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Research Report On Bio-Diesel Resources In Pakistan

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Research Report On Bio-Diesel Resources In Pakistan

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  • 1. RESEARCH REPORT ON BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES IN PAKISTANA PROJECT OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT BOARD (AEDB) GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN Report prepared by CLEAN POWER (PVT.) LTD. 0001-1000000-062-001 ISSUE: 01 JULY, 2005
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................................ 2 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................................ 6 SECTION 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................. 7 SECTION 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 9 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................. 9 SECTION 3 .................................................................................................................................... 10 ABOUT BIO-DIESEL ..................................................................................................................... 10 3.1 WHAT IS BIO-DIESEL ................................................................................................. 10 3.2 UTILIZATION / APPLICATIONS OF BIO-DIESEL...................................................... 10 3.3 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS IN BIO-DIESEL.............................................................. 12 3.4 RESOURCES OF BIO-DIESEL ................................................................................... 12 SECTION 4 .................................................................................................................................... 14 CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES AND JUSTIFICATION ............................... 14 4.1 CLASSIFICATION ........................................................................................................ 14 4.2 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-I RESOURCES................................................................ 14 4.2.1 CATEGORY A – CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS..14 4.2.2 CATEGORY B – NON CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS . ........................................................................................................................15 4.2.3 CATEGORY C – INDUSTRIES BASED CROPS ...........................................15 4.2.4 CATEGORY D – WILD PLANT RESOURCES...............................................15 4.3 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-I RESOURCES................... 16 4.4 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-II RESOURCES............................................................... 17 4.5 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-II RESOURCES.................. 18 SECTION – 5 ................................................................................................................................. 19 DESCRIPTION OF CLASS-I RESOURCES ................................................................................ 19 5.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 19 5.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PONGAME................................................................ 21 5.2.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................22 5.2.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................22 5.2.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................22 5.2.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................22 5.2.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................22 5.2.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................22 5.2.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................23 5.2.8 USES...............................................................................................................23 5.3 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MUSTARD ................................................................ 24Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 2 of 99
  • 3. 5.3.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................25 5.3.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................25 5.3.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................25 5.3.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................25 5.3.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................26 5.3.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................26 5.3.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................27 5.3.8 USES...............................................................................................................27 5.4 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF WHITE MUSTARD ................................................... 28 5.4.1 GERMPLASM............................................................................................................... 28 5.4.2 DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................ 29 5.4.3 ECOLOGY .................................................................................................................... 29 5.4.4 CULTIVATION .............................................................................................................. 29 5.4.5 HARVESTING ...................................................................................................................... 29 5.4.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ............................................................................................................... 30 5.4.7 ENERGY....................................................................................................................... 30 5.4.8 USES..................................................................................................................................... 30 5.5 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF BLACK OR BROWN MUSTARD ............................. 31 5.5.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................31 5.5.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................31 5.5.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................32 5.5.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................32 5.5.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................32 5.5.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................32 5.5.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................32 5.5.8 USES...............................................................................................................33 4.6 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CANOLA ................................................................... 33 5.6.1 GERMPLASM............................................................................................................... 34 5.6.2 DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................ 