Competitive & Saleable E-Content for Philippine Libraries
Joseph M. Yap
De La Salle University -
August 19, 2010
PAARL: Library and Web 2011
Holy Angel University, Angeles City, Pampanga
a. To know about E-Content and its components.
b. To understand what E-Learning is.
c. To learn how libraries can make use of E-Content
I. What is E-Content?
II. Development of Media.
III. Defining E-Content.
IV. Components of E-Content.
V. Profile of Today’s Library User.
VI. Changes in Communications Technology.
IX. Digital Rights Management and Creative Commons.
X. E-Learning Tools.
XI. Challenges, Actions for E-Content and E-Learning.
XII.Competitive and Saleable E-Content.
What is E-Content?
Information that can be displayed ,
processed, stored or transmitted
electronically (Organisation for Economic Co-
operation and Development, 1999).
◦ Scanned document which was emailed = E-content?
◦ Information stored on CD-ROM = E-content?
◦ Re-tweeted link from a FB status message = E-
Harry Pross (1972) differentiated media according to the
technology involved in their production and reception.
Primary Media – signify those that are bound to the
human body and do not need any kind of technological
device, neither in their production nor in their reception.
Eg. Natural language.
Secondary Media – need technology on the production
side but not on the reception side. Eg. Printed books.
Tertiary Media – require technological devices both for
production and reception. Eg. Broadcast media, DVD,
telephone, networked computer.
? Tertiary Media = E-Content = Electronic content ?
Analogue content – video, radio
Digital content – 3D, mp3
Digital content – can be online or offline content.
Offline content – can be stored on CDs or External hard
Online content – delivered via network and allows
interactivity and feedback routines.
Any information published on any Internet
platform, from the traditional web through
wireless devices to Internet appliances and
broadband video (European Commission, 2001).
Digital information delivered over networked-
based electronic devices which allow humans to
share visions and influence each other’s
knowledge, attitudes and behavior. E-Content
allows for user involvement and may change
dynamically according to the user’s behavior
(Buchholz & Zerfass, 2005).
Components of E-Content according to Michael
Content: Any information, media or other
intellectual property at hand.
Application: The format in which the content is
presented and the use options offered by that
Exchange: The channels through which the
content in its current format may be exchanged
between individuals/ groups of people.
We want to get information/data:
• Information services and aggregators:
subscription-based content (databases, e-
The format in which the content is presented
and the use options offered by that format.
• Digital movie (mpeg format)
• Web page (HTML format)
The channels through which the content in its
current format may be exchanged between
individuals and groups of people.
• Interactive chat services
Impatient, but easily satisfied.
• Want convenient, easy, time-
• Want to control their personal
Want to receive information
• Immediate information
From: Hirshon, Arnold (2004). If
E-Content is King, what is alsso.slis.kent.edu
happening to the Kingdom?
“The cell phone has changed the society more
than the home computer (Hirshon, 2004).”
College students integrate technology into
They engage in social networks and
They are exposed a lot in the online
Freeweb: represents the largest mass of generally
available content in the world.
• No certified credibility or authoritative value.
E-Content is a means to deliver real-time
information to specific individuals and initiate
knowledge dialogue that leads to practical action.
• Developing networks of expertise depends on
effectively personalizing the need of individuals
and groups for access to information resources.
Estimates of growth when compared to
conventional face-to-face teaching in higher
education range from 20-30% per year (Canadian
Association of Research Libraries, 2005).
E-Learning “is a mode of educational delivery
whereby teacher and learner are separated in
time and space, and instruction is delivered
through specially designed materials and
methods using appropriate technologies, and
supported by organizational and administrative
structures and arrangements (CHED
Memorandum Order No. 27, s 2005).”
Full online implementation
- entire course and all the interactions
between faculty and students are online.
Blended or Hybrid Learning
- courses that mix face-to-face and online
access to instruction and course materials.
E-Content is a digitized content that can
facilitate the learning process and/or learning
Libraries help to find and organize resources
to complement programs and courses
making use of e-learning.
Librarians have a new role to do in the advent of E-
Faculty/ Instructors – provide Instructional Learning
Librarians – share, use and reuse the learning
Learning object librarians /
copyright licensing officers -
identify, obtain, license, and then
make available digital resources
for use by faculty in both e-
learning and blended learning
To have a practical learning object repository
To have software programs that classify,
store, organize, search, and retrieve exemplar
teaching resources from online databases and
To have a commonly accepted format for the
sharing and reuse of learning resources.
consolidation of shareable resources
Creative Commons has developed a Web
application that helps people dedicate their
creative works to the public domain — or
retain their copyright while licensing them as
free for certain uses, on certain conditions.
