Research Report On Bio-Diesel Resources In Pakistan

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Research Report On Bio-Diesel Resources In Pakistan

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Research Report On Bio-Diesel Resources In Pakistan

  1. 1. RESEARCH REPORT ON BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES IN PAKISTANA PROJECT OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT BOARD (AEDB) GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN Report prepared by CLEAN POWER (PVT.) LTD. 0001-1000000-062-001 ISSUE: 01 JULY, 2005
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................................ 2 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................................ 6 SECTION 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................. 7 SECTION 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 9 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................. 9 SECTION 3 .................................................................................................................................... 10 ABOUT BIO-DIESEL ..................................................................................................................... 10 3.1 WHAT IS BIO-DIESEL ................................................................................................. 10 3.2 UTILIZATION / APPLICATIONS OF BIO-DIESEL...................................................... 10 3.3 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS IN BIO-DIESEL.............................................................. 12 3.4 RESOURCES OF BIO-DIESEL ................................................................................... 12 SECTION 4 .................................................................................................................................... 14 CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES AND JUSTIFICATION ............................... 14 4.1 CLASSIFICATION ........................................................................................................ 14 4.2 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-I RESOURCES................................................................ 14 4.2.1 CATEGORY A – CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS..14 4.2.2 CATEGORY B – NON CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS . ........................................................................................................................15 4.2.3 CATEGORY C – INDUSTRIES BASED CROPS ...........................................15 4.2.4 CATEGORY D – WILD PLANT RESOURCES...............................................15 4.3 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-I RESOURCES................... 16 4.4 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-II RESOURCES............................................................... 17 4.5 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-II RESOURCES.................. 18 SECTION – 5 ................................................................................................................................. 19 DESCRIPTION OF CLASS-I RESOURCES ................................................................................ 19 5.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 19 5.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PONGAME................................................................ 21 5.2.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................22 5.2.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................22 5.2.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................22 5.2.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................22 5.2.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................22 5.2.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................22 5.2.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................23 5.2.8 USES...............................................................................................................23 5.3 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MUSTARD ................................................................ 24Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 2 of 99
  3. 3. 5.3.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................25 5.3.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................25 5.3.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................25 5.3.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................25 5.3.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................26 5.3.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................26 5.3.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................27 5.3.8 USES...............................................................................................................27 5.4 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF WHITE MUSTARD ................................................... 28 5.4.1 GERMPLASM............................................................................................................... 28 5.4.2 DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................ 29 5.4.3 ECOLOGY .................................................................................................................... 29 5.4.4 CULTIVATION .............................................................................................................. 29 5.4.5 HARVESTING ...................................................................................................................... 29 5.4.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ............................................................................................................... 30 5.4.7 ENERGY....................................................................................................................... 30 5.4.8 USES..................................................................................................................................... 30 5.5 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF BLACK OR BROWN MUSTARD ............................. 31 5.5.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................31 5.5.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................31 5.5.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................32 5.5.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................32 5.5.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................32 5.5.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................32 5.5.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................32 5.5.8 USES...............................................................................................................33 4.6 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CANOLA ................................................................... 33 5.6.1 GERMPLASM............................................................................................................... 34 5.6.2 DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................ 34 5.6.3 ECOLOGY ............................................................................................................................ 34 5.6.4 CULTIVATION ...................................................................................................................... 35 5.6.5 HARVESTING ...................................................................................................................... 35 5.6.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ............................................................................................................... 35 5.6.7 ENERGY ............................................................................................................................... 36 5.6.8 USES..................................................................................................................................... 37 5.7 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CASTOR BEANS...................................................... 37 5.7.1 GERMPLASM............................................................................................................... 38 5.7.2 DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................ 38 5.7.3 ECOLOGY .................................................................................................................... 38 5.7.4 CULTIVATION .............................................................................................................. 39Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 3 of 99
