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lecture presented at PAARL's Summer National Conference on the theme "“Library Tourism & Hospitality: The Business of Endearing Philippine Libraries and Information Centers to Publics” (San Antonio …

lecture presented at PAARL's Summer National Conference on the theme "“Library Tourism & Hospitality: The Business of Endearing Philippine Libraries and Information Centers to Publics” (San Antonio Resort, Baybay Beach, Roxas City, Capiz, 27-29 April 2011) by Florbella Bongalos

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  • 2. WHAT IS A RECORD?International Standardization Organization (ISO) 15489 ...“an information created, received and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business”.
  • 3. WHAT IS A RECORD?International Council on Archives (ICA):“a recorded information produced or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an institutional or individual activity and that comprises content, context and structure sufficient to provide evidence of the activity”.
  • 4. WHAT IS AN “ARCHIVES”?Archives is understood in these four instances ... The materials created or received by a person, family, or organization, public or private, in the conduct of their affairs and preserved because of the enduring value; permanent records; The repository/depository, building (or portion thereof) housing archival collections; The organization (office, agency or program) The professional discipline (Pearce-Moses, 2005 and SAA)
  • 5. NATURE OF ARCHIVAL MATERIALS permanent unique organically-related of an entity in any format systematically arranged and maintained
  • 6. SOME EXAMPLES OF TRADITIONAL PAPER-BASED MATERIALS Minutes of meetings Reports Diaries Correspondence Invitations and programs Legal documents Handbooks Yearbooks Photographs Maps
  • 7. SOME EXAMPLES OF RECORDS IN ELECTRONIC,MULTI-MEDIA AND/OR MIXED FORMATS: Databases with inputs, outputs, master files E-mails or voice mails Web sites Digital photographs Scanned images Films, video and audio recordings Artifacts, memorabilia
  • 8. EXAMPLES OF NON-RECORDS Library materials Personal letters Duplicate copies Excess inventory Spam mails
  • 9. TYPES OF ARCHIVES Government Business / Corporate College / University / School / Academic Ecclesiastical / Religious / Church Film and Sound / AV Medical and Health / Hospital Private / Family / Personal Military Digital
  • 10. WHAT CAN ARCHIVES DO? determines identity provides resources for publications increases efficiency provides sources for research serves requirement of law for good governance
  • 11. THINGS TO CONSIDER BEFORE STARTING ANARCHIVES be an ongoing, permanent program has to have a budget have control over archival materials have authority to hire and supervise employees
  • 12. GROUNDWORK ...REQUIREMENTS FOR STARTING AN ARCHIVES ...1. Commitment: formal, ongoing, and long-term written authority, ideally issued by the highest office ongoing support for budget, staff, space, facilities, equipment and materials2. Formulation of policy documents written formulation of archives policies3. Appointment of an “archivist” and staff
  • 14. FUNCTIONS OR DOMAINS OF ARCHIVES(What do archivists do?) Inventory and Appraisal Acquisition Accession Arrangement Description Reference Services and Access Outreach, Advocacy and Promotion Preservation and Protection of materials Emergency and disaster management Response Recovery Conservation / Restoration Management of archival programs
  • 15. APPRAISALdetermining the value of materials
  • 16. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:APPRAISAL ... BASIS ... Goals of the organization Collection / Archives Policy Archives principles Criteria of values
  • 17. APPRAISAL CRITERIA ...Records appraisal for their “archival” value is selection of records that have these categories of values ... Primary values Operating Administrative Fiscal Legal Historical Secondary values Evidential Permanent, continuing, enduring Informational Research Intrinsic
  • 18. APPRAISAL ... Inventory – tool for appraisal Inventory - sometimes called survey checklist preliminary inventory calendar finding aid
  • 19. WHAT IS AN INVENTORY? list of materials.
