevent detrimental effects of ageing, such as reduced blood pressure, enhanced memory, improved sleep, improved cardiovascular efficiency and many others. Trancendental Meditation Website, 2006 Transcendental Meditation practitioners display a fifty percent reduction in both inpatient and outpatient medical care utlisation, compared to controls. Hospitilisation 87% lower for heart disease and 55% lower for cancer. And that is most remarkable, meditators over 40 years old have approximately 70% fewer medical problems than others in their age group. Trancendental Meditation Website, 2006 Researchers at Harvard University showed that meditation as a way to reduce stress resulted in a survival rate of 100% in patients due to significant drop in systolic blood pressure. Patients who did not meditate survival rate was 62.6%. Haven et al, 2002 Of the 131 controlled experiments on prayer-based healing, more than half showed statistically significant benefits. Changes occur in the body, such as metabolism slowing down, blood pressure dropping, breathing slowing, heart rate lowers, even brain waves are less active. This is mostly from contemplative (meditative) prayer). Hafen et al, 2002 Studies show yoga can relieve the symptoms of several common and potentially life- threatening illnesses, such as arthritis, arteriosclerosis, chronic fatigue, diabetes, AIDS, asthma and obesity. Various studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of yoga for patients with respiratory problems. Life Positive Website, 2006
  • 57. Page 57 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author Transcendental Meditation twice a day improves cardio-vascular health – Prevention Magazine, September 12, 2005. Transcendental Medication Website, 2006 Researchers report that just two 15 minute transcendental meditation sessions per day were enough to trigger an average 21 percent increase in the ability of teenagers’ blood vessels to dilate (therefore reducing their hypertension. Transcendental Medication Website, 2006 Completed studies have found that pain-related drug utilization was decreased, and activity levels and feelings of self esteem increased, for a majority of participants. Centre for Mindfulness, University IOWA, 2006 Clinical studies published in 1998 indicates that meditation resulted in patients healing four times faster than those who did not do meditation. Kabat-Zinn, 2005 Unviersity of Massachusetts Medical Center Stress Reduction Clinic takes on patients with difficult medical problems that other physicians gave up on. Kabat-Zinn uses methods based on mindfulness meditation. Among the more than 4,000 patients he has treated of 10 years, that simple technique has reduced medical illness by 35%. Even disease as specific and resistant as psoriasis have responded. Hafen et al, 2002
  • 58. Page 58 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author Emotional (Smith, 2007c) In a pilot study at the University of California at San Francisco, researchers found that schoolteachers briefly trained in Buddhist techniques and who meditated less than 30 minutes a day improved their moods as much as if they had taken antidepressants. Ellison, 2006 The “engine”, in this case, is what is often called the limbic system – of the emotional brain – which is connected to the prefrontal cortex. Through its actions on the prefrontal cortex, meditation can dampen affective arousal from a limbic system kicked into alarm mode by fear or anger. Ellison, 2006 The American Medical Association recommends meditation techniques as a first steps before medication for borderline hypertension cases. Answers.com Website, 2006 Clinical studies have shown that the aspiration to help others (altruism) brings about constructive changes in the brain through reducing activation in the amygdale and increased activation of the ventromedial pre-frontal cortex. Mental training in altruism will improve emotional management. Davidson, 2005 The risk of relapse to clinical depression is reduced by 50% in patients who followed the Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy. Segal, 2005
  • 59. Page 59 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author MBCT treatment for clinical depression: 66% of people stayed well, compared to 34% on traditional treatment after a period of one year. Segal, 2005 Meditation, however, promises to break this apparent chain reaction by allowing us to recognize "the spark before the flame." Through many hours of quietly observing the customary tyranny of the emotions, you may gradually familiarize yourself with the quiet of your mind—the part that one day might choose not to be tyrannized. Says Ricard, "You become familiar with the way emotions arise, how they can either overwhelm your mind or vanish without making an impact." Ellison, 2006 Eudaimonia, that rests on the realization of personal goals and potential. The ideal runs in a ragged line from Aristotle to Maslow to Sartre, paralleling Buddhism somewhere along the way. Ellison, 2006 Neurobiologically we seem wired for empathy. Over the past few years, scientists have found that the human brain has a system of mirror neurons, activated both when we perform an action and when we observe similar action by others, including the facial expression of pain or joy. Such activation allows us not only to infer others' feelings but to actually share those feelings as well. Scientists have only recently begun to map the brain regions related to positive emotions such as empathy. But when Davidson observed Ricard meditating on compassion while Ellison, 2006