  4. 4. 5.7.5 HARVESTING .............................................................................................................. 39 5.7.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ....................................................................................................... 40 5.7.7 ENERGY....................................................................................................................... 41 5.7.8 USES............................................................................................................................. 42 5.8 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SUNFLOWER........................................................... 42 5.8.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................43 5.8.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................43 5.8.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................43 5.8.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................44 5.8.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................44 5.8.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................44 5.8.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................45 5.8.8 USES...............................................................................................................47 5.9 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF COTTON ................................................................... 47 5.9.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................48 5.9.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................48 5.9.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................48 5.9.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................49 5.9.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................49 5.9.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................50 5.9.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................51 5.9.8 USES...............................................................................................................51 5.10 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF JATROPHA .......................................................... 52 5.10.1 GERMPLASM..................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.2 DISTRIBUTION .................................................................................................................. 53 5.10.3 ECOLOGY .......................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.4 CULTIVATION .................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ............................................................................................................. 53 5.10.7 ENERGY............................................................................................................................. 53 5.10.8 USES .................................................................................................................................. 54 SECTION 6 .................................................................................................................................... 55 AVAILABILITY OF CLASS-I RESOURCES ................................................................................. 55 6.1 GENERAL TRENDS .................................................................................................... 55 6.2 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL CROPS IN PAKISTAN.......................... 58 6.2.1 REGION – 1.................................................................................................................. 58 6.2.2 REGION – 2.................................................................................................................. 59 6.2.3 REGION – 3A ............................................................................................................... 59 6.2.4 REGION – 3B ............................................................................................................... 60 6.2.5 REGION – 4A ............................................................................................................... 60 6.2.6 REGION – 4B ............................................................................................................... 61Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 4 of 99
  5. 5. 6.2.7 REGION – 5.................................................................................................................. 61 6.2.8 REGION – 6.................................................................................................................. 62 6.2.9 REGION – 7.................................................................................................................. 62 6.2.10 REGION – 8.................................................................................................................. 62 6.2.11 REGION – 9.................................................................................................................. 63 6.2.12 REGION – 10................................................................................................................ 63 6.3 COMMENTS................................................................................................................. 64 6.4 CROP SPECIFIC CONSTRAINTS .............................................................................. 67 6.4.1 SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEEDS..................................................................67 6.4.2 GROUNDNUT .................................................................................................67 6.4.3 SESAME .........................................................................................................68 6.4.4 COTTON .........................................................................................................68 6.4.5 SOYBEAN .......................................................................................................68 6.4.6 SAFFLOWER ..................................................................................................69 6.4.7 PONGAME AND JATROPHA ........................................................................69 6.5 GENERAL PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS ............................................................... 69 6.6 STATUS OF SHORT-LISTED FIELD CROPS............................................................ 70 6.6.1 PONGAME ......................................................................................................70 6.6.2 RAPESEED - MUSTARD................................................................................70 6.6.3 CASTOR .........................................................................................................72 6.6.4 SUNFLOWER .................................................................................................73 6.6.5 COTTON…………………………………………………………………………….75 6.6.6 JATROPHA…………………………………………………………………………..76 SECTION 7 .................................................................................................................................... 77 DESCRIPTION AND AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES .......................................... 77 7.1 WASTE VEGETABLE OIL ........................................................................................... 77 7.2 ANIMAL FATS .............................................................................................................. 77 7.3 AVAILABILITY .............................................................................................................. 77 SECTION 8 .................................................................................................................................... 79 CLEAN POWER’S PRACTICAL DATA ........................................................................................ 79 8.1 FIELD RESEARCH ON RESOURCES ....................................................................... 79 8.2 OIL EXTRACTION........................................................................................................ 80 8.3 THE TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS ............................................................... 81 8.4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF BIO-DIESEL .................................................................... 81 SECTION 9 .................................................................................................................................... 86 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................ 86 ANNEXURE I…………………………………………………………………………………………..88 REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................. .88 ANNEXURE II…………………………………………………………………………………………..90 GLOSSARY OF TERMS……………………………………………………………………………..90 ANNEXURE III ............................................................................................................................... 94 MEETINGS WITH DIFFERENT PERSONS DURING PROJECT…………………………………94Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 5 of 99