  • 20. EXAMPLES OF INVENTORIES Records Management Inventory Archives Records Inventory
  • 21. SAMPLERECORDS MANAGEMENT INVENTORYType of Records Retention period RemarksInventoried in theController’s OfficeBy-laws, charters Permanent Move to archives when not frequently used.Board minutes Permanent “Annual reports Permanent “Photographs Permanent “Annual audits Permanent “Monthly budgets Temporary Retain for 2 yearsTravel documents Temporary Retain 1 year after travel
  • 22. SAMPLE: ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS INVENTORY XYZ ArchivesReference code(s)TitleDate(s)Level of DescriptionExtent and Medium of and level of description (quantity, bulk, or size)Name of Creator(s)Administrative history Inventory Records of the Office of the President (Fonds) Box Folder RG or Fonds / Series / File / Item Inclusive dates No. No.1 1-5 Minutes Board of Trustees 19602 1-2 Articles of Incorporation, By-Laws 19702 3 Board resolutions 1970-19803 1 Certificates 1960 - 1986Processing informationDate(s) of description
  • 23. STEPS IN DOING AN INVENTORY Locate the records. Identify all locations. Determine the types of records / formats Keep track of retentions requirements
  • 24. INVENTORY FIELDS Creator (name of office creating or maintaining the records Contact information: contact person, address, number Type / format / title of records Brief description of content Inclusive dates of the records Size/volume (extent of the records) Copy or original (there may be a number of duplicates) Location (building, room, warehouses, cabinets, etc.) List (box number, number of folders)
  • 25. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:ACQUISITIONthe active gathering of recordsSynonymous terms: o Accruals o Accretions
  • 26. SOME METHODS OF ACQUISITION Transfer from the Records Management Office / Center based on Records Retention Schedule Direct transfer from units or offices within the institution / organization Purchase Gift or donation Donation with tax appraisal Copy Loan
  • 27. SOUND RECORDS MANAGEMENT :COMPONENTS ... Comprehensive inventory of the organization’s records Uniform / consistent filing system within the different units of the organization Records Life Cycle / Records Continuum Concept Preparation and strict adherence to the RRDS (Records Retention and Disposition Schedule)
  • 28. RECORDS LIFE CYCLE CONCEPT ... Creation, Receipt, Collection or Capture Destruction Transfer to Storage Disposition Organization, Area Control, MaintenanceTransfer to Archives
  • 29. SAMPLE: TRANSMITTAL FORM XYZ ARCHIVES RECORDS TRANSMITTAL FORMAccession Number: Date:Date received: Location No.Name of Transmitting Office: Address and telephone: Contact person:Bulk, volume, size:Description:Restrictions (if any):
  • 30. ELEMENTS OF A DEED OF DONATION Name of donor Information about the donor (address, contact number, etc.) Short description of the donation (bulk, volume and extent, condition, etc.) Conditions of transfer (is copyright included, is it mere deposit, etc.) Conditions or restrictions of access and use (is it restricted, open to the public)
  • 31. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:ACCESSION Recording of materials received in the accession recordsSynonymous terms: Accretion Accrual Registration of records
  • 32. ACCESSION RECORD An accession record can be A book / log book Loose leaf or sheet Catalog card Computer record
  • 33. ELEMENTS OF AN ACCESSION RECORD Name of Creator, Source, Donor (juridical or natural person) Creator, donor or source information Date of accession/date received Description of materials (types, extent of materials, volume, physical condition, inclusive dates) Type of arrangement, if any Method of acquisition Acknowledgement/Deed Relationship with records already in archives Status of rights / restrictions (of access and use) Preliminary inventory Remarks Temporary or permanent location in archives Reference number or assigned accession number
  • 34. SAMPLE:ACCESSION RECORD Name of creator / source of records (Organization, office or individual) Date received Quantity/Bulk of material/Volume Relation of material to other material(s) already in the archives/current location of material Temporary or permanent reference number
  • 35. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:ARRANGEMENTorganizing archival materials in accordance with archival principles.
  • 36. CONSIDERATIONSIN PRIORITIZING ARRANGEMENT the importance of the creator /source expectation for frequent use or high historical and/or information value
  • 37. PRINCIPLES OF ARCHIVES Principle of provenance Principle of original order or the sanctity of original order
  • 38. PRINCIPLE OF PROVENANCEmaintains that the records of one source or creator should not be mixed with the records or another source or creator
  • 39. PRINCIPLE OF ORIGINAL ORDERmaintains that the order the records as they were created and used by the source or creator should be preserved or respected (sanctity of original order).