34 5.6.3 ECOLOGY ............................................................................................................................ 34 5.6.4 CULTIVATION ...................................................................................................................... 35 5.6.5 HARVESTING ...................................................................................................................... 35 5.6.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ............................................................................................................... 35 5.6.7 ENERGY ............................................................................................................................... 36 5.6.8 USES..................................................................................................................................... 37 5.7 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CASTOR BEANS...................................................... 37 5.7.1 GERMPLASM............................................................................................................... 38 5.7.2 DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................ 38 5.7.3 ECOLOGY .................................................................................................................... 38 5.7.4 CULTIVATION .............................................................................................................. 39Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 3 of 99
  • 4. 5.7.5 HARVESTING .............................................................................................................. 39 5.7.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ....................................................................................................... 40 5.7.7 ENERGY....................................................................................................................... 41 5.7.8 USES............................................................................................................................. 42 5.8 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SUNFLOWER........................................................... 42 5.8.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................43 5.8.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................43 5.8.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................43 5.8.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................44 5.8.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................44 5.8.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................44 5.8.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................45 5.8.8 USES...............................................................................................................47 5.9 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF COTTON ................................................................... 47 5.9.1 GERMPLASM .................................................................................................48 5.9.2 DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................................48 5.9.3 ECOLOGY.......................................................................................................48 5.9.4 CULTIVATION.................................................................................................49 5.9.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................49 5.9.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ..........................................................................................50 5.9.7 ENERGY .........................................................................................................51 5.9.8 USES...............................................................................................................51 5.10 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF JATROPHA .......................................................... 52 5.10.1 GERMPLASM..................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.2 DISTRIBUTION .................................................................................................................. 53 5.10.3 ECOLOGY .......................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.4 CULTIVATION .................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.5 HARVESTING .................................................................................................................... 53 5.10.6 BIOTIC FACTORS ............................................................................................................. 53 5.10.7 ENERGY............................................................................................................................. 53 5.10.8 USES .................................................................................................................................. 54 SECTION 6 .................................................................................................................................... 55 AVAILABILITY OF CLASS-I RESOURCES ................................................................................. 55 6.1 GENERAL TRENDS .................................................................................................... 55 6.2 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL CROPS IN PAKISTAN.......................... 58 6.2.1 REGION – 1.................................................................................................................. 58 6.2.2 REGION – 2.................................................................................................................. 59 6.2.3 REGION – 3A ............................................................................................................... 59 6.2.4 REGION – 3B ............................................................................................................... 60 6.2.5 REGION – 4A ............................................................................................................... 60 6.2.6 REGION – 4B ............................................................................................................... 61Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 4 of 99