  6. 6. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE-I: PONGAME TREE AND SEED ............................................................................................21 FIGURE-II: MUSTARD CROP AND SEEDS .........................................................................................24 FIGURE-III: WHITE MUSTARD CROP AND SEEDS .............................................................................28 FIGURE-IV: BLACK / BROWN MUSTARD CROP AND SEEDS ..............................................................31 FIGURE-IV: CANOLA CROP AND SEEDS ..........................................................................................33 FIGURE-V: CASTOR BEANS CROP AND SEEDS ................................................................................37 FIGURE-VI: SUNFLOWER CROP AND SEEDS ...................................................................................42 FIGURE-VII: COTTON CROP AND SEEDS .........................................................................................47 FIGURE-VIII: JATROPHA TREE AND SEEDS .....................................................................................52 FIGURE-IX: AVG YIELD OF MUSTARD IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA).............................................................71 FIGURE-X: AVG YIELD OF CASTOR BEAN IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA)........................................................72 FIGURE-XI: AVG YIELD OF SUNFLOWER BEAN IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA) ................................................74 FIGURE-XII: AVG YIELD OF COTTON IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA) ..............................................................75 FIGURE-XIII: AVG PRICE LIST OF BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES (RS PER 40 KG)......................................80 FIGURE-XIII: ACTUAL % OIL YIELD (LITERS OF BIO-DIESEL PER 100 KG SEED) .................................82 FIGURE-XIV: THEORETICAL % OIL YIELD (LITERS OF BIO-DIESEL PER 100 KG SEED) ........................82 FIGURE-XV: TRANSESTERIFICATION BYPRODUCTS - GLYCERINE ....................................................83 FIGURE-XVI TRANSESTERIFICATION BYPRODUCTS - SOAP…………………………...……84 FIGURE-XVII: BIO-DIESEL SAMPLES ..............................................................................................85Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 6 of 99
  7. 7. SECTION 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Use of biological resources to improve the economy is an old tradition of human history. Plants are the unique biological resources form the basis of life. They provide us with many services, food, medicines, timber for construction, and fodder for our animals, materials for mates and baskets and alternative energy resources in the form of Bio-diesel. Bio-diesel is a renewable transport fuel generally extracted from plant seeds or from its other parts i.e. flowers etc. and is used as an alternative of diesel. Mainly Bio-diesel contains no petroleum and can be used as pure fuel but it could also be blended with petroleum diesel in different ratios to create a Bio- diesel blend. It can be used in compression ignition engines with little or no modification. Bio-diesel is simple to use, bio degradable, nontoxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. These properties of Bio-diesel led to the initiation of work not only in developed but also in under developed countries. The major sources that are contributing towards environmental pollution are transport vehicles that utilize petrol or diesel. Moreover, the prices of petroleum products have reached their peak level in recent times. To overcome these problems, a need arose to look for for fossil fuel replacement that is also kinder to the environment. Bio-diesel is a renewable transport fuel that will not only help in reducing air pollution but will also improve the socio-economic conditions of Pakistan by minimizing dependence upon foreign countries. In this context, the present study was the first step to develop Bio-diesel research in Pakistan. This research is part of a project of Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB), Goverenment of Pakistan, and has been executed by Clean Power (Pvt.) Ltd. This phase of the project is confined to identifying biological resources that can be used as Bio-diesel sources in Pakistan, and to test their viability from technical, commercial and economic points of view. The study was conducted with involvement of different laboratories and agencies, including including Biology Lab of Quaid-i-Azam Univeristy (QAU) Islamabad, Attock Oil Refinery Ltd. (ARL), Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Islamabad, and the Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan (HDIP) Islamabad.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 7 of 99
  8. 8. The research work was comprehensive in identifying the global and national resources. Out of these resources, certain resources werw short-listed as sources of Bio-diesel. These include nine (09) plant species, and Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO). Out of these 09 plant species 03 were wild i.e. Pongame, Jatropha and Castorbean, 6 plant species were cultivated including 4 rapeseed crops, cotton seed and sunflower. The study mainly focused on detailed description of plant species, morphology, germplasm, distribution, ecology, cultivation, harvesting, biotic factors, energy and other uses. The study also described the availability of these resources in Pakistan including general trends, crop specific constraints, status of existing field plants, average yield, and geographic distribution, identification of land resources for cultivation and extraction of percentage oil yield. Frequent field trips and surveys were conducted, under the supervision of expert teams, to collect seeds of plant species and identify resource base persons and areas; some seeds were also purchased from the seed dealers. Market surveys were conducted to find out the availability and prices of seed crops. Extraction of oil was done in District Attock. At the same time WVO was collected from different hotels, restaurants and suppliers. Oils from all these sources were processed in the Biology lab of Quaid-i-Azam Univeristy, Islamabad by using standard methods. Bio-diesel samples from the short-listed resources were tested in the laboratories of ARL, HDIP and PCSIR for density, pour point, flash point, kinematic viscosity and distillation. Data on production of seeds, oil yield, Bio- diesel production and production of byproducts of Bio-diesel were collected; all these finding were systematically arranged and have been presented in this report and other reports submitted to AEDB, in the form of comprehensive descriptions, figures, tables, photographs, and videos. Conclusions and recommendations for future research have also been developed. This report carries valuable data obtained during practical experimentation by Clean Power. This data is specifically with respect to the Pakistani scenario.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 8 of 99
  9. 9. SECTION 2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main objectives of the research were: • Identification of Bio-diesel resources in Pakistan • Shortlisting of the most propable resources • Extraction of oil from the short-listed resources for tests and experiments • Chemical analysis of Bio-diesel samples and comparison with HSD • Performance and fatigue tests on CI engine • Demonstration in cars • Develop coordination link between agriculture sector, research institutions and stake holders • Contribute to the Alternative Energy Development Programme initiated by the Government of PakistanTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 9 of 99
  10. 10. SECTION 3 ABOUT BIO-DIESEL 3.1 WHAT IS BIO-DIESEL Bio-diesel is a diesel fuel substitute produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled cooking oils. Chemically, it is defined as the mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid sources. Bio-diesel is typically produced through the reaction of a vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst to yield glycerin and Bio-diesel (chemically called methyl or ethyl esters). Bio-diesel can be used in neat form, or blended with petroleum diesel for use in diesel engines. Its physical and chemical properties, in terms of operation of diesel engines, are similar to petroleum based diesel fuel. Bio-diesel is non-hazardous and bio- degradable. 3.2 UTILIZATION / APPLICATIONS OF BIO-DIESEL • PROPERTIES OF BIO-DIESEL Today’s diesel engines require a clean-burning, stable fuel that performs well under a variety of operating conditions. Bio-diesel is the only alternative fuel that can be used directly in any existing, unmodified diesel engine. Because it has similar properties to petroleum diesel fuel, Bio-diesel can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel. Many federal and state fleet vehicles in USA are already using Bio-diesel blends in their existing diesel engines. The low emissions of Bio-diesel make it an ideal fuel for use in marine areas, national parks and forests, and heavily polluted cities. Bio-diesel has many advantages as a transport fuel. For example, Bio-diesel can be produced from domestically grown oilseed plants such as canola and sunflower. Producing Bio-diesel from domestic crops will reduce the country’s dependence on foreign petroleum, increases agricultural revenue, and creates jobs. • USES OF BIO-DIESEL ♦ Bio-diesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine. It can be stored in the same way as petroleum diesel.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 10 of 99