  • 60. Page 60 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author hooked up to EEG sensors, he found a striking increase in gamma waves in the left prefrontal cortex, an area correlated with reported feelings of happiness. The findings furnish scientific support for something the Dalai Lama often says: A person meditating on compassion for others becomes the first beneficiary. Clinical studies showed that four years after and eight week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction course, participants still experienced positive differences with the treatment integrated into daily life Kabat-Zinn, 2005 Average 54% reduction in psychological distress was reported together with a 46% drop in medical symptoms compared to the control group – results of a mindfulness training program on 32 highly stressed individuals (American Journal of Health Promotion, July 2001) Transforming Practices Website, 2006 Mental (Smith, 2007c) In a study led by psychologist Zindel Segal at the University of Toronto, meditation successfully prevented relapse of depression in patients with a history of recurrent mood disorder. Ellison, 2006 The results of this study support the hypothesis that the changes in brain activity that occur during states of increased psychophysiological coherence lead to changes in the brain's information processing capabilities. Results suggest that by using heart-based Institute for HeartMath, Website, 2006
  • 61. Page 61 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author interventions to self-generate coherent states, individuals can significantly enhance cognitive performance. The UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently endorsed MBCT as an effective treatment for prevention of relapse. Research has shown that people who have been clinically depressed 3 or more times (sometimes for twenty years or more) find that taking the program and learning these skills helps to reduce considerably their chances that depression will return. MBCT, Oxford University, 2006 At the same time, the power of our non-invasive technologies have made it possible to investigate the nature of cognition and emotion in the brain as never before, and to begin to explore the interfaces between mind, brain, and body, and the implications of particular forms of meditative practices for modulating and regulating biological pathways to restore or enhance homeostatic processes and perhaps extend the reach of both mind and body in ways that might potentially promote rehabilitation and healing as well as greater overall health and well-being. Recent studies are showing that meditation can result in stable brain patterns and changes over both short and long-term intervals that have not been seen before in human beings and that suggest the potential for the systematic driving of positive neuroplastic changes via such intentional practices cultivated over time. These investigations may offer opportunities for understanding the basic unifying mechanisms of Mind and Life Org, 2006
  • 62. Page 62 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author the brain, mind and body that underlie awareness and our capacity for effective adaptation to stressful and uncertain conditions. One recent study at Massachusetts General Hospital found that 40 minutes of daily meditation appears to thicken parts of the cerebral cortex involved in attention and sensory processing. In a pilot study at the University of California at San Francisco, researchers found that schoolteachers briefly trained in Buddhist techniques who meditated less than 30 minutes a day improved their moods as much as if they had taken antidepressants. Ellison, 2006 Clinical studies in the US report improved balance and peace of mind after only 8 weeks of a very simple set of movements taken from a variety of tai chi styles. Western Science recognizes the following benefits of practicing Tai Chi: increased oxygen uptake and utilization (more efficient breathing), reduced blood pressure, slower declines in cardiovascular power, increased bone density, increased strength and range of motion of joints, greater leg strength, knee strength, and flexibility, reduced levels of stress hormones during and after practice, improved immune function, and heightened mood states Everyday Tai- Chi Website, 2006 One recent study at Massachusetts General Hospital found that 40 minutes of daily meditation appears to thicken parts of the cerebral cortex involved in attention and Ellison, 2006
  • 63. Page 63 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author sensory processing It's like you're flexing a muscle in the brain. University of Wisconsin's Davidson contends that the mental exercise of meditation strengthens and stabilizes neural networks in the medial prefrontal cortex—the brain's executive control center, involved in the regulation of attention. "People don't recognize that there is lots of plasticity in the circuitry," he adds. "More than previously thought." Ellison, 2006 Encouragement for this new way of thinking comes from an unusual ally. Neuroscience is furnishing hard evidence that the brain is plastic, endowed with a lifelong capacity to reorganize itself with each new experience. "We now know that neural firing can lead to changes in neural connections, and experience leads to changes in neural firing," explains UCLA psychiatrist Daniel Siegel. Violinists' brains actually change as they refine their skill. So do the brains of London cabbies, whose livelihood depends on the sharpness of their memory. Likewise, through repeated practice in focusing attention, meditators may be strengthening the neural circuitry involved in the voluntary control of attention. Ellison, 2006 It's like you're flexing a muscle in the brain. University of Wisconsin's Davidson contends that the mental exercise of meditation strengthens and stabilizes neural networks in the medial prefrontal cortex—the brain's executive control center, involved in the regulation of attention. Ellison, 2006
