"Raising the Librarians' Teaching Identity through Lifelong Learning Modules and Portfolios"


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lecture presented by Marcial R. Batiancila at PAARL's Forum on the occasion of the 14th Philippine Academic Book Fair (Megatrade Hall, SM Megamall, Ortigas Center, Pasig City, 7 July 2010)

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"Raising the Librarians' Teaching Identity through Lifelong Learning Modules and Portfolios"

  1. 2. <ul><li>Information has become a dynamic force in our world—constantly changing, always increasing and regenerating into new variant formats. The ability to use technology as a means to access information has assumed greater importance in the education process (Harvey, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier, Collins and Takacs (1993) expressed that librarians have a unique opportunity to encourage the development of lifelong self-directed information-seeking skills by introducing college students to information technology and its effective use. Educators now emphasize the need for students to be capable of lifelong learning outside-the formal classroom setting. At the same time, information technology is playing an increasingly larger role in students' personal and professional lives. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>The demands of higher academic standards are also pushing librarians to teach more lessons than ever, aligning their programs to teachers' requirements as they teach basic literacy and research skills or commonly known as information literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Fowell and Levy (1995), information professionals share the opportunity to take a leading role in developing and delivering the learning support strategies, which will be appropriate to this new environment by acting as significant culture change agents in their institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson (1987) said that one of the major components of the library is the librarian whose abilities, skills and professional knowledge are basics in teaching and promoting to the clients on the use of its resources and services. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Clyde (2004) had mapped-out various terms to describe library instructions, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>library tours, library orientation, bibliographic instruction, library instruction, library research courses, user training, library skills instruction, user education, library customer education, end user education, information skills instruction, information literacy education, research instruction, among others. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Information literacy has been an area of increasing interest to librarians and information professionals around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier in 1996, U.K. government issued a paper, articulating that lifelong learning would lead to a highly motivated, flexible and well qualified workforce (Brophy, 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, as cited by Mittermeyer and Quirion (2003) the French Ministere de Education Nationale de la Rocherche et de la Technologie published a document on information literacy instruction of which this document revealed a certain consensus among Europeans and North Americans supporting the emerging importance of information literacy education to lifelong learning. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>With this, librarians needs to develop an in-depth understanding of information literacy as it applied to specific discipline, and must expand their approaches for providing effective instruction beyond the traditional concept of library instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby – Pasqualoni and Michael (2002) stressed out that information literacy instruction (ILI) requires a shift in focus from teaching specific information resources to a set of critical thinking skills involving the use of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, they have noted that this change is reflected within the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, developed by the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL). </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Lifelong Learning Modules & Portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Information Literacy </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to &quot;recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. </li></ul><ul><li>An information literate individual is able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the extent of information needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access the needed information effectively and efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate information and its sources critically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALA, 1989 </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Some specific characteristics of successful ILI programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  use of student-centered, active, and collaborative learning methods (Wilson, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adherence to instructional design principles during planning (Hinchliffe & Woodard, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relevance to particular course goals and, ultimately, the overall curriculum (Breivik, 1998; Dewald, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of partnerships between library, faculty, and other campus departments (Stoffle, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support of faculty learning and development (Wilson, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scalability for large numbers of students (Stoffle, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Online Information Literacy Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Texas at Austin's Texas Information Literacy Tutorial (TILT) integrates Web-based ILI into first-year college courses and enhances students' conceptual grasp of information resource selection, database searching and Internet source evaluation. University of Texas, Austin offers interested educational institutions a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The California State University Information Competence Project presents ILI tutorials in a visually interesting environment and addresses mass media literacy. Interactive learning exercises and diverse audiovisual components (e.g., sound, quick-time movies, animations) are incorporated (Clay, Harlan, & Swanson, 2001). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Washington Information Literacy Learning (UWILL) initiative is designed to teach information literacy skills in context with course objectives. Customized tutorials assist students in completing course assignments while developing information competencies (University of Washington, 2001). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>The Information Literacy Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such courses have gained popularity because they offer opportunities for in depth instruction and reinforcement of research skills through course activities (Frantz, 2002). According to Jacobson and Mark (2000), instruction is most effective when offered in context with content-based courses and assignments. Academic libraries have incorporated meaningful learning experiences into information literacy courses in a variety of ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  * University of Oregon's LIB 101 course uses a &quot;scenario-based approach&quot; by building assignments around research situations familiar to undergraduate students (Frantz, 2002). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Instructors of &quot;Information Literacy&quot; at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry offer research assignments allowing students to address topics from their other courses (Elkins et al, 2001). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Montana State University College of Technology's Information Literacy course requires students to investigate a personal problem using information gathered throughout the course (Kaip, 2001). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  * University of Maryland University College offers a required online course, &quot;Information Literacy and Research Methods,&quot; in which students research a particular topic and participate in electronic discussions on timely research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>issues (Read, 2002). **Information Literacy Across the Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>“ The library is a school, and the librarian is in the highest sense a teacher”. </li></ul><ul><li>Melvil Dewey (1876) </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Teaching, in fact, is a hallmark of the library profession today, as more and more people confront the challenges of accessing, retrieving, evaluating, and managing information from an ever-increasing variety of resources (Breivik 1998; Breivik & Gee 1989; Rader 1997; Rockman, et al. 2004 as cited by Walter, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Walter (2005) has opined that academic librarians teach (as do many of their counterparts in school, public, and special libraries); what librarians do not do is teach in the same settings as do the majority of their faculty colleagues. Rather than teaching one or more credit-bearing classes in a given field each semester, most of them teach through a series of guest lectures, or through scheduled workshops on how to locate information or use a particular software application. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>However, McGuiness (2010) have cited several authors against the teaching identity of the librarians, namely : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson (1979) - Not recognised as teachers by academics– unequal educational achievement, no requirement to publish, different socialisation process to the profession. Laying claim to the role, in order to enhance status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eadie (1990), Gorman (1991), Pacey (1995) - Libraries are too complex; focus should be on making them easier to use, and instruction would not be needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilder (2005) - Internet “threat” has been exaggerated by librarians, who wish to create a new role for themselves – “Simply put, information literacy perceives a problem that does not exist” . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saia, 1995 – Some librarians oppose the teaching role: 1) they are overworked, 2) most are not trained as educators, 3) some believe ILI to be ineffective, 4) some want minimal contact with the public, 5) not everyone wants to teach, and 6) for some, ILI is a threatening situation. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>“ the identity problems of academic librarians also relate to their teaching roles. Some librarians have resented the onset of the information literacy movement simply because it makes more complicated the instructional challenges presented to them [...] if some librarians do not see themselves as faculty, how can they see themselves as teachers? Are the two identities and roles related to one another and if so in what way? […] While support for library instruction is now part of most academic library cultures, the extent to which librarians are actually supported in their roles as teachers can vary greatly.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ariews (2010) </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Moreover, McGuiness (2010) has also presented in her paper some of the arguments in favor of the “teacher identity of the librarians” as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians understand the importance of IL; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians understand how students seek information, and what difficulties they experience in the process; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians have a long history of teaching (19th Century); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians are information experts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other stakeholders (e.g. Academics) are not in a position to teach IL; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians who teach can develop a better relationship with students/users, with all-round benefits; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians’ involvement with teaching can lead to greater insight into academic life, and better collegial relationships; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians’ status in institution enhanced. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Biddiscombe (2002, p.228-9) opined that, “…the empowerment of the end-user has brought into question the age-old concepts of libraries and librarianship, traditional structures and skills are no longer adequate for the future we face [...] We live in a postmodern environment in which the traditional concept of an academic library is increasingly becoming something of an anachronism”. </li></ul><ul><li>Peacock (2000) stressed that librarians must be positioned as key educators in the teaching and learning. They require new and refined skills and conceptual understandings that will enable them to perform with an educational competence and professional confidence equal to that of their academic peers. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>McNamara & Core (1998) believed that if librarians are to play their full part in the provision of a quality learning environment for students, they must be trained and qualified educationally as counterparts of their academic colleagues. The shift of emphasis from training to education demands that the librarian should attain a high level of educational credibility by demonstrating sound pedagogical knowledge and reflective practice, and by communicating effectively with faculty colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>However, they also stressed that if librarians are to be equipped to work on effective partnerships with academic colleagues, it is not sufficient for them to receive only minimal training in educational methods and learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Few graduate librarianship courses provide the requisite basics and, frequently, the new librarian has little or no prior theoretical or practical teaching skills. They are, therefore, often ill equipped to assume this complex role (Peacock 1999). </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>The success of the information literacy initiatives of a library is largely dependent upon the commitment of the librarians to the goals and objectives of the program, and their ongoing involvement in the development, promulgation and implementation of educational services and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Mc Elroy (1992) librarians have a contribution comparative to the historian, scientists and philosophers. They are colleagues with expertise to become partners of teachers in educating students and experts in developing competency in the use of library tools, in locating sources and other bibliographic information. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Clyde, L. A. (2004 August). Librarians and breaking barriers to information literacy: implications for continuing professional development and workplace learning. World Library and Information Congress: 70th IFLA General Conference and Council , Buenos Aires, Argentina. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>How do Filipino librarians view themselves in carrying out their role as information literacy instructors or in their involvement in information literacy instruction or customer training at Philippine public, special and academic libraries… </li></ul><ul><li>The instrument used was adapted from the national survey conducted in Canada by Prof. Heidi Julien of the University of Alberta. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Survey : Online Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Period Covered: May 12 – June 23, 2010 </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>Short presentations to groups ( 70%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations to the same group in a series (23%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A semester-length course (11%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other (21%) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Basic library instruction (95% </li></ul><ul><li>Subject or course-specific instruction (27%) </li></ul><ul><li>Library training/workshop on finding information sources (54%) </li></ul><ul><li>Online tutorials (ie database searching, internet searching, etc.) (0%) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual research instruction (59%) </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Less than 2 years (11%) </li></ul><ul><li>Between 2 to 5 years (27%) </li></ul><ul><li>Between 6 to 10 years (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 years (44%) </li></ul>
  24. 26. Formal course related to instruction (taken in undergraduate LIS course or related course such as education) Rank 1 Reading professional or research literature Rank 2 Formal course related to instruction (taken in MLIS course) Rank 3
  25. 28. <ul><li>I love teaching. I enjoy having an active audience. I learn many things from research and in the teaching process. I am up-to-date with current issues, library and information skills/literacy especially in integrating technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The chance to teach my clientele on the effective means of accessing/ finding information they needed the opportunity to share with clients the value of library collections and the chance of informing them the policies and regulations as well as the procedures and services in the library </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy imparting, guiding and assisting students as well as faculty members and personnel with regards to finding library resources especially during their research writing. I feel so fulfilled when I have done something that they really appreciate because they learn much. </li></ul><ul><li>This instructional work gives me the satisfaction of imparting what I learned…how to use and other important insights that I can impart to freshmen , walk in visitors and other informal requests from departments of the importance of a library in a university/school. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of discovering new strategies and techniques to effectively impart knowledge and skills in optimizing the use of the library resources. </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Be able to partake knowledge and develop skills; share ideas, learning and insights on the proper use of the library and its resources. I enjoy seeing the users learned what has been taught and be able to work independently in the library and display skills in library work. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps me develop self-confidence and at the same time encourages me to continue reading and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Doing programs that will promote literacy and making information service valuable to library patrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction knowing that the students and faculty are able to gain or enhance their knowledge to be used in their study and research through instructional work. </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>A lot of challenges can be encountered in the course of the instructional work. For me, we have encountered students who are not really interested in the Library works i.e. they are more inclined in doing their researches in the internet. Persuading/encouraging them in making use of our collection is the primary challenge that we get. </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges I had experienced during this instruction program is that I also gathered information which is unfamiliar to me meaning an added knowledge to us librarians. It enhance my skills in research and other areas because of the existence of e-resources. Familiarization on some technical terms used by the different program offerings in the institution. It helps us establish a harmonious working relationship with the students, faculty members, personnel and administrators. It also boost our morale especially if we delivered our instructions vividly and creatively. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Find effective strategies for the different clients handled through improved communication skills and better audio visual presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>That I need to be updated of the current changes and new technologies that is very vital in the end user's needs in the information and research queries as well as learning more techniques on how to advertise and encourage the public of the existence of a learning resource center, the library. </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge of convincing faculty in research classes why they need to bring their students to a library instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge of delivering a good lecture that will sustain the interest of the students to listen to the lecture </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare a module, and strategies that will make the library instruction enjoyable to attend to. </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Some scientists are reluctant to be taught; they feel that they know how to search and retrieve information already. Also there is the difficulty of convincing researchers that not everything can be searched via Google. </li></ul><ul><li>It depends on the support from administration with regards to time allotted or schedules to conduct library instruction; less interest or support from the teachers as shown in their non-attendance in the class assigned to them wherein we handle the instruction, they are nowhere to be found; since usually the instruction is not graded, less interest and participation of students is evident. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the right and updated information across to the listeners. Making them focused at all times is challenging as well. Compacted information and experience gained from participating in activities of learned societies is helpful but not enough so its important that I take up a higher degree to supplement the knowledge I learned in my undergraduate course. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Instructional work has been more interactive. We do not only do it the manual or traditional way but we can now include our virtual instructional works in the net where our users are more involved into. We can reach them at their most convenient time and place where they won't need to be confined in the four corners of the room. We just give them the online address and they can view it whenever they want to. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional work taught me to be proactive and adaptive on given situations. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of instructional work changed when we received appreciation from our students and faculty members. We cannot deny the fact that library is neglected and sometimes not appreciated by the community because of the attitudes or the image portrayed by the librarian. </li></ul><ul><li>With the fast rate of changes in the use of technology and the great demand for information and knowledge especially by the educational sectors, instructional work/activities need revisions to keep updated with the needs of times. </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>From the old-style library orientation to specialized and in-depth assistance to all levels of users from freshmen to faculty on the use of the library’s resources. The role of library staff now is to seek to assist users, not only in finding needed material, but in developing appropriate search strategies. through a variety of services, such as course-related or course-integrated instruction, hands-on active learning, formal courses on research methods, tutorials, preparation of pathfinders, and web-based instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes. Library work is also evolving. </li></ul><ul><li>Library instruction before is very traditional but as time goes by, it now uses the multimedia and technology applications which is more convenient and effective. </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>School administrator should be supportive with their librarians. </li></ul><ul><li>Library instruction measures our commitment and dedication to assigned tasks and the degree of professionalism. </li></ul><ul><li>I want it to be more perfect and spontaneous. Giving instruction is the best time for librarians to be acknowledge that they are also a professional and let the students feel that librarians do exist. </li></ul><ul><li>I love Library Instruction Program... </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching users how to effectively use the library is a very challenging role especially for school libraries since users depend so much to the librarians/library staff. Technology is also competing with the books. It is very important to train students to read printed materials. It's a challenge! </li></ul><ul><li>That librarians are to be given chances and support from the administration to enhance and retool their limited changes to keep up trends in librarianship globally. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>For me an instructor should have three Is - Involve, Innovate and Inform. One should get involved, should be an innovator and should be ready to inform those who are in need. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians must not only be contented to be practicing one or some aspects of library duties. I observed that some practicing librarian only focused on just one or two areas of librarianship. For me librarianship is a well rounded profession and to become a librarian you must also be well rounded and thus able to perform all functions and duties of being a librarian. Their main objectives are to serve, to provide the right information for the right person at the right time, and to educate others. </li></ul><ul><li>Library lesson/instruction should be incorporated in the elementary and high school subject, especially in public schools. Make it a point that it should be the duty of the school librarian not only to orient pupils and students about the library but to educate them concerning information literacy </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Librarians can shape themselves into educators by devising their teacher identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians has to face this new challenging role - teaching is hard. It’s hard from any angle, using any technology, to any learner. Even for those enviable (and few) “natural teachers,” being an educator is as at least as challenging as it is rewarding. Not only does teaching take skills, preparation, and diligence; it demands bravery, humor, and self-awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Booth, 2010 </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Librarians are educators by default… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the quickest reference interaction to the most in-depth information literacy initiative or staff-training program, librarians and library staff teach, train, present, and design learning materials in every aspect of our jobs, all the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through instruction, assistance, and mentorship we help individuals in every corner of society develop personal learning environments, find and evaluate the information they need to thrive, and empower themselves to be lifelong learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booth, 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>McGuiness (2010) suggested the following means of learning the theory and practice of teaching though: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization to the profession – opportunities for “teaching apprenticeship,” mentoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing “Communities of Practice” – physical and virtual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Standards and Guidelines as a checklist for skills development – setting goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivating “reflective practice”, e.g. through use of teaching portfolios among librarians </li></ul></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Booth (2010) developed a practical four-part instructional literacy framework to help library educators engage with the teaching aspect of their identities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective practice. Is the process of understanding and shaping one’s skills and abilities throughout the entire process, not just assessing your performance at the end of an interaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational theory. Is evidence-based insight into teaching and learning, which consists of learning theory, instructional theory and curriculum theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching technologies. Are the tools and media that facilitate learning… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional design. Is a systematic and learner-focused method of integrating reflection, theory, and technology into the teaching and training process. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Frierson (2007) applies the six (6) principles of the effects of expertise on instruction to library instruction, as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experts notice features and meaningful patterns of information that are not noticed by novices, so teach info in chunks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Experts have acquired a great deal of content knowledge that is organized in ways that reflect a deep understanding of their subject matter,” so help students see the ‘big picture.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Experts' knowledge cannot be reduced to sets of isolated facts or propositions but, instead, reflects contexts of applicability: that is, the knowledge is ‘conditionalized’ on a set of circumstances,” so help students understand how and when to use the information learned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Experts are able to flexibly retrieve important aspects of their knowledge with little attentional effort,” so make each step clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Though experts know their disciplines thoroughly, this does not guarantee that they are able to teach others,” so study pedagogy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Experts have varying levels of flexibility in their approach to new situations” so teach students to be flexible as they apply the information learned in different situations. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><ul><li>Experts-Defined Standard Based on ACRL Standards for Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians and Coordinators ( 2008): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment and evaluation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information literacy integration skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional design skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching skills </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>It is clear that libraries of all types are seeking to recruit professionals who have skills in user education, and information literacy development. </li></ul><ul><li>User education or instructional activities may be the primary focus of a job in which the librarian does nothing (or almost nothing) else (Clyde, 2004). </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Clyde (2004) have cited several authors in her paper entitled “Librarians and Breaking Barriers to Information Literacy: Implications for Continuing Professional Development and Workplace Learning” on the extent on how the new entrants to the profession being prepared to undertake these kinds of professional activities, as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westbrook’s (1999) study of the curricula of American schools of library and information science showed that between 1974 and 1996 there had been a gradual increase in the number of courses offered in the areas of bibliographic instruction, user education, and information literacy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the same year, Sullivan (1997) carried out a questionnaire survey of the 48 library schools accredited by the ALA in continental USA. Of the 33 institutions that responded, 19 (58%) had a full subject devoted to aspects of user education (though this subject or course was not necessarily a compulsory course), while five (15%) integrated the topic into their program though they had no separate subject for it. In only nine (27%) was the topic not dealt with in the curriculum. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>… the extent on how the new entrants to the profession being prepared to undertake these kinds of professional activities… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As Sullivan says, it seems that “user education … is an established part of the library school curriculum” (Sullivan, 1997, p.276). However, even assuming a further gradual increase in course offerings since 1996, there is no guarantee that students will have taken these courses, and graduates from a quarter of the ALA-accredited library schools will have been offered no courses with any content relevant to the topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeed, in terms of needs for continuing professional development of library staff, Newton and Dixon’s (1999) study of Scottish libraries indicated that user education was the “area of greatest consequence for most professionals” (Newton & Dixon, 1999). Newton and Dixon recommended “a strategic approach to teaching information professionals to teach”, particularly in the case of established professionals, though they also considered pre-professional programs. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>… the extent on how the new entrants to the profession being prepared to undertake these kinds of professional activities… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This priority for continuing professional development is reinforced by the work of Morgan and Atkinson (2000), who reviewed “current trends in academic, mainly university libraries”. Among the trends they identified were involvement in lifelong learning, and involvement in teaching information handling skills (including instruction for students in distance education programs). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly, if libraries around the world are to provide significant support for the current IFLA President’s theme, then the Section for Continuing Professional Development and Workplace Learning has a role to play in highlighting the needs for staff development and for quality continuing professional development programs in this field. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>While in the Philippines, Dizon (2008) concluded his paper that the LIS curriculum in the Philippines is still traditional in comparison to the LIS curriculum of other countries like the U.S., Europe, Australia, Singapore, and China. IL must be included in the core of the LIS curriculum and to ensure this, it is imperative to establish a Philippine LIS curriculum standard that is regularly evaluated and that is responsive to changes happening around the world. All of this is necessary in order for LIS students to have all the competencies needed in teaching and promoting IL. </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>Furthermore, Dizon (2008) recommended the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For international library/librarian organizations- push/influence their members and local counterparts to create a nationally agreed standard on LIS curricula in order to include IL in the learning experience of the LIS students, given its very important role in nation building and in developing life-long learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For national library/librarian organizations- raise awareness about the importance of IL to their members and encourage LIS schools to constantly evaluate their curricula in order to guarantee its relevance today and in the future; to study the possibility of creating accreditation of LIS programs to serve as a quality assurance activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For LIS schools, to retool their faculty members through professional development activities, whether formal or informal; to regularly evaluate their curriculum to see if what they are teaching conforms to the needs of society that they will serve. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>Walter (2005) stresses the significance of the instructional role for librarians on the 21st-century college campus, it is important to identify the ways in which academic librarians with little or no background in pedagogy, instructional design, or assessment of student learning meet the challenge of becoming effective teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Here it is important to recognize the significance of teachers’ education in preparing librarians in carrying out their teaching/instructional role. </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>The teaching function of librarians is at a crossroads. The development of professional teaching competencies may enable them to work efficiently and be able to survive in the new world of libraries and information services. More so, the librarians must develop a culture of excellence, innovation and expertise on the pedagogy of teaching information literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this necessitates reengineering and redefining of the LIS education incorporating IL education in the curricula in order to prepare librarians on their teaching/instructional role. </li></ul>
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