  11. 11. ♦ Bio-diesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel. The most common blend is a mix of 20% Bio-diesel with 80% petroleum diesel, or "B20." ♦ Bio-diesel combustion significantly reduces emissions:- Bio-diesel is 11% oxygen by weight and contains no sulphur. There are virtually no Sulphur Dioxide emissions from Bio-diesel combustion. Due to presence of sulphur in crude oil, all fossil fuels emit SO2. However Bio-diesel combustion does not emit any SO2 or sulphates. Zero net Carbon dioxide emissions; the small amounts of CO2 emitted by Bio-diesel combustion are re-absorbed by the increased plantation required to sustain the Bio-diesel raw material supply chain. Significantly less Carbon monoxide and particulates emissions. Combustion of Bio-diesel provides more than 90% reduction in unburned hydrocarbons, and 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. There may be a slight increase or decrease in Nitrogen oxide emissions depending upon engine type. ♦ The use of Bio-diesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel, while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected by Bio- diesel. ♦ Bio-diesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 125°C compared to petroleum diesel, which has a flash point of 66°C. ♦ Bio-diesel can be made from domestically produced renewable oilseed crops such as soybean, canola, cotton seed and mustard seed. ♦ Bio-diesel is a proven fuel with over 30 million successful US road miles, over 20 years of use in Europe and in initial stages in South Asia. ♦ The Congressional Budget Office, and Department of Defense, US Department of Agriculture, and others have determined that Bio-diesel is the low cost alternative fuel option for fleets to meet requirements of the Energy Policy Act.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 11 of 99
  12. 12. 3.3 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS IN BIO-DIESEL • BIO-DIESEL IMPACT An important factor that is not usually considered when calculating the costs and benefits of industrial feedstock materials is the macroeconomic effect associated with domestically produced, renewable energy sources. Economic benefits of a Bio-diesel industry would include value addition to the feedstock (oilseeds or animal fats), an increased number of manufacturing jobs, an increased tax base from plant operations and income taxes, investments in plant and equipment, improvement of our trade balance, and reductions in health care costs due to improved air quality and greenhouse gas mitigation. • BIO-DIESEL HAS POSITIVE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE A 1996 economic study published by the USDA Office of Energy predicted that a modest, sustained annual market for Bio-diesel of 100 million gallons in the US would contribute approximately seven cents to the price of each bushel of soybeans produced in the US. • BIO-DIESEL CONTRIBUTES JOBS TO THE LOCAL ECONOMY Economic work conducted at the University of Missouri estimated the benefits of producing Bio-diesel in a metropolitan region. This study concluded that 100 million gallons of Bio-diesel production could generate an estimated $8.34 million increase in personal income and over 6,000 additional temporary or permanent jobs for the metropolitan region. 3.4 RESOURCES OF BIO-DIESEL There are many resources which can be used as raw material for Bio- diesel production. These resources mainly originated from plants particularly and animals in generally. Depending upon the availability and production the raw material for Bio-diesel can be classified into oil yielding crops, wild oil yielding trees, mirco organisms, animals and other byproducts having biotic origion. 1. Vegetable oils 2. Restaurant waste oils or UFOs (Used Frying Oils) 3. Cow-dung (Gobar Gas Plants) 4. Beef tallow 5. Pork Lard 6. Trap greaseTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 12 of 99
  13. 13. 7. Micro-organisms (Geobacters) 8. Wild trees 9. Waste water by Bacteria 10. Soy Diesel 11. Methyl soyat 12. Soy Methayl Easter 13. Canola Diesel 14. Mycoflora 15. Microflora 16. PhycofloraTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 13 of 99
  14. 14. SECTION 4 CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES AND JUSTIFICATION 4.1 CLASSIFICATION There are many resources used for Bio-diesel production in the world. These resources can be classfied on the basis of availability and their yields. In Pakistan these resources mainly include oil seeds from oil crops, oil seeds from trees/plants, Waste Vegetable Oils (WVO) and animal fats. Historically animal fats were used in Pakistan for cooking, having been replaced by vegetable oil due to increase in population and per capita consumption. By studying all these aspects of resources, Clean Power has classified Bio-diesel resources into the following two broad categories:- • CLASS-I: BIO-DIESEL FROM OIL SEEDS • CLASS-II: BIO-DIESEL FROM WASTE OILS 4.2 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-I RESOURCES Pakistan has diverse ecological conditions; we are lucky to have over a dozen oil seed crops, which grow in different seasons, thereby giving a supply of oil seeds practically throughout the year Depending upon historical cultivation and production, the oil seed crops were classified into conventional (i.e. traditional), non traditional, industrial and wild crops. 4.2.1 CATEGORY A – CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS • Rape Seeds • Ground Nut • Sesame Seeds • Rocket seedsTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 14 of 99
  15. 15. 4.2.2 CATEGORY B – NON CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS • Sun flower • Soybean • Safflower 4.2.3 CATEGORY C – INDUSTRIES BASED CROPS • Linseed • Castor beans • Cotton seeds 4.2.4 CATEGORY D – WILD PLANT RESOURCES • Pongame tree • Olive tree • Hemp oil • Oat seeds • Jatropha Shrub • Milk Thistle • Carthamus seeds • Jatropha Table-1: Short-listing / Selection of Resources from Class-I Resources S. # Botanical Name English Name Local Name Family 01 Pongamia pinnata Pongame Suck Chain Fabaceae 02 Brassica campestris Mustard Sarson Brassicaceae 03 Brassica alba White Mustard Chiti Sarson Brassicaceae 04 Brassica nigra Black Mustard Kali Sarson Brassicaceae 05 Brassica napus Canola Canola Brassicaceae 06 Ricinus communis Castor bean Arind Euphorbiaceae 07 Helianthus annuus Sunflower Suraj Mukhi Asteraceae 08 Gossypium hirsutum Cotton Kappa Malvaceae 09 Jatropha curcas Jatropha Karanga Euphorbiaceae From this point onward English names will be used.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 15 of 99
  16. 16. 4.3 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-I RESOURCES Many oil seeds crops are grown in Pakistan as sources of vegetable oils; also many oil yielding wild plants are found in different areas of country. Pakistan has a rich biodiversity of natural resources with special reference to oil yielding plants. This diverse nature of flora is due to diverse edaphic and climatic conditions. Basically Pakistan is an agricultural country and has sufficient resources that can be utilized for production of Bio-diesel. Unfortunately like other fields, no systematic and scientific investigations has been done on Bio- diesel, because the people are unaware of the benefits of these resources for development of the Bio-diesel industry; the main causes are lack of awareness, lack of interaction between our industries and research intuitions, and lack of Government support for this technology on a practical level. No relevant steps have been undertaken by the educational, industrial and research institutions on this project. Hence there is a dire need to carry out research to identify these natural resources for Bio-diesel production and their applications. In the present project short-listing of oilseeds for Bio-diesel productions is based on the following reasons. 1. Pongame is the plant of humid and sub-tropical environment; it is cultivated in areas having annual rain fall ranging from 500-2500mm. This species can withstand water logging and slight frost. Pongame can grow on most soil types ranging from stony to sandy to clayey soils. It does not do well on dry sand. It is highly tolerant of salanity. In addition to the benefit of oil for Bio-diesel, Pongame is also an important plant for Pakistani lands to remove salanity and water logging. 2. Rape seeds are important species of Brassica genus belonging to family Brassicaceae. These have remained one of the major sources of oil in the subcontinent for centuries. Presently 05 species of Brassica are cultivated in the country; these include Brassica Campestris (Sarson), Brassica Juncea (Raya), Brassica Nigra (Kali sarson), Brassica Napus (Canola) and Brassica Alba (Chiti sarson). All these species are cultivated in various soil conditions as well as drought tolerant soils due to high yied. 3. Castor is grown since pre-historic time in this region and is used as an industrial oil yielding plant. Its maximum area (45,900 hectars) was planted during 1978 to 1979 in Pakistan. Then it started declining due to lack of demand in the local market and diminishing export. Now it is wildly distribuited in waste places and nallas of Pakistan. This resource has been shortlisted because it is wild, and the soil in Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan is very suitable for its cultivation.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 16 of 99