  • 64. Page 64 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author "People don't recognize that there is lots of plasticity in the circuitry," he adds. "More than previously thought." Even among novices, studies show, a brief meditation session can be more effective than a nap in improving performance on tests that require concentration Ellison, 2006 Some studies of meditation have linked the practice to increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex, which is associated with concentration, planning, meta-cognition (thinking about thinking), and positive affect (good feelings). There are similar studies linking depression and anxiety with decreased activity in the same region, and/or with dominant activity in the right prefrontal cortex. Meditation increases activity in the left prefrontal cortex, and the changes are stable over time — even if you stop meditating for a while, the effect lingers. Vick, 2002. Meditation is associated with marked increases in eletrophysiological signs of activation (gamma) in the pre-front cortex and other brain regions (long term practitioners). Davidson, 2005 There is striking correlation between reports of clarity and gamma signal during compassion meditation. Davidson, 2005 Untrained practitioners are not good at reporting on the quality of mind. Trained Davidson,
  • 65. Page 65 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author practitioners can report on the quality of mind. 2005 Gamma signals and clarity correspond with increased levels of prefrontal cortex activity. (This is the executive seat). De Joe Davidson, 2005 Compassion meditation activates the pre-frontal center of the brain. Findings indicate increased left pre-frontal activation in adepts compared to novices. Pre-frontal activation is associated with positive emotions. Davidson, 2005 Compassion meditation transforms the brain’s response to distressing sounds (e g the sounds that indicate suffering and pain, or anger). Davidson, 2005 Cultivating concentration enhances the front lobe, the executive seat of the human brain (Quoting Dr Joe Dispenza) Arntz et al, Among the more than 4000 patients he (Kabat-Zinn) has treated over 10 years, the simple technique of MBSR has reduced medical illness in these difficult cases by 35%. Even disease as specific and resistant as psoriasis have responded. Among the elderly, other forms of meditation have had even greater health benefits. Contemplative Mind Website, 2006 Sara Lazar found a marked decrease in blood flow to the entire brain," Benson explains. "At the same time, certain areas of the brain became more active, specifically those that control attention and autonomic functions like blood pressure and metabolism. In short, Gromie, 2006
  • 66. Page 66 of 68 Research on benefits/outcomes Author she showed the value of using this method to record changes in the brain's activity during meditation A new study shows that meditation may be able to replace medication for treating ADHD. – ABC News, Washington, DC, March 06, 2006 Transcendental Medication Website, 2006
  • 67. Page 67 of 68 APPENDIX C: BENEFITS OF CONTEMPLATIVE PRACTICE – PIPL RELEVANCE (statistics) Other PIPL relevance (Smith, 2007c) A ten year longitudinal study following meditating college students after they graduated found significant increase in holistic measures of self development (ego-development) compared to data sets for graduates of three control universities matches for gender and age. Transcendental Meditation Website, 2006 One of meditation’s most important benefits may be the effect it has on your self-concept Budilovsky & Eve Adamson, 2003 When the physiological coherence mode is driven by a positive emotional state, we call it psychophysiological coherence. This state is associated with sustained positive emotion and a high degree of mental and emotional stability. In states of psychophysiological coherence, there is increased synchronization and harmony between the cognitive, emotional and physiological systems, resulting in efficient and harmonious functioning of the whole. As we will see in subsequent sections, studies conducted across diverse populations have linked the capacity to self-generate and sustain psychophysiologically coherent states at will with numerous benefits. Observed outcomes include: reduced stress, anxiety and depression; decreased burnout and fatigue; enhanced immunity and Institute for HeartMath Website, 2006
  • 68. Page 68 of 68 hormonal balance; improved cognitive performance and enhanced learning; increased organizational effectiveness; and health improvements in a number of clinical populations. Data showed that in subjects separated by several feet, synchronization can occur between the alpha waves in one person's EEG and the other's ECG signal. However, in this experiment, whether the "receiving" subject's brainwaves synchronized to the "source" subject's heart signal was determined by the degree of coherence in the receiving subject's heart rhythms. Subjects who demonstrated high heart rhythm coherence were more likely to show alpha wave synchronization to the other subject's ECG. This effect was not apparent in subjects with low heart rhythm coherence. Institute for HeartMath Website, 2006 A large scale study of 11,000 prisoners and 900 staff officers in Senegal West Africa in 1987 found that the TM program markedly decreased prison violence, health problems. Transcendental Meditation Website, 2006