  • 5. 6.2.7 REGION – 5.................................................................................................................. 61 6.2.8 REGION – 6.................................................................................................................. 62 6.2.9 REGION – 7.................................................................................................................. 62 6.2.10 REGION – 8.................................................................................................................. 62 6.2.11 REGION – 9.................................................................................................................. 63 6.2.12 REGION – 10................................................................................................................ 63 6.3 COMMENTS................................................................................................................. 64 6.4 CROP SPECIFIC CONSTRAINTS .............................................................................. 67 6.4.1 SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEEDS..................................................................67 6.4.2 GROUNDNUT .................................................................................................67 6.4.3 SESAME .........................................................................................................68 6.4.4 COTTON .........................................................................................................68 6.4.5 SOYBEAN .......................................................................................................68 6.4.6 SAFFLOWER ..................................................................................................69 6.4.7 PONGAME AND JATROPHA ........................................................................69 6.5 GENERAL PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS ............................................................... 69 6.6 STATUS OF SHORT-LISTED FIELD CROPS............................................................ 70 6.6.1 PONGAME ......................................................................................................70 6.6.2 RAPESEED - MUSTARD................................................................................70 6.6.3 CASTOR .........................................................................................................72 6.6.4 SUNFLOWER .................................................................................................73 6.6.5 COTTON…………………………………………………………………………….75 6.6.6 JATROPHA…………………………………………………………………………..76 SECTION 7 .................................................................................................................................... 77 DESCRIPTION AND AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES .......................................... 77 7.1 WASTE VEGETABLE OIL ........................................................................................... 77 7.2 ANIMAL FATS .............................................................................................................. 77 7.3 AVAILABILITY .............................................................................................................. 77 SECTION 8 .................................................................................................................................... 79 CLEAN POWER’S PRACTICAL DATA ........................................................................................ 79 8.1 FIELD RESEARCH ON RESOURCES ....................................................................... 79 8.2 OIL EXTRACTION........................................................................................................ 80 8.3 THE TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS ............................................................... 81 8.4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF BIO-DIESEL .................................................................... 81 SECTION 9 .................................................................................................................................... 86 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................ 86 ANNEXURE I…………………………………………………………………………………………..88 REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................. .88 ANNEXURE II…………………………………………………………………………………………..90 GLOSSARY OF TERMS……………………………………………………………………………..90 ANNEXURE III ............................................................................................................................... 94 MEETINGS WITH DIFFERENT PERSONS DURING PROJECT…………………………………94Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 5 of 99
  • 6. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE-I: PONGAME TREE AND SEED ............................................................................................21 FIGURE-II: MUSTARD CROP AND SEEDS .........................................................................................24 FIGURE-III: WHITE MUSTARD CROP AND SEEDS .............................................................................28 FIGURE-IV: BLACK / BROWN MUSTARD CROP AND SEEDS ..............................................................31 FIGURE-IV: CANOLA CROP AND SEEDS ..........................................................................................33 FIGURE-V: CASTOR BEANS CROP AND SEEDS ................................................................................37 FIGURE-VI: SUNFLOWER CROP AND SEEDS ...................................................................................42 FIGURE-VII: COTTON CROP AND SEEDS .........................................................................................47 FIGURE-VIII: JATROPHA TREE AND SEEDS .....................................................................................52 FIGURE-IX: AVG YIELD OF MUSTARD IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA).............................................................71 FIGURE-X: AVG YIELD OF CASTOR BEAN IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA)........................................................72 FIGURE-XI: AVG YIELD OF SUNFLOWER BEAN IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA) ................................................74 FIGURE-XII: AVG YIELD OF COTTON IN PAKISTAN (KG/HA) ..............................................................75 FIGURE-XIII: AVG PRICE LIST OF BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES (RS PER 40 KG)......................................80 FIGURE-XIII: ACTUAL % OIL YIELD (LITERS OF BIO-DIESEL PER 100 KG SEED) .................................82 FIGURE-XIV: THEORETICAL % OIL YIELD (LITERS OF BIO-DIESEL PER 100 KG SEED) ........................82 FIGURE-XV: TRANSESTERIFICATION BYPRODUCTS - GLYCERINE ....................................................83 FIGURE-XVI TRANSESTERIFICATION BYPRODUCTS - SOAP…………………………...……84 FIGURE-XVII: BIO-DIESEL SAMPLES ..............................................................................................85Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 6 of 99