  17. 17. 4. The commercial introduction of sunflower (Helianthus Annus) began in 1965. Among the non-conventional oil seed crops, the sunflower has been found the most successful in the country. Most of the area under sunflower is Punjab and Sindh. It is a faster growing crop in Punjab than in other provinces. Due to favorable climatic conditions the average yield of this crop is very high. 5. During the last two decades, cotton has shown tremendous increase in area and production. Its area increased by 63.6%, and production by 302%. It is one of the economically attractive crops of Pakistan and most of Punjab supports its cultivation and harvesting. 6. Jatropha Curcas is resistant to drought and can be planted even in the desert climates. It thrives on any type of soil and grows almost anywhere: in sandy, gravelly and saline soils. Jatropha needs minimal input or management. Jatropha has no pests, it is not browsed by cattle or sheep, and it can survive long periods of drought. Jatropha propagation is easy, its growth is rapid, and it forms a thick live hedge after only a months planting. Jatropha Curcas starts yielding from the 2nd year of its cultivation and continues for 40 years. The meal after extraction is an excellent organic manure. Jatropha Curcas quickly establishes itself and produces seeds round the year if irrigated. 7. The vast area and varied agroclimatic conditions of Pakistan make growth possible for different kinds of cultivated crops in general and wild plants in particular. Clean Power will encourage and provide expertise for plantation of wild resources that are suitable for Bio-diesel production. Clean Power has already started mega tree plantationth of Pongame on along railway tracks and on railway stations in the Rawalpindi districts, with support from Pakistan Railways and AEDB. 4.4 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-II RESOURCES • Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) • Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) • Animal fats From the above categories, the following are short-listed as viable resources for Bio-diesel production: • Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO)Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 17 of 99
  18. 18. • Animal Fats (AF) 4.5 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-II RESOURCES The justification for short-listing WVO and AF sources of Bio-diesel are based on the following facts:- 1. Pakistan is a country the people of which consume huge quantities of edible oil and meat every year; we are basically a meat-eating nation, and habitually use a lot of oil in our cooking. 2. WVO is available in large quantities in metropolitan cities, mainly from big hotel chains, huts, confectionaries, and restaurant chains. These hotels, restaurants and huts are the major source of WVO in Pakistan. Similarly AF is available in large quantities in slaughter houses, more so in big cities and villages, and during certain festivities such as Eid. 3. Collection mechanisms of WVO and AF are simple and easier than oils directly obtained from crops and plants. Centralized collection of WVO is already done in metropolitan cities. 4. Method of preparation of Bio-diesel from WVO and AF is simple and inexpensive. The equipment and chemicals required for the process are also easily available. 5. The by-products of the production process (of Bio-diesel from WVO and AF), glycerine and soap, are also usable and salable commercially. 6. Whereas plants and crops are the major sources of Bio-diesel, the quantities that can be produced from WVO and AF will greatly supplement the Bio-diesel from plants and crops. Using WVO and AF as additional sources will be an advantage in commercial-scale production and usage of Bio-diesel. Keeping in view the potential of WVO and AF as sources of Bio-diesel, Clean Power has carried out systematic studies and experiments in laboratories and in the field. In the short to medium term, Clean Power plans to set up a facility for production of Bio-diesel from WVO and AF.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 18 of 99
  19. 19. SECTION – 5 DESCRIPTION OF CLASS-I RESOURCES 5.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Many oilseed crops are grown in Pakistan as a source of vegetable oil. These crops are grouped in two categories viz. conventional and non- conventional oilseed crops. Rapeseed-mustard, groundnut and sesame are conventional crops and have been grown in the country for a long period. Sunflower, soybean and safflower are non-conventional crops and have been introduced recently in our country. There are also some oilseed crops that are mainly used for industrial purposes, such as linseed and castor. Presently, local production of oilseeds meets only about 32% percent of the total countrys requirements for edible oil. The remaining requirement of edible oil is met from foreign sources. • RAPESEEDS Rapeseed-mustard crops are grown on a large area, and contribute, on the average, about 21% in the edible oil production. However, its oil is not used in the manufacture of vegetable ghee (hydrogenated vegetable oil in semi-solid form) as it contains high levels of erucic acid and traces of sulphur compounds (glucosinolates). Its oil is mostly used in pickles, deep frying, anointing body, as hair oil, etc. • COTTON Cotton contributes about 72% to the edible oil production in Pakistan; its cultivated area has increased by 51% over the last 19 years, from 1.733 million hectares in 1970-71 to 2.62 million hectares in 2003-04. Similarly, production of cottonseed has increased by about 125% and average yield almost 73% during the same period. Production of some oilseeds has become stagnant or shown negative growth; during the last two decades, rapeseed-mustard, which is the second most important group of oilseed crops and contributes about 21% production of vegetable oil in the country, has shown a negative growth rate of 2.75% per annum for its area. Its production has also reduced during the same period but comparatively in lesser magnitude because of some improvement in its productivity at unit area basis.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 19 of 99
  20. 20. • JATROPHA Jatropha is a wild oilseed crop and its cultivation in Pakistan has remained almost stagnant over the years. The conditions for the cultivation of this plant are favourable in Pakistan as studied by Clean Power. According to a survey conducted by Clean Power, only few plants are found as ornamental in different educational institutes. Clean Power has already started experimentation with Jatropha, to serve as a basis for large-scale plantation. • SUNFLOWER & SOYBEAN The commercial introduction of sunflower began in 1965. But it did not increase rapidly as expected up till 1979-80. However, from 1980-81 to 2003-04 the area increased at an appreciable annual growth rate of 25.75%. A total of 42,500 tonnes of sunflower seed was produced in 1987-88 which was the highest in the sunflower history of the country until now. During 2003-04 production reduced to 34,400 tonnes. Although soybean as an oil crop has been introduced in Pakistan along with sunflower, it could not make its place in the country. Its cultivation remained restricted to a limited area mostly in the North West Frontier Province. Since its average yield per hectare is also very low, its production remained small. The highest production of soybean was 3,800 tonnes in 1986-87 which reduced to 1,200 tonnes in 2003-04. • SAFFLOWER Production of safflower in Pakistan has been very little and no appreciable progress was made inspite of the efforts made by the Government from time to time. Safflower is grown mostly on the right bank of river Indus in upper Sindh as "Dobari Crop" (the crop grown after rice with out irrigation). Its area reached to the maximum of 8,100 hectares in 1982-83 and now it has decreased to 2,000 hectares in 2003-04, which is negligible. • CONSTRAINTS Area and production of conventional crops, excluding non-edible types, has remained almost stagnant for the last 02 decades. The area under these crops was 571,100 hectares in 1970-71, which reduced to 427,000 hectares in 2003-04, and registered a growth rate of –1.52% (negative) per annum. Similarly, total production of conventional oilseeds was 331,700 tonnes in 1970-71 which increased very slightly to 336,700 tonnes in 2003-04. The areas under non- conventional oilseed crops in Pakistan is negligible and has not increased as expected. Average yields of all the oilseed crops are very low. The profitability of these crops is not well established due to which they remained neglected.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 20 of 99