  • 40. ARCHIVES FUNCTIONS ...ARRANGEMENT AND DESCRIPTION Arrangement – organizing Description – preparing a finding aid
  • 41. SAMPLE GROUPING OF ARCHIVAL MATERIALS Legal documents Constitution and By-Laws Incorporation papers Contracts, deeds, MOAs Administrative and Policy Documents Minutes of Board, Committee and Council meetings Personnel records Manuals, handbooks Financial records Records documenting activities Publications Programs Publicity materials Conference, seminar, workshop records Correspondence, memos, emails AV materials Artifacts and memorabilia Personal Papers Diaries, histories and papers of individual members / leaders
  • 42. LEVELS OF ARCHIVAL ARRANGEMENTDepository/repository Fonds (Record Group) Series File Item (optional)
  • 43. EXAMPLES OF LEVELS OF ARRANGEMENT:RECORD GROUP (FONDS): XYZ BOARD OF TRUSTEES RECORDSDepository/ repository : XYZ University Archives Record Group : Board of Trustees Records Series : Minutes of meetings File : Minutes of meeting, 2010 May 10 Item : Board Resolution No. 5 S2010
  • 44. FINDING AID a description that provides information about the contents and nature of the archival materials. Types of finding aids: Calendar/chronicle/diary Catalogs Indexes Registers Inventories Guides
  • 45. SOME BASIC ELEMENTS OF DESCRIPTIONINCLUDED IN FINDING AIDS Reference code/Accession No./Location Name of collecting agency/name of archives Name of creator/source Physical description/extent or quantity Dates Administrative/Biographical information Scope and content notes System of arrangement Listing/inventory of materials Restrictions Available finding aids Name of archivist preparing the finding aid
  • 46. FINDING AID: INVENTORYFour Sections of a standard inventory Introduction Administrative / Historical / Biographical Note Scope and Content note Box/Folder/Item list
  • 47. SAMPLE ARCHIVAL FINDING AID: INVENTORY XYZ ArchivesReference code(s)TitleDate(s)Level of DescriptionExtent and Medium of and level of description (quantity, bulk, or size)Name of Creator(s)Administrative history Inventory Records of the Office of the President (RG) Box Folder RG / Series / File / Item Inclusive dates No. No.1 1-5 Minutes Board of Trustees 19602 1-2 Articles of Incorporation, By-Laws 19702 3 Board resolutions 1970-19803 1 Certificates 1960 - 1986Processing info: Processed by AbcDate(s) of description : 2011
  • 48. SOME INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND FORMATSOR BEST PRACTICES IN ARCHIVAL DESCRIPTION AACR Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (Library Association of Britain, US and Canada) MARC MAchine Readable Cataloging (US and Canada) EAD Encoded Archival Description (Library of Congress) DACS Describing Archives: A Content Standard (SAA) RAD Rules of Archival Description (Canada) Dublin Core OCLC ISAD(G) General International Standard Archival Description (ICA)
  • 49. STANDARD OF ARCHVAL DESCRIPTION:ISAD(G): 7 AREAS AND 26 ELEMENTSEssential elements:These are the elements that should be included in a finding aid.1. Reference code2. Title3. Creator4. Dates5. Extent of the unit of description6. Level of description
  • 50. SAMPLE ARCHIVAL FINDING AID : INVENTORY AND ISAD(G) XYZ ArchivesReference code(s)TitleDate(s)Level of DescriptionExtent and Medium of and level of description (quantity, bulk, or size)Name of Creator(s)Administrative history Inventory Records of the Office of the President (RG) Box Folder RG / Series / File / Item Inclusive dates No. No.1 1-5 Minutes Board of Trustees 19602 1-2 Articles of Incorporation, By-Laws 19702 3 Board resolutions 1970-19803 1 Certificates 1960 - 1986Processing info: Processed by GabiDate(s) of description : 2011
  • 51. SAMPLE ARCHIVAL DESCRIPTION: USING EAD (ENCODED ARCHIVAL DESCRIPTION) STANDARD<acqinfo> <head>Acquisition Information</head> <p>Acquired, 2010.</p><acqinfo><processinfo> <head>Processing History</head> <p>Processed by XYZ, 2010.</p><processinfo><arrangement> <head>Arrangement of XYZ President’s Records</head> <p>The filing system for the XYZ President’s Records has generally been maintained in its original form. The original folders and their labels have been retained. Where the basic original order is not discernible or is absent, the processor devised a necessary order and/or arranged the records within the groups of the collection.</p><arrangement>c01 level=series”> <did> <unittitle>XYC President’s Records, Minutes of Meeting</unittitle> <unitdate type=”inclusive” normal=”1980/2010”>1980-2010</unitdate> <physdesc><extent>20 linear feet (21 boxes) </extent> </physdesc> <did> <scopecontent> <p>Minutes of meetings of the President’s Council, 1980 to 2010.</p> </scopecontent>
  • 52. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:REFERENCE SERVICES AND ACCESS making records available to users clear, written statement as to who is allowed access what materials are allowed to be accessed rules and regulations in the reading area
  • 53. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:OUTREACH, ADVOCACY AND PROMOTION Involves raising archives awareness of collections and services Promote your archives Publish a guide (printed, online or both) Write an article in organization’s newsletter Mount exhibits Network with faculty Conducting seminars, workshops, speaking engagements Holding an archives day Holding competitions, tours
  • 54. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:PRESERVATION AND PROTECTION OF MATERIALSDefinition: To prevent, slow down/minimize or stop the physical and chemical deterioration of materials To prevent the loss of information content; and To guarantee the security, safety and survival of the materials in case of a disaster(U.S. National Archives and Records Administration)
  • 55. ARCHIVES FUNCTION:PRESERVATION AND PROTECTION OF MATERIALS Preservation and Protection components include ... Emergency and disaster management Response Recovery Conservation Restoration programs
  • 56. DIGITIZATION ... Is one method for media preservation; and It is also a way to promote archives
  • 57. CHALLENGES TO DIGITIZATION ... Software and format obsolescence Media obsolescence Hardware obsolescence Costs Expertise Risks
  • 58. MANAGEMENT OF ARCHIVAL PROGRAMS Angelika Menne-Haritz wrote in “Archival Training in a Changing World”: “Archives are the memories of a nation or a people ... Archival work consists of the management ... of materials in unchanged shape as the basis for constantly changing memories.”