  • 7. SECTION 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Use of biological resources to improve the economy is an old tradition of human history. Plants are the unique biological resources form the basis of life. They provide us with many services, food, medicines, timber for construction, and fodder for our animals, materials for mates and baskets and alternative energy resources in the form of Bio-diesel. Bio-diesel is a renewable transport fuel generally extracted from plant seeds or from its other parts i.e. flowers etc. and is used as an alternative of diesel. Mainly Bio-diesel contains no petroleum and can be used as pure fuel but it could also be blended with petroleum diesel in different ratios to create a Bio- diesel blend. It can be used in compression ignition engines with little or no modification. Bio-diesel is simple to use, bio degradable, nontoxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. These properties of Bio-diesel led to the initiation of work not only in developed but also in under developed countries. The major sources that are contributing towards environmental pollution are transport vehicles that utilize petrol or diesel. Moreover, the prices of petroleum products have reached their peak level in recent times. To overcome these problems, a need arose to look for for fossil fuel replacement that is also kinder to the environment. Bio-diesel is a renewable transport fuel that will not only help in reducing air pollution but will also improve the socio-economic conditions of Pakistan by minimizing dependence upon foreign countries. In this context, the present study was the first step to develop Bio-diesel research in Pakistan. This research is part of a project of Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB), Goverenment of Pakistan, and has been executed by Clean Power (Pvt.) Ltd. This phase of the project is confined to identifying biological resources that can be used as Bio-diesel sources in Pakistan, and to test their viability from technical, commercial and economic points of view. The study was conducted with involvement of different laboratories and agencies, including including Biology Lab of Quaid-i-Azam Univeristy (QAU) Islamabad, Attock Oil Refinery Ltd. (ARL), Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Islamabad, and the Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan (HDIP) Islamabad.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 7 of 99
  • 8. The research work was comprehensive in identifying the global and national resources. Out of these resources, certain resources werw short-listed as sources of Bio-diesel. These include nine (09) plant species, and Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO). Out of these 09 plant species 03 were wild i.e. Pongame, Jatropha and Castorbean, 6 plant species were cultivated including 4 rapeseed crops, cotton seed and sunflower. The study mainly focused on detailed description of plant species, morphology, germplasm, distribution, ecology, cultivation, harvesting, biotic factors, energy and other uses. The study also described the availability of these resources in Pakistan including general trends, crop specific constraints, status of existing field plants, average yield, and geographic distribution, identification of land resources for cultivation and extraction of percentage oil yield. Frequent field trips and surveys were conducted, under the supervision of expert teams, to collect seeds of plant species and identify resource base persons and areas; some seeds were also purchased from the seed dealers. Market surveys were conducted to find out the availability and prices of seed crops. Extraction of oil was done in District Attock. At the same time WVO was collected from different hotels, restaurants and suppliers. Oils from all these sources were processed in the Biology lab of Quaid-i-Azam Univeristy, Islamabad by using standard methods. Bio-diesel samples from the short-listed resources were tested in the laboratories of ARL, HDIP and PCSIR for density, pour point, flash point, kinematic viscosity and distillation. Data on production of seeds, oil yield, Bio- diesel production and production of byproducts of Bio-diesel were collected; all these finding were systematically arranged and have been presented in this report and other reports submitted to AEDB, in the form of comprehensive descriptions, figures, tables, photographs, and videos. Conclusions and recommendations for future research have also been developed. This report carries valuable data obtained during practical experimentation by Clean Power. This data is specifically with respect to the Pakistani scenario.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 8 of 99
  • 9. SECTION 2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main objectives of the research were: • Identification of Bio-diesel resources in Pakistan • Shortlisting of the most propable resources • Extraction of oil from the short-listed resources for tests and experiments • Chemical analysis of Bio-diesel samples and comparison with HSD • Performance and fatigue tests on CI engine • Demonstration in cars • Develop coordination link between agriculture sector, research institutions and stake holders • Contribute to the Alternative Energy Development Programme initiated by the Government of PakistanTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 9 of 99
  • 10. SECTION 3 ABOUT BIO-DIESEL 3.1 WHAT IS BIO-DIESEL Bio-diesel is a diesel fuel substitute produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled cooking oils. Chemically, it is defined as the mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid sources. Bio-diesel is typically produced through the reaction of a vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst to yield glycerin and Bio-diesel (chemically called methyl or ethyl esters). Bio-diesel can be used in neat form, or blended with petroleum diesel for use in diesel engines. Its physical and chemical properties, in terms of operation of diesel engines, are similar to petroleum based diesel fuel. Bio-diesel is non-hazardous and bio- degradable. 3.2 UTILIZATION / APPLICATIONS OF BIO-DIESEL • PROPERTIES OF BIO-DIESEL Today’s diesel engines require a clean-burning, stable fuel that performs well under a variety of operating conditions. Bio-diesel is the only alternative fuel that can be used directly in any existing, unmodified diesel engine. Because it has similar properties to petroleum diesel fuel, Bio-diesel can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel. Many federal and state fleet vehicles in USA are already using Bio-diesel blends in their existing diesel engines. The low emissions of Bio-diesel make it an ideal fuel for use in marine areas, national parks and forests, and heavily polluted cities. Bio-diesel has many advantages as a transport fuel. For example, Bio-diesel can be produced from domestically grown oilseed plants such as canola and sunflower. Producing Bio-diesel from domestic crops will reduce the country’s dependence on foreign petroleum, increases agricultural revenue, and creates jobs. • USES OF BIO-DIESEL ♦ Bio-diesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine. It can be stored in the same way as petroleum diesel.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 10 of 99
  • 11. ♦ Bio-diesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel. The most common blend is a mix of 20% Bio-diesel with 80% petroleum diesel, or "B20." ♦ Bio-diesel combustion significantly reduces emissions:- Bio-diesel is 11% oxygen by weight and contains no sulphur. There are virtually no Sulphur Dioxide emissions from Bio-diesel combustion. Due to presence of sulphur in crude oil, all fossil fuels emit SO2. However Bio-diesel combustion does not emit any SO2 or sulphates. Zero net Carbon dioxide emissions; the small amounts of CO2 emitted by Bio-diesel combustion are re-absorbed by the increased plantation required to sustain the Bio-diesel raw material supply chain. Significantly less Carbon monoxide and particulates emissions. Combustion of Bio-diesel provides more than 90% reduction in unburned hydrocarbons, and 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. There may be a slight increase or decrease in Nitrogen oxide emissions depending upon engine type. ♦ The use of Bio-diesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel, while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected by Bio- diesel. ♦ Bio-diesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 125°C compared to petroleum diesel, which has a flash point of 66°C. ♦ Bio-diesel can be made from domestically produced renewable oilseed crops such as soybean, canola, cotton seed and mustard seed. ♦ Bio-diesel is a proven fuel with over 30 million successful US road miles, over 20 years of use in Europe and in initial stages in South Asia. ♦ The Congressional Budget Office, and Department of Defense, US Department of Agriculture, and others have determined that Bio-diesel is the low cost alternative fuel option for fleets to meet requirements of the Energy Policy Act.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 11 of 99