  21. 21. Mostly, conventional oilseeds are grown on marginal lands, while the newly introduced oilseed crops are passing through the process of introduction and the farmers still have not mastered the production technology to grow them. General constrains that result in low productivity are as follows: • Lack of high yielding varieties. • Inadequate adoption of improved agronomic practices. • Lack of quality seed. • Inadequate application of necessary inputs. • Damage by pests (insects, diseases, birds). • Non-availability of suitable machinery for planting, harvesting and threshing. • Lack of conducive policies. 5.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PONGAME FIGURE-I: Pongame tree and seed Fast-growing, glabrous, deciduous tree that reaches up to a height of 25 meters, Pongamia Pinnata has a moderate shade with drooping branches; its trunk diameter is up to 60 cm; it has a smooth grayish bark. Its leaves are imparipinnate and shiny, with young leaves pink-red and mature leaves glossy deep green in color; leaflets 5–9, the terminal leaflet larger than the others; stipels none; stipules caducous. Flowers fragrant, white to pinkish, paired alongTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 21 of 99
  22. 22. rachis in axillary, pendent, long racemes or panicles; calyx campanulate or cup- shaped, truncate, short-dentate, lowermost lobe sometimes longer; standard suborbicular, broad, usually with 2 inflexed, basal ears, thinly silky-haired outside; wings oblique, long, somewhat adherent to the obtuse keel; keel petals coherent at apex; stamens monadelphous, vexillary stamen free at the base but joined with others into a closed tube; ovary subsessile to short-stalked, pubescent; ovules 2, rarely 3; style filiform, upper half incurved, glabrous; stigma small, terminal. Pod short stalked, oblique-oblong, flat, smooth, thickly leathery to subwoody, indehiscent, 1-seeded; seed thick, reniform. 5.2.1 GERMPLASM Reported from the Hindustani Center of Diversity, pongam, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate drought, frost, heat, limestone, salinity, sand, and shade. (2n = 22) 5.2.2 DISTRIBUTION An Indomalaysian species, Pongame is a medium-sized evergreen tree, common on alluvial and coastal situations from India to Fiji, from sea level to 1200m. Now found in Pakistan, Australia, Florida, Hawaii, India, Malaysia, Oceania, Philippines, and Seychelles. 5.2.3 ECOLOGY Probably ranges from Tropical Dry to Moist through Subtropical Dry to Moist Forest Life Zones. Withstanding temperatures slightly below 0°C to 50°C and annual rainfall of 5–25 dm. The tree grows wild on sandy and rocky soils, including oolitic limestone, but will grow in most soil types, even with its roots in salt water. 5.2.4 CULTIVATION The seeds of Pongame, remaining viable for sometime, require no special scarification. Direct sowing is usually successful. Seedlings transplant easily from the nursery after about a year. Root suckers are rather plentiful as well. It is a rapid-growing coppice species that can be cloned. 5.2.5 HARVESTING Pods are collected and shells removed by hand. Pongame is grown in 30- year rotations for fuel in West Bengal. 5.2.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Two rhizobial strains produced nodules on 18 species of 12 different genera in the cowpea miscellany. The strains, culturally and physiologically typical of slow-growing rhizobia, elicited ineffective responses on Clitoria ternatea and Stizolobium utile. One was ineffective on Lespedeza stipulacea andTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 22 of 99
  23. 23. Samanea saman. Viruses. Sandal Spike Virus. Fungi. Fusicladium pongamiae, Ganoderma lucidum, Phyllachora pongamiae, Ravenelia hobsoni, Ravenelia stictica. Angiospermae. Cuscuta reflexa, Loranthus sp. Acarina. Eriophyes cheriani. Diptera. Microdiplosis pongamiae, Myricomyia pongamiae. Hemiptera. Coptosoma cribrarium, Drosicha stebbingi, Drosichiella tamarinda. Lepidoptera. Acrocercops anthracuris, Amphion floridensis, Cydia balanoptycha, Cydia perfricta, Eresia jumbah, Indarbela tetraonis, Jamides celeno, Phyllonorycter virgulata. Orthoptera. Schistocerca gregaria. Thysanoptera. Megalurothrips distalis. 5.2.7 ENERGY Wherever Pongame is grown, its wood (calorific value 4,600 kcal/kg) is burned for cooking fuel. The thick oil from the seeds is used for illumination, as a kerosene substitute, and lubrication. It would seem that with upgraded germplasm one could target for 2 MT oil and 5 MT firewood per hectare per year on a renewable basis. The oil has been tried as fuel in diesel engines, showing a good thermal efficiency 5.2.8 USES The Pongame tree is cultivated for two purposes: (1) as an ornamental tree in gardens and along avenues and roadsides, for its fragrant Wisteria-like flowers, and (2) as a host plant for lac insects. It is appreciated as an ornamental tree throughout coastal India and all of Polynesia. Well-decomposed flowers are used by gardeners as compost for plants requiring rich nutrients. In the Philippines the bark is used for making strings and ropes. The bark also yields a black gum that is used to treat wounds caused by poisonous fish. In wet areas of the tropics the leaves serve as green manure and as fodder. The black malodorous roots contain a potent fish-stupefying principle. In primitive areas of Malaysia and India root extracts are applied to abscesses; other plant parts, especially crushed seeds and leaves are regarded as having antiseptic properties. The seeds contain oil…. a bitter, reddish brown, thick, non-drying, nonedible oil, 27–36% by weight, which is used for tanning leather; as a liniment to treat scabies, herpes, and rheumatism; and as an illuminating oil. Also used for lubrication and indigenous medicine. Pongam oil showed inhibitory effects on Bacillus Anthracis, Bacillus Mycoides, Bacillus Pulilus, Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas Mangiferae, Salmonella Typhi, Sarcina Lutea, Staphylococcus Albus, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Xanthomonas Campestris, but did not inhibit Shigella Sp. The oil has a high content of triglycerides, and its disagreeable taste and odor are due to bitter flavonoid constituents, pongamiin and karanjin. The wood is yellowish white, coarse, hard, and beautifully grained, but is not durable. Use of the wood is limited to cabinetmaking, cart wheels, posts, and fuel. Both the oil and residues are toxic. Still the presscake is described as aTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 23 of 99
  24. 24. "useful poultry feed." Seeds are used to poison fish. Still it is recommended as a shade tree for pastures and windbreak for tea. The leaves are said to be a valuable lactagogue fodder, especially in arid regions. It is sometimes intercropped with pasture, the pasture grasses said to grow well in its shade. Dried pongame leaves are used in stored grains to repel insects. Leaves often plowed green manure, thought to reduce nematode infestations. Its spreading roots make it a valuable tree for checking erosion and stabilizing dunes. Twigs are used as a chewstick for cleaning the teeth. The ash of the wood is used in dyeing. 5.3 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MUSTARD FIGURE-II: Mustard crop and seeds Biennial herb with swollen tuberous white-fleshed taproot, lacking a neck; leaves light to medium green, hairy or bristly, stalked, lyrate-pinnatifid, 30–50 cm long, stem-leaves sometimes glaucous with clasping base; flowers bright yellow, sepals spreading: petals 6–10 mm long, those in anthesis close together and commonly overtopping the unopened buds; outer 2 stamens curved outwards at base and much shorter than inner stamens; fruit 4–6.5 cm long, with long tapering beak, on divaricate-ascending pedicels 3.2–6.5 cm long; seeds blackish or reddish-brown, 1.5–2 mm in diameter. Fl. and fr. second spring.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 24 of 99