Digital copyright and licensing model/
mechanism for the sharing and reuse of
digital learning resources conceived by law
researchers at the Stanford University Law
You keep your copyright but allow people to copy
and distribute your work provided they give you
Learning resources can be used and reused in the
academic setting, there is a balanced view of
copyright and the ownership of intellectual
Moodle-Open Source Course
Management System (CMS), also
known as a Learning Management
System (LMS) or a Virtual Learning
LAMS-tool for designing,
managing and delivering online
collaborative learning activities.
Sakai-free and open source
software under the Educational
MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for
Learning and Online Teaching) - free and open online
community of resources designed primarily for
faculty, staff and students of higher education from
around the world to share their learning materials
Edu2.0 - Next generation education for school
Videolectures - free and open access educational
video lectures repository.
OpenCourseWare (MIT) - MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW)
is a web-based publication of virtually all MIT course
content. OCW is open and available to the world and
is a permanent MIT activity.
Philippine eLearning Society (PeLS) was founded on July 30,
2003 in Manila with the objective of promoting substantive
content, appropriate pedagogy, and appropriate use of
technology for eLearning, guided by ongoing research
PeLS serves as a venue for:
Promoting research on the effective use of eLearning,
Sharing of eLearning experiences,
Developing standards of excellence,
Promoting interoperability of eLearning systems,
Encouraging collaboration in the development of substantive
Cooperating with international eLearning groups, and
Promoting public awareness and appreciation of the nature
and uses of eLearning.
“Open Educational Resources (OER)” (Common
A few important issues:
Finding relevant content
Integrating content from various resources
Managing externally linked content (lack of
control, broken links, etc.)
Copyrights (e.g. Creative Commons)
Technical and Functional Requirements
• display and integrate a variety of information
windows as part of a learning activity
• aggregate access (discovery and exchange) to
content in any given learning context
• provide bibliographic tools that permit easy
searching and reference completions
• provide access to tools that render and present
content in user-customized formats
• integrate plagiarism software into course
management systems to encourage good practice
and to assess reliability of content
Technical and Cultural Requirements
• embed library resources in course
• integrate third-party commercial information
• customize portal facilities for storing
• provide easy access to virtual reference
services at the point of need
• embed training modules to assist in
Using Roger Schank’s (2002) seven (7) criteria for assessing the effectiveness of an
CRITERIA Description Tips
Failure Enable failures that surprise Include challenging games, simulations,
the student. exercises, assignments and quizzes.
Reasoning Encourage practice in Use forums, chat, podcasting, video
reasoning. recording, screencasting, blogs & wikis
Emotionality Evoke emotional reactions Include emotionally evoking relevant
(feelings) in the student. stories that are preferably real.
Exploration Promote exploration, Promote web quests, aggregators, social
curiosity and enable inquiry. bookmarking, e-portfolio & groupware.
Doing Encourage practice in doing. Utilize multi-mode gaming/simulation,
We learn so that we can do. virtual labs, or the real thing (if
Observation Allow students to see things Observe the real thing/world if possible.
for themselves. If not use the virtual alternative.
Motivation Supply or build upon existing Make it relevant, interesting & enjoyable.
motivation. Simply ask the students what motivates
Expand technology infrastructures
- open source solutions for educational
Stay abreast of emerging technologies
- know the latest trends educational
Engage in technology planning
- technology assessment and planning
- have a clear e-content collection
- engage in outcome-based statistical
assessments of e-resources
Content production and integration
- create local educational repositories
Expand the technology infrastructure to
- Develop consortial open source solutions for
Provide education/consulting services
- Technology readiness assessment, strategic
planning and evaluations.
Production and assessment
- Digital content generation and management
- E-learning course management integration
Planning and marketing
- Creating alternative digital publications
Develop digital communities
- Promote collaboration with regional
Content closer to reality (Utvich, 2005).
Convergence of literacies [media literacy, information
literacy and technology literacy] (Lippincott, 2007).
- professionals from a variety of areas could
collaborate to develop experiences that can be
embedded in the curriculum to assist graduates in
becoming sophisticated digital-content producers.
We use technology to improve quality, increase
access and enhance the flexibility of learning
programs (Oblinger & Hawkins, 2005).
By 2010 most e-content in higher
education will be explored
discovered, engaged, discussed,
integrated and developed by
Alsagoff, Zaid Ali. Reflecting the Future e-Content
Development Evolution in Higher Education.
CARL ABRC. (2005). Libraries and E-Learning: a discussion
E-Content: Technologies and Perspectives for the
European Market. Berlin : Springer, 2005.
Francisco, Felizardo. On e-learning/distance learning.
Hirshon, Arnold (2004). If E-Content is King, what is
happening to the Kingdom?
Lippincott, Joan K. Student Content Creators: Convergence
of Literacies. Educause. November/December 2007.
Oblinger & Hawkins. The Myth about E-Learning.
Educause. July/August 2005.
Utvich, Michael. (2005). E-content : the key to developing
a strategic advantage. From Handbook of Business
Strategy. Retrieved from: Emerald Group.
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