  • 12. 3.3 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS IN BIO-DIESEL • BIO-DIESEL IMPACT An important factor that is not usually considered when calculating the costs and benefits of industrial feedstock materials is the macroeconomic effect associated with domestically produced, renewable energy sources. Economic benefits of a Bio-diesel industry would include value addition to the feedstock (oilseeds or animal fats), an increased number of manufacturing jobs, an increased tax base from plant operations and income taxes, investments in plant and equipment, improvement of our trade balance, and reductions in health care costs due to improved air quality and greenhouse gas mitigation. • BIO-DIESEL HAS POSITIVE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE A 1996 economic study published by the USDA Office of Energy predicted that a modest, sustained annual market for Bio-diesel of 100 million gallons in the US would contribute approximately seven cents to the price of each bushel of soybeans produced in the US. • BIO-DIESEL CONTRIBUTES JOBS TO THE LOCAL ECONOMY Economic work conducted at the University of Missouri estimated the benefits of producing Bio-diesel in a metropolitan region. This study concluded that 100 million gallons of Bio-diesel production could generate an estimated $8.34 million increase in personal income and over 6,000 additional temporary or permanent jobs for the metropolitan region. 3.4 RESOURCES OF BIO-DIESEL There are many resources which can be used as raw material for Bio- diesel production. These resources mainly originated from plants particularly and animals in generally. Depending upon the availability and production the raw material for Bio-diesel can be classified into oil yielding crops, wild oil yielding trees, mirco organisms, animals and other byproducts having biotic origion. 1. Vegetable oils 2. Restaurant waste oils or UFOs (Used Frying Oils) 3. Cow-dung (Gobar Gas Plants) 4. Beef tallow 5. Pork Lard 6. Trap greaseTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 12 of 99
  • 13. 7. Micro-organisms (Geobacters) 8. Wild trees 9. Waste water by Bacteria 10. Soy Diesel 11. Methyl soyat 12. Soy Methayl Easter 13. Canola Diesel 14. Mycoflora 15. Microflora 16. PhycofloraTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 13 of 99
  • 14. SECTION 4 CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-DIESEL RESOURCES AND JUSTIFICATION 4.1 CLASSIFICATION There are many resources used for Bio-diesel production in the world. These resources can be classfied on the basis of availability and their yields. In Pakistan these resources mainly include oil seeds from oil crops, oil seeds from trees/plants, Waste Vegetable Oils (WVO) and animal fats. Historically animal fats were used in Pakistan for cooking, having been replaced by vegetable oil due to increase in population and per capita consumption. By studying all these aspects of resources, Clean Power has classified Bio-diesel resources into the following two broad categories:- • CLASS-I: BIO-DIESEL FROM OIL SEEDS • CLASS-II: BIO-DIESEL FROM WASTE OILS 4.2 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-I RESOURCES Pakistan has diverse ecological conditions; we are lucky to have over a dozen oil seed crops, which grow in different seasons, thereby giving a supply of oil seeds practically throughout the year Depending upon historical cultivation and production, the oil seed crops were classified into conventional (i.e. traditional), non traditional, industrial and wild crops. 4.2.1 CATEGORY A – CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS • Rape Seeds • Ground Nut • Sesame Seeds • Rocket seedsTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 14 of 99
  • 15. 4.2.2 CATEGORY B – NON CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS • Sun flower • Soybean • Safflower 4.2.3 CATEGORY C – INDUSTRIES BASED CROPS • Linseed • Castor beans • Cotton seeds 4.2.4 CATEGORY D – WILD PLANT RESOURCES • Pongame tree • Olive tree • Hemp oil • Oat seeds • Jatropha Shrub • Milk Thistle • Carthamus seeds • Jatropha Table-1: Short-listing / Selection of Resources from Class-I Resources S. # Botanical Name English Name Local Name Family 01 Pongamia pinnata Pongame Suck Chain Fabaceae 02 Brassica campestris Mustard Sarson Brassicaceae 03 Brassica alba White Mustard Chiti Sarson Brassicaceae 04 Brassica nigra Black Mustard Kali Sarson Brassicaceae 05 Brassica napus Canola Canola Brassicaceae 06 Ricinus communis Castor bean Arind Euphorbiaceae 07 Helianthus annuus Sunflower Suraj Mukhi Asteraceae 08 Gossypium hirsutum Cotton Kappa Malvaceae 09 Jatropha curcas Jatropha Karanga Euphorbiaceae From this point onward English names will be used.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 15 of 99
  • 16. 4.3 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-I RESOURCES Many oil seeds crops are grown in Pakistan as sources of vegetable oils; also many oil yielding wild plants are found in different areas of country. Pakistan has a rich biodiversity of natural resources with special reference to oil yielding plants. This diverse nature of flora is due to diverse edaphic and climatic conditions. Basically Pakistan is an agricultural country and has sufficient resources that can be utilized for production of Bio-diesel. Unfortunately like other fields, no systematic and scientific investigations has been done on Bio- diesel, because the people are unaware of the benefits of these resources for development of the Bio-diesel industry; the main causes are lack of awareness, lack of interaction between our industries and research intuitions, and lack of Government support for this technology on a practical level. No relevant steps have been undertaken by the educational, industrial and research institutions on this project. Hence there is a dire need to carry out research to identify these natural resources for Bio-diesel production and their applications. In the present project short-listing of oilseeds for Bio-diesel productions is based on the following reasons. 1. Pongame is the plant of humid and sub-tropical environment; it is cultivated in areas having annual rain fall ranging from 500-2500mm. This species can withstand water logging and slight frost. Pongame can grow on most soil types ranging from stony to sandy to clayey soils. It does not do well on dry sand. It is highly tolerant of salanity. In addition to the benefit of oil for Bio-diesel, Pongame is also an important plant for Pakistani lands to remove salanity and water logging. 2. Rape seeds are important species of Brassica genus belonging to family Brassicaceae. These have remained one of the major sources of oil in the subcontinent for centuries. Presently 05 species of Brassica are cultivated in the country; these include Brassica Campestris (Sarson), Brassica Juncea (Raya), Brassica Nigra (Kali sarson), Brassica Napus (Canola) and Brassica Alba (Chiti sarson). All these species are cultivated in various soil conditions as well as drought tolerant soils due to high yied. 3. Castor is grown since pre-historic time in this region and is used as an industrial oil yielding plant. Its maximum area (45,900 hectars) was planted during 1978 to 1979 in Pakistan. Then it started declining due to lack of demand in the local market and diminishing export. Now it is wildly distribuited in waste places and nallas of Pakistan. This resource has been shortlisted because it is wild, and the soil in Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan is very suitable for its cultivation.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 16 of 99
  • 17. 4. The commercial introduction of sunflower (Helianthus Annus) began in 1965. Among the non-conventional oil seed crops, the sunflower has been found the most successful in the country. Most of the area under sunflower is Punjab and Sindh. It is a faster growing crop in Punjab than in other provinces. Due to favorable climatic conditions the average yield of this crop is very high. 5. During the last two decades, cotton has shown tremendous increase in area and production. Its area increased by 63.6%, and production by 302%. It is one of the economically attractive crops of Pakistan and most of Punjab supports its cultivation and harvesting. 6. Jatropha Curcas is resistant to drought and can be planted even in the desert climates. It thrives on any type of soil and grows almost anywhere: in sandy, gravelly and saline soils. Jatropha needs minimal input or management. Jatropha has no pests, it is not browsed by cattle or sheep, and it can survive long periods of drought. Jatropha propagation is easy, its growth is rapid, and it forms a thick live hedge after only a months planting. Jatropha Curcas starts yielding from the 2nd year of its cultivation and continues for 40 years. The meal after extraction is an excellent organic manure. Jatropha Curcas quickly establishes itself and produces seeds round the year if irrigated. 7. The vast area and varied agroclimatic conditions of Pakistan make growth possible for different kinds of cultivated crops in general and wild plants in particular. Clean Power will encourage and provide expertise for plantation of wild resources that are suitable for Bio-diesel production. Clean Power has already started mega tree plantationth of Pongame on along railway tracks and on railway stations in the Rawalpindi districts, with support from Pakistan Railways and AEDB. 4.4 CATEGORIES OF CLASS-II RESOURCES • Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) • Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) • Animal fats From the above categories, the following are short-listed as viable resources for Bio-diesel production: • Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO)Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 17 of 99
  • 18. • Animal Fats (AF) 4.5 JUSTIFICATION OF SHORT-LISTING FROM CLASS-II RESOURCES The justification for short-listing WVO and AF sources of Bio-diesel are based on the following facts:- 1. Pakistan is a country the people of which consume huge quantities of edible oil and meat every year; we are basically a meat-eating nation, and habitually use a lot of oil in our cooking. 2. WVO is available in large quantities in metropolitan cities, mainly from big hotel chains, huts, confectionaries, and restaurant chains. These hotels, restaurants and huts are the major source of WVO in Pakistan. Similarly AF is available in large quantities in slaughter houses, more so in big cities and villages, and during certain festivities such as Eid. 3. Collection mechanisms of WVO and AF are simple and easier than oils directly obtained from crops and plants. Centralized collection of WVO is already done in metropolitan cities. 4. Method of preparation of Bio-diesel from WVO and AF is simple and inexpensive. The equipment and chemicals required for the process are also easily available. 5. The by-products of the production process (of Bio-diesel from WVO and AF), glycerine and soap, are also usable and salable commercially. 6. Whereas plants and crops are the major sources of Bio-diesel, the quantities that can be produced from WVO and AF will greatly supplement the Bio-diesel from plants and crops. Using WVO and AF as additional sources will be an advantage in commercial-scale production and usage of Bio-diesel. Keeping in view the potential of WVO and AF as sources of Bio-diesel, Clean Power has carried out systematic studies and experiments in laboratories and in the field. In the short to medium term, Clean Power plans to set up a facility for production of Bio-diesel from WVO and AF.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 18 of 99
  • 19. SECTION – 5 DESCRIPTION OF CLASS-I RESOURCES 5.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Many oilseed crops are grown in Pakistan as a source of vegetable oil. These crops are grouped in two categories viz. conventional and non- conventional oilseed crops. Rapeseed-mustard, groundnut and sesame are conventional crops and have been grown in the country for a long period. Sunflower, soybean and safflower are non-conventional crops and have been introduced recently in our country. There are also some oilseed crops that are mainly used for industrial purposes, such as linseed and castor. Presently, local production of oilseeds meets only about 32% percent of the total countrys requirements for edible oil. The remaining requirement of edible oil is met from foreign sources. • RAPESEEDS Rapeseed-mustard crops are grown on a large area, and contribute, on the average, about 21% in the edible oil production. However, its oil is not used in the manufacture of vegetable ghee (hydrogenated vegetable oil in semi-solid form) as it contains high levels of erucic acid and traces of sulphur compounds (glucosinolates). Its oil is mostly used in pickles, deep frying, anointing body, as hair oil, etc. • COTTON Cotton contributes about 72% to the edible oil production in Pakistan; its cultivated area has increased by 51% over the last 19 years, from 1.733 million hectares in 1970-71 to 2.62 million hectares in 2003-04. Similarly, production of cottonseed has increased by about 125% and average yield almost 73% during the same period. Production of some oilseeds has become stagnant or shown negative growth; during the last two decades, rapeseed-mustard, which is the second most important group of oilseed crops and contributes about 21% production of vegetable oil in the country, has shown a negative growth rate of 2.75% per annum for its area. Its production has also reduced during the same period but comparatively in lesser magnitude because of some improvement in its productivity at unit area basis.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 19 of 99