  25. 25. 5.3.1 GERMPLASM Varieties may have white or yellow flesh, and outside crown may be white, green or purplish-red. Most common white-fleshed varieties are: Purple Top White Globe and White Egg. Shogoin is a white-skinned, white-fleshed Japanese variety, widely grown in the South for greens and salad. Yellow-fleshed turnips include Golden Ball or Orange Jelly, Amber or Yellow Globe and Yellow Aberdeen. Seven Top is grown in South for useof greens. Purple Top White Globe is recommended for tropics. Brassica rapa subsp. rapa, turnip, cultivated for its tuberous taproot, sometimes escapes as a weed. Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera DC., Turnip rape, grown as a fodder crop, has larger reddishbrown seeds and non-tuberous taproot. Brassica rapa subsp. sylvestris (L.) Janchen (B. campestris L., p.p.). Field mustard is a weed or ruderal in much of Europe, native to Asia. Reported from the China-Japan, Eurosiberian, and Mediterranean Centers of Diversity, turnip, or cvs thereof, is reported to, tolerate aluminum, bacteria, disease, frost, fungi, high pH, low pH, laterite, mycobacteria, photoperiod, smog, sulfur dioxide, virus, and weeds. Terrell divides Brassica rapa into the following groups: Chinensis Group—pak-choi, Pekinensis Group—pe- tsai or "Chinese cabbage", Perviridis Group—spinach mustard, Rapifera Group— turnip, and Ruvo Group—ruvo kale. (2n = 20) 5.3.2 DISTRIBUTION Mustard has been cultivated in Europe for over 4,000 years; it is probably native to central and southern Europe, and now spread throughout the world, including Pakistan and most parts of the tropics. 5.3.3 ECOLOGY Turnip is basically a cool climate crop, resistant to frost and mild freezes. It is grown as a spring or fall crop throughout the United States. Temperatures below 10°C cause bolting. Turnips do well in deep, friable, highly fertile soil with pH 5.5–6.8; sandy loams are used for early markets roots and greens. Short growing season makes them very adaptable as a catch crop. Ranging from Boreal Moist to Rain through Tropical Thorn to Moist Forest Life Zones, Brassica rapa is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3.5 to 41.0 dm (mean of 75 cases = 9.1), annual temperature of 3.6 to 27.4°C (mean of 75 cases = 10.7), and pH of 4.2 to 7.8 (mean of 66 cases = 6.2) (Duke, 1978, 1979). 5.3.4 CULTIVATION Seed are sown thinly in spring, summer or fall in drills at seed rate of 1.1– 2.2 kg/ha. Seedlings are then thinned to stand 5–15 cm apart in rows 0.3–0.9 m apart. Mustard is cultivated shallowly for weed control. Lime is added to the soil to correct pH to 5.5–6.8. Only light applications of fertilizer are justified, as 450- 675 kg/ha of 4-12-4. When turnips are seeded as a fall crop following a crop that has been well fertilized, no additional fertilizer may be necessary. Seed may beTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 25 of 99
  26. 26. broadcast on fertile, well-prepared seedbeds where weed control will not be difficult. Turnips may be intercropped with corn, and as such they are shade- tolerant, or they may be used as a catch crop after early vegetables. It is not advisable to grow turnips after a root crop. Good rotation, helps to control diseases. Best grown after clover, beans, peas or grass crop. 5.3.5 HARVESTING Roots may be harvested in 45–80 days. They are harvested for bunching when 5 cm in diameter, and for topped turnips when 7.5 cm in diameter. Turnip greens may be harvested when plants are young and tender. For early spring market, turnips are pulled, washed, their tops left on, tied in bunches, and marketed. Topped turnips for the general market are sold by the bushel or the hundredweight. Flavor and texture are not improved by storage. They should not be left in the ground where temperatures near freezing occur; in milder areas they may be left in field until desired. They may be stored in pits or piles, in well- drained soils. Piles should not be more than 2.6 m wide nor more than 2 m deep to prevent heating at the center. For good aeration, wooden chutes are inserted at intervals of 2.5–3 m in the pile. A ditch is dug around the base of pile for water runoff. Alternate layers of straw and soil are used as covering for pit storage. For indoor storage, crates or small piles laid on earth cellar floors are satisfactory. Small quantities of turnips may be stored in a cool cellar and covered with moistened clean sand to keep them from drying out. Storage temperature in a cellar or in a cold storage room should remain between 0° and 1.5°C, with a relative humidity of 90–95%. 5.3.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Cross pollination, by various insects, is necessary for good seed production. In USSR, 16–17 colonies of bees/ha are used, but 2 or 3 hives are sufficient to increase pollination and to insure good seed set. Isolation of varieties necessary for pure seed production; in England at least 900 m; in New Zealand, 400 m. Should be well-isolated from all other forms of B. juncea, B. campestris, and B. napus. Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) and Black rot are the most serious diseases. Other fungi attacking turnips include: Albugo candids, Alternaria brassicae, A. brassicicola, A. oleracea, A. herculea, A. tenuis, Botrytis cinerea, Cercospora albo-maculans, C. brassicicola, C. brassicae, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum higginsianum, Corticium solani, Cystopus candidus, Curvularia inaequalis, Erysiphe polygone, E. communis, Fusarium oxysporum, F.conglutinans, Gloeosporium concentricum, Leptosphaeria napi, Macrophomina phaseoli, Macrosporium macrosporum, Mycosphaerella brassicicola, Oidium erysiphoides, Peronospora parasitica, P. brassicae, Phoma lingam, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia sp., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Septomyxa affine, Stemphylium botryosum, Streptomyces scabies, SpongosporaTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 26 of 99
  27. 27. subterranea. Turnips may be parasitized by Orobanche cernua, or attacked by the following bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacterium aroideae, Erwinia carotovora, E. aroideae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Pseudomonas maculicola, P. madrasensis, Xanthomonas campestris, and X. vesicatoria campestris, and X. vesicatoria. Viruses isolated from turnips include: Beet mild yellowing, Beet ringspot, Cabbage blackspot, Cauliflower mosaic, Crinkle mosaic, Cucumber mosaic, Kukitachina mosaic, Turnip latent, Turnip mosaic and Curly top. Nematodes attacking turnips include: Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Helicotylenchus dihystera, H. pseudorobustus, Heterodera cruciferae, H. schachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. i. acrita, M. javanica, Nacobbus aberrans, Pratylenchus neglectus, P. penetrans, P. projectus, and Trichodorus christiei. Turnip aphid, root maggot and flea beetles are the most injurious insect pests. 5.3.7 ENERGY According to the phytomass files annual productivity ranges from 4 to 11 MT/ha. Indian studies showed DM yields of 530–1,260 kg/ha after 38 days with 61–191 kg extractable protein; 820–2,090 kg/ha after 52 days with 90–265 kg extractable protein. If this much were available in 45 days, and plots were cropped continuously (perhaps impractical, if not impossible), DM yields might run 6–16 MT/ha with ca 800–2,000 kg/ha, the residues remaining for potential energy conversion. Seed yields in Minnesota and Canada run over 1,000 kg/ha/yr, and the oil from such seeds is being considered for energy purposes. 5.3.8 USES Turnips are one of the most commonly grown and widely adapted root crops, as general farm crop, truck crop, or home-garden crop. Roots eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable, and tops as potherb like spinach. Roots also grown for feeding to livestock during fall and winter.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 27 of 99
  28. 28. 5.4 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF WHITE MUSTARD FIGURE-III: White Mustard crop and seeds Erect, sparsely-hairy branching winter annual herb, developed from a taproot; stems up to 1.5 m tall, usually with stiff de-flexed hairs, but sometimes glabrous; leaves petiolate, alternate, ovate or obovate, to 8 cm long and 4 cm wide, pinnately dissected into 3–5 rounded segments, usually hispid but not scabrid; flowers yellow, in elongated racemes, hairy, patent, the beak broad, flattened, 10–30 mm long, attenuate; seeds 4–8 per pod, globular, yellowish to light brown, 2 mm in diameter, the innner seed coat containing mucilage, cotyledons containing oil with pungent taste but no odor. 2n = 24. Fl. spring and summer; fr. summer and fall. 5.4.1 GERMPLASM Two subspecies are recognized; subsp. alba—with lyrate-pinnatified or lyrate-pinnate leaves and siliques 20–40 mm long and 3–4 mm wide, the valves usually hispid, with a beak 10–30 mm long, and yellow or pale brown seeds; and subsp. dissecta (Lag.) Bonnier—with leaves twice pinnatifid, not lyrate, with the terminal lobe ovate and the lateral lobes oblong-linear and siliques 25–30 mm long and 3.5–6.5 mm wide, the valves slightly hairy or glabrous, the beak 10–20 mm long and the seeds grayish-brown. Assigned to the Mediterranean Center of Diversity white mustard or cvs thereof is said to tolerate frost, high pH, heavy soil, low pH, smog, and weeds. (2n = 24).Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 28 of 99
  29. 29. 5.4.2 DISTRIBUTION Native to the Mediterranean region and the Crimea, but introduced into northwestern Europe, Russia, Japan, North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, India, North Africa, Pakistan and China. It has become naturalized in many areas and is a weed of cultivated lands, especially flax-fields. 5.4.3 ECOLOGY White Mustard is a quick-growing long-day annual crop that prefers temperate climates with some humidity. Can withstand high temperatures, but very hot days during flowering and ripening may reduce seed setting and lower quality of seed. Requires high nutrient soils with high level of nitrogen, but may be grown on a wide range of soils from light to heavy, growing best on relatively heavy sandy loamy soils. Not suited to very wet soils. Ranging from Boreal Moist to Wet through Tropical Dry Forest Life Zones, white mustard occurs where annual precipitation varies from 3.5 to 17.9 dm (mean of 43 cases = 7.7), annual temperature from 5.6 to 24.9°C (mean of 43 cases = 10.5), and pH of 4.5 to 8.2 (mean of 36 cases = 6.6). 5.4.4 CULTIVATION Land to be sown to mustard should be prepared in the fall. Seed may be sown in early spring with a seeder at rate of 4–5 kg/ha and then the land harrowed. In Great Britain seed is sown at rate of 12 kg/ha on heavy soils and up to 14 kg/ha on light soils. In the Pacific States sowing may be as early as January. Crop may be cultivated, harvested, and handled with ordinary farm machinery. For salad greens, plants are havested when a few cm tall, when only the first pairs of leaves (seed-leaves) have expanded. Crop is usually grown in greenhouses, thus crops can be produced year round if a temperature of 10– 15°C is maintained. Seed is sown on the surface of soil, on firm level beds; watered with a fine spray, then covered with steam-sterilized net sack-cloth, which is sprayed to keep it moist, and removed when seedlings are 2.5–3.5 cm tall, in about 4 days in spring and autumn and 6–7 days in winter. The yellowish seed-leaves turn green in 2–3 days and then the crop is cut. It is usually marketed in small boxes, sometimes packed together with cress. For home use, small quantities of seed may be grown on wet flannel on a dish, covered to exclude light and to keep the seedlings moist. 5.4.5 HARVESTING Seeds are ripe for harvest when they are hard and black. Fruits do not shatter readily and can be direct combined. It is important to harvest the seed when ripe, since the seed weight increases substantially during the last 2–3 days before the crop is ready to harvest in August or earlier. For pure seed production, varieties must be isolated at least 360 m apart. From seeding to harvest usuallyTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 29 of 99
  30. 30. requires about 4 months in the US. In temperate India it is grown as a winter garden crop. 5.4.6 BIOTIC FACTORS White mustard is 100% pollinated by wind and insects, mainly honey- bees. Among diseases infesting white mustard are the white-rust Albugo candida, an Alternaria leaf spot, the powdery mildew Erysiphe polygoni, the downy mildew Peronospora parasitica, the clubroot Plasmodiophora brassicae, and the stemrot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nematodes include Ditylenchus dipsaci, Heterodera cruciferae, H. schachtii, H. trifolii, Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus penetrans, and P. pratensis. 5.4.7 ENERGY If the experimental seed yields of 8,000 kg/ha are correct, the 25-30% oil content could add up to nearly 2.5 MT oil per hectare. 5.4.8 USES White mustard is grown for its seed, used as a condiment and for soils they yield; as a salad plant; and as a green fodder crop or as green manure. Seeds yield 20–35% of a golden-yellow mild tasting oil which is used as lubricant and illuminant. White Mustard Oil is also a by-product of the condiment industry in countries where the seed is partially deolated before milling. Oil also used in Sweden in the manufacture of mayonnaise. Seedling used as a salad plant, eaten raw in salads and sandwiches. Leaves are used as potherbs. In the US mustard is second in demand only to pepper among spices. Commercial mustard usually combines white mustard for pungency with black mustard for aroma, and the yellow color is due to the addition of turmeric. Vinegar is added to prevent the speedy decomposition experienced with mustard freshly prepared from the dry powder. Whole seeds are used for pickles and may be boiled with such vegetables as cabbage and sauerkraut. This is grown as a cover crop because of its rapid growth. Oil cake is used for fattening sheep.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 30 of 99
  31. 31. 5.5 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF BLACK OR BROWN MUSTARD FIGURE-IV: Black / Brown Mustard crop and seeds Much-branched, aromatic, fast-growing, pubescent annual herb, to 4 m tall, with taproot; lower leaves lyrate-pinnatisect, With 1-3 pairs of lateral lobes and larger terminal lobe, hispid on both surfaces; upper leaves linear-oblong, entire or sinuate, glabrous, dentate, all leaves petiolate; flowers in enlongate racemes, regular petals yellow, 7-9 mm long, stamens 6, fruit a silique, long slender beaked pod, 1.0-2.0 cm long, smooth cylindrical, 1.5-2 mm wide with 10- 12 seeds, beak seedless, on short (2.5-6 mm) pedicels; seeds dark reddish- brown to black, oval to spherical, about 1 mm in diameter, more or less covered with white pellicle, taste pungent. Fl. May–June; fr. June–Oct. 5.5.1 GERMPLASM Many cvs developed, include English, Barn, Trieste and California. Reported from the Eurosiberian, and African Centers of Diversity, black mustard or cvs thereof is reported to tolerate aluminum, laterite, low pH, poor soil, smog and weed. (n = 4–11, 2n = 16.) 5.5.2 DISTRIBUTION Origin unknown, but some believe it to be from a Mediterranean center with a secondary center in the Near East as in Pakistan and India. Now it is widespread in Central and South Europe, and other areas with a temperate climate. It is a frequent weed of waste places and cultivated fields.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 31 of 99
  32. 32. 5.5.3 ECOLOGY Black mustard, adapted to a wide variety of climatic conditions, is mainly suited to tropical areas, and grown chiefly as a rainfed crop in areas of low or moderate rainfall. Suited to many types of soils except very heavy clays; grows best on light sandy loams, or deep rich fertile soils. Ranging from Boreal Wet through Tropical Desert to Dry Forest Life Zones, black mustard is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3 to 17 dm (mean of 40 cases = 8.5), annual temperature of 6 to 27°C (mean of 40 cases = 12.7), and pH of 4.9 to 8.2 (mean of 34 cases = 6.5) 5.5.4 CULTIVATION Land should be prepared in fall to a fine tilth, as the seeds are very small. Seed may be sown with seeder in early spring at rate of 3-4 kg/ha. In Sri Lanka, seed is broadcast, or, as a pure crop, drilled in rows 22 cm apart. Seeds germinate quickly, first leaves being visible within 48 hours after sowing. Plants are thinned to stand ca 10–50 cm apart in row. In Sri Lanka often intercropped with kurakkan (Eleusine coracana). 5.5.5 HARVESTING Flowers about 45 days after sowing, and is ready to harvest in another 6– 7 weeks. In the United States, planting, harvesting and threshing are mechanized. Crop is cut green in August (mainly by combine in Montana), and allowed to ripen. To avoid shattering, pods are harvested when still closed but mature, preferably early in the day. Sometimes plants are cut and dried on the threshing floor prior to threshing by beating with wooden flails. 5.5.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Black Mustard is insect-pollinated. Bees collect the copious mustard nectar and produce a mild-flavored, light-colored honey. Mildews appear on the leaves causing malformation of flower heads and pods, a situation often controlled by sulfur-dusting or spraying with Bordeaux mixture. Main insect pest is Mustard sawfly (Athalia lugens proxima), larvae of which feed on the leaves. Nematodes include Ditylenchus dipsaci, Heterodera crucifera, H. schachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, Nacobbus aberrans, Xiphinema indicum, Pratylenchus penetrans, and P. pratensis 5.5.7 ENERGY After only 30 days, 720-970 kg DM are available from poor soils in India, of which 137-176 kg are extractable protein. At 40 days, 1,450-1,610 kg DM with 226-283 kg extractable protein, at 52 days, 1,680-2,230 kg DM with 215-329 kg extractable protein. In a suitable cool but frost free climate, such yields mightTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 32 of 99
  33. 33. possibly be repeated every 45 days or so with annual yields closer to 2,400 extractable protein from 12-18 MT/ha. 5.5.8 USES Black mustard is cultivated for its seeds, the source of commercial table- mustard, used as a condiment and medicine. Seeds contain both a fixed and an essential oil, used as a condiment, illuminant, lubricant, and soap constituent. Black mustard is mixed with white mustard (Sinapis alba) to make mustard flour, used in various condiments as "English Mustard" when mixed with water and "Continental Mustard" with vinegar. Mustard flowers are good honey producers. Mustard is agriculturally used as a cover crop. Mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) is used in cat and dog repellents. 4.6 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CANOLA FIGURE-IV: Canola crop and seeds Annual or biennial, when sown late and flowering the following spring, with slender or stout, hard, long, fusiform tuberous taproot; stems erect, much- branched, up to 1.5 m tall, often purple toward base; leaves glaucous, the lower ones lyrate-pinnatifid or lobed, with petioles 10–30 cm long, glabrous or with a few bristly hairs, upper stem leaves lanceolate, sessile, clasping, more or lessTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 33 of 99

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