  • 59. NCCA NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON ARCHIVES1ST NATIONAL ARCHIVES CONGRESS 2009: RESOLUTIONSIn furtherance of RA 9470 or the NAP Act Establishment of archives and records centers in institutions Creation of an Archives management committees in institutions Creation of distinct positions of archivists and records officers or managers; and possible subsequent professionalization of the profession. Develop a distinct formal course or degree on archives and records management. Acquire and collect information on the various opportunities, ways and means on archives and records management education, training, seminars and workshop.
  • 60. 1ST NATIONAL ARCHIVES 2009:RESOLUTIONS ... CONTINUED Acquire and collect information on standards, best practices and benchmark of archival and records management theories and practices Increase and improve communication lines and linkages about the activities of NAP and its subdivisions. Develop and create programs and activities for fund raising Develop strategic plans of priority actions for capability and capacity building of archives and records center Intensive information dissemination of RA 9470, NAP Circulars and other official issuances of the NAP Executive Director.End.
  • 61. SOURCES American Archivist. Archival Issues. ARMS Archives and Records Management Section. United Nations. Ashe, Carolyn and Chynette Nealy. Records Management. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2004. Canadian Council on Archives
  • 62. SOURCES ... Baldridge, Steven W. Granite Mountain Record Vault. Enclopedia of Mormonism. Vol. 2. /granite_mountain_eom.htm Benjamin, Tom. “Adaptation of Underground Space.” March 1999. Boles, Frank. Selecting and Appraising Archives and Manuscripts. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2005. Dearstyne, Bruce. Leading and Managing Archives and Records Programs. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc., 2008. Describing Archives: A Content Standard. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2004. Ellis, Judith, editor. Keeping Archives. Port Melbourne: D.W. Thorpe and Society of Australian Archivists, 1993.
  • 63. SOURCES ... Hunter, Gregory S. Developing and Maintaining Practical Archives. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2000. International Council on Archives. ISO 15489 Jones, Maggie and Neil Beagrie. Preservation Management of Digital Materials: A Handbook. London: British Library, 2002. A Manual for Small Archives. Vancouver: The Association of British Columbia Archivists, 1988. Muller, Samuel, J. A. Feith and R. Fruin. Manual for the Arrangement and Description of Archives. SAA Archival Classics Series. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2003.
  • 64. SOURCES ... National Archives of Australia National Commission for Culture and the Arts O’Toole, James M. Understanding Archives and Manuscripts. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1990. Parker, Elizabeth. Managing Your Organization’s Records. The Successful LIS Professional. London: Library Association Publishing, 1999.
  • 65. SOURCES ... Pearce-Moses, Richard A. A Glossary of Archival Records Terminology. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2005. Primer on Establishing a Records and Archives Management Program for Local Government. Pasig City: Philippines- Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP), 2004. Pugh, Mary Jo. Providing Reference Services for Archives and Manuscripts. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2005. Reyes, Maita Maronilla, Chemist Art Conservator and Stone Conservation Specialist Ritzenthaler, Mary Lynn and Diane Vogt-O’Connor. Photographs: Archival Care and Management. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2006.
  • 66. SOURCES ... Robek, M.F., G.F. Brown and D.O. Stephens. Information and Records Management: Document-Based Information Systems. New York: Glencoe, 1995. Robertson, Guy. Paper Crazy No More: Records Management for Library Chaos Junkies. Roe, Kathleen. Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscripts. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2005. Safaddy, William. Managing Electronic Records. Prairie Valley, KS: Association of Records Managers and Administrators, 2002. Sample Forms for Archives and Management Programs. Chicago, Illinois: ARMA International and Society of American Archivists, 2002. Schellenberg, Theodore R. Management of Archives. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965. Yale University
  • 67. SOURCES ... Society of American Archivists Stewart, Jeffrey R., Judith Scharle and Judith A. Hickey. Records and Database Management. Ohio: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1989. Taylor, Arlene G. The Organization of Information. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 1999. UNESCO The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Wikipedia
  • 68. END. Everyone is welcome to the Archives! Questions?Florbella S. BongalosApril 15, 2011