  • 20. • JATROPHA Jatropha is a wild oilseed crop and its cultivation in Pakistan has remained almost stagnant over the years. The conditions for the cultivation of this plant are favourable in Pakistan as studied by Clean Power. According to a survey conducted by Clean Power, only few plants are found as ornamental in different educational institutes. Clean Power has already started experimentation with Jatropha, to serve as a basis for large-scale plantation. • SUNFLOWER & SOYBEAN The commercial introduction of sunflower began in 1965. But it did not increase rapidly as expected up till 1979-80. However, from 1980-81 to 2003-04 the area increased at an appreciable annual growth rate of 25.75%. A total of 42,500 tonnes of sunflower seed was produced in 1987-88 which was the highest in the sunflower history of the country until now. During 2003-04 production reduced to 34,400 tonnes. Although soybean as an oil crop has been introduced in Pakistan along with sunflower, it could not make its place in the country. Its cultivation remained restricted to a limited area mostly in the North West Frontier Province. Since its average yield per hectare is also very low, its production remained small. The highest production of soybean was 3,800 tonnes in 1986-87 which reduced to 1,200 tonnes in 2003-04. • SAFFLOWER Production of safflower in Pakistan has been very little and no appreciable progress was made inspite of the efforts made by the Government from time to time. Safflower is grown mostly on the right bank of river Indus in upper Sindh as "Dobari Crop" (the crop grown after rice with out irrigation). Its area reached to the maximum of 8,100 hectares in 1982-83 and now it has decreased to 2,000 hectares in 2003-04, which is negligible. • CONSTRAINTS Area and production of conventional crops, excluding non-edible types, has remained almost stagnant for the last 02 decades. The area under these crops was 571,100 hectares in 1970-71, which reduced to 427,000 hectares in 2003-04, and registered a growth rate of –1.52% (negative) per annum. Similarly, total production of conventional oilseeds was 331,700 tonnes in 1970-71 which increased very slightly to 336,700 tonnes in 2003-04. The areas under non- conventional oilseed crops in Pakistan is negligible and has not increased as expected. Average yields of all the oilseed crops are very low. The profitability of these crops is not well established due to which they remained neglected.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 20 of 99
  • 21. Mostly, conventional oilseeds are grown on marginal lands, while the newly introduced oilseed crops are passing through the process of introduction and the farmers still have not mastered the production technology to grow them. General constrains that result in low productivity are as follows: • Lack of high yielding varieties. • Inadequate adoption of improved agronomic practices. • Lack of quality seed. • Inadequate application of necessary inputs. • Damage by pests (insects, diseases, birds). • Non-availability of suitable machinery for planting, harvesting and threshing. • Lack of conducive policies. 5.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PONGAME FIGURE-I: Pongame tree and seed Fast-growing, glabrous, deciduous tree that reaches up to a height of 25 meters, Pongamia Pinnata has a moderate shade with drooping branches; its trunk diameter is up to 60 cm; it has a smooth grayish bark. Its leaves are imparipinnate and shiny, with young leaves pink-red and mature leaves glossy deep green in color; leaflets 5–9, the terminal leaflet larger than the others; stipels none; stipules caducous. Flowers fragrant, white to pinkish, paired alongTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 21 of 99
  • 22. rachis in axillary, pendent, long racemes or panicles; calyx campanulate or cup- shaped, truncate, short-dentate, lowermost lobe sometimes longer; standard suborbicular, broad, usually with 2 inflexed, basal ears, thinly silky-haired outside; wings oblique, long, somewhat adherent to the obtuse keel; keel petals coherent at apex; stamens monadelphous, vexillary stamen free at the base but joined with others into a closed tube; ovary subsessile to short-stalked, pubescent; ovules 2, rarely 3; style filiform, upper half incurved, glabrous; stigma small, terminal. Pod short stalked, oblique-oblong, flat, smooth, thickly leathery to subwoody, indehiscent, 1-seeded; seed thick, reniform. 5.2.1 GERMPLASM Reported from the Hindustani Center of Diversity, pongam, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate drought, frost, heat, limestone, salinity, sand, and shade. (2n = 22) 5.2.2 DISTRIBUTION An Indomalaysian species, Pongame is a medium-sized evergreen tree, common on alluvial and coastal situations from India to Fiji, from sea level to 1200m. Now found in Pakistan, Australia, Florida, Hawaii, India, Malaysia, Oceania, Philippines, and Seychelles. 5.2.3 ECOLOGY Probably ranges from Tropical Dry to Moist through Subtropical Dry to Moist Forest Life Zones. Withstanding temperatures slightly below 0°C to 50°C and annual rainfall of 5–25 dm. The tree grows wild on sandy and rocky soils, including oolitic limestone, but will grow in most soil types, even with its roots in salt water. 5.2.4 CULTIVATION The seeds of Pongame, remaining viable for sometime, require no special scarification. Direct sowing is usually successful. Seedlings transplant easily from the nursery after about a year. Root suckers are rather plentiful as well. It is a rapid-growing coppice species that can be cloned. 5.2.5 HARVESTING Pods are collected and shells removed by hand. Pongame is grown in 30- year rotations for fuel in West Bengal. 5.2.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Two rhizobial strains produced nodules on 18 species of 12 different genera in the cowpea miscellany. The strains, culturally and physiologically typical of slow-growing rhizobia, elicited ineffective responses on Clitoria ternatea and Stizolobium utile. One was ineffective on Lespedeza stipulacea andTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 22 of 99
  • 23. Samanea saman. Viruses. Sandal Spike Virus. Fungi. Fusicladium pongamiae, Ganoderma lucidum, Phyllachora pongamiae, Ravenelia hobsoni, Ravenelia stictica. Angiospermae. Cuscuta reflexa, Loranthus sp. Acarina. Eriophyes cheriani. Diptera. Microdiplosis pongamiae, Myricomyia pongamiae. Hemiptera. Coptosoma cribrarium, Drosicha stebbingi, Drosichiella tamarinda. Lepidoptera. Acrocercops anthracuris, Amphion floridensis, Cydia balanoptycha, Cydia perfricta, Eresia jumbah, Indarbela tetraonis, Jamides celeno, Phyllonorycter virgulata. Orthoptera. Schistocerca gregaria. Thysanoptera. Megalurothrips distalis. 5.2.7 ENERGY Wherever Pongame is grown, its wood (calorific value 4,600 kcal/kg) is burned for cooking fuel. The thick oil from the seeds is used for illumination, as a kerosene substitute, and lubrication. It would seem that with upgraded germplasm one could target for 2 MT oil and 5 MT firewood per hectare per year on a renewable basis. The oil has been tried as fuel in diesel engines, showing a good thermal efficiency 5.2.8 USES The Pongame tree is cultivated for two purposes: (1) as an ornamental tree in gardens and along avenues and roadsides, for its fragrant Wisteria-like flowers, and (2) as a host plant for lac insects. It is appreciated as an ornamental tree throughout coastal India and all of Polynesia. Well-decomposed flowers are used by gardeners as compost for plants requiring rich nutrients. In the Philippines the bark is used for making strings and ropes. The bark also yields a black gum that is used to treat wounds caused by poisonous fish. In wet areas of the tropics the leaves serve as green manure and as fodder. The black malodorous roots contain a potent fish-stupefying principle. In primitive areas of Malaysia and India root extracts are applied to abscesses; other plant parts, especially crushed seeds and leaves are regarded as having antiseptic properties. The seeds contain oil…. a bitter, reddish brown, thick, non-drying, nonedible oil, 27–36% by weight, which is used for tanning leather; as a liniment to treat scabies, herpes, and rheumatism; and as an illuminating oil. Also used for lubrication and indigenous medicine. Pongam oil showed inhibitory effects on Bacillus Anthracis, Bacillus Mycoides, Bacillus Pulilus, Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas Mangiferae, Salmonella Typhi, Sarcina Lutea, Staphylococcus Albus, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Xanthomonas Campestris, but did not inhibit Shigella Sp. The oil has a high content of triglycerides, and its disagreeable taste and odor are due to bitter flavonoid constituents, pongamiin and karanjin. The wood is yellowish white, coarse, hard, and beautifully grained, but is not durable. Use of the wood is limited to cabinetmaking, cart wheels, posts, and fuel. Both the oil and residues are toxic. Still the presscake is described as aTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 23 of 99
  • 24. "useful poultry feed." Seeds are used to poison fish. Still it is recommended as a shade tree for pastures and windbreak for tea. The leaves are said to be a valuable lactagogue fodder, especially in arid regions. It is sometimes intercropped with pasture, the pasture grasses said to grow well in its shade. Dried pongame leaves are used in stored grains to repel insects. Leaves often plowed green manure, thought to reduce nematode infestations. Its spreading roots make it a valuable tree for checking erosion and stabilizing dunes. Twigs are used as a chewstick for cleaning the teeth. The ash of the wood is used in dyeing. 5.3 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MUSTARD FIGURE-II: Mustard crop and seeds Biennial herb with swollen tuberous white-fleshed taproot, lacking a neck; leaves light to medium green, hairy or bristly, stalked, lyrate-pinnatifid, 30–50 cm long, stem-leaves sometimes glaucous with clasping base; flowers bright yellow, sepals spreading: petals 6–10 mm long, those in anthesis close together and commonly overtopping the unopened buds; outer 2 stamens curved outwards at base and much shorter than inner stamens; fruit 4–6.5 cm long, with long tapering beak, on divaricate-ascending pedicels 3.2–6.5 cm long; seeds blackish or reddish-brown, 1.5–2 mm in diameter. Fl. and fr. second spring.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 24 of 99
  • 25. 5.3.1 GERMPLASM Varieties may have white or yellow flesh, and outside crown may be white, green or purplish-red. Most common white-fleshed varieties are: Purple Top White Globe and White Egg. Shogoin is a white-skinned, white-fleshed Japanese variety, widely grown in the South for greens and salad. Yellow-fleshed turnips include Golden Ball or Orange Jelly, Amber or Yellow Globe and Yellow Aberdeen. Seven Top is grown in South for useof greens. Purple Top White Globe is recommended for tropics. Brassica rapa subsp. rapa, turnip, cultivated for its tuberous taproot, sometimes escapes as a weed. Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera DC., Turnip rape, grown as a fodder crop, has larger reddishbrown seeds and non-tuberous taproot. Brassica rapa subsp. sylvestris (L.) Janchen (B. campestris L., p.p.). Field mustard is a weed or ruderal in much of Europe, native to Asia. Reported from the China-Japan, Eurosiberian, and Mediterranean Centers of Diversity, turnip, or cvs thereof, is reported to, tolerate aluminum, bacteria, disease, frost, fungi, high pH, low pH, laterite, mycobacteria, photoperiod, smog, sulfur dioxide, virus, and weeds. Terrell divides Brassica rapa into the following groups: Chinensis Group—pak-choi, Pekinensis Group—pe- tsai or "Chinese cabbage", Perviridis Group—spinach mustard, Rapifera Group— turnip, and Ruvo Group—ruvo kale. (2n = 20) 5.3.2 DISTRIBUTION Mustard has been cultivated in Europe for over 4,000 years; it is probably native to central and southern Europe, and now spread throughout the world, including Pakistan and most parts of the tropics. 5.3.3 ECOLOGY Turnip is basically a cool climate crop, resistant to frost and mild freezes. It is grown as a spring or fall crop throughout the United States. Temperatures below 10°C cause bolting. Turnips do well in deep, friable, highly fertile soil with pH 5.5–6.8; sandy loams are used for early markets roots and greens. Short growing season makes them very adaptable as a catch crop. Ranging from Boreal Moist to Rain through Tropical Thorn to Moist Forest Life Zones, Brassica rapa is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3.5 to 41.0 dm (mean of 75 cases = 9.1), annual temperature of 3.6 to 27.4°C (mean of 75 cases = 10.7), and pH of 4.2 to 7.8 (mean of 66 cases = 6.2) (Duke, 1978, 1979). 5.3.4 CULTIVATION Seed are sown thinly in spring, summer or fall in drills at seed rate of 1.1– 2.2 kg/ha. Seedlings are then thinned to stand 5–15 cm apart in rows 0.3–0.9 m apart. Mustard is cultivated shallowly for weed control. Lime is added to the soil to correct pH to 5.5–6.8. Only light applications of fertilizer are justified, as 450- 675 kg/ha of 4-12-4. When turnips are seeded as a fall crop following a crop that has been well fertilized, no additional fertilizer may be necessary. Seed may beTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 25 of 99
  • 26. broadcast on fertile, well-prepared seedbeds where weed control will not be difficult. Turnips may be intercropped with corn, and as such they are shade- tolerant, or they may be used as a catch crop after early vegetables. It is not advisable to grow turnips after a root crop. Good rotation, helps to control diseases. Best grown after clover, beans, peas or grass crop. 5.3.5 HARVESTING Roots may be harvested in 45–80 days. They are harvested for bunching when 5 cm in diameter, and for topped turnips when 7.5 cm in diameter. Turnip greens may be harvested when plants are young and tender. For early spring market, turnips are pulled, washed, their tops left on, tied in bunches, and marketed. Topped turnips for the general market are sold by the bushel or the hundredweight. Flavor and texture are not improved by storage. They should not be left in the ground where temperatures near freezing occur; in milder areas they may be left in field until desired. They may be stored in pits or piles, in well- drained soils. Piles should not be more than 2.6 m wide nor more than 2 m deep to prevent heating at the center. For good aeration, wooden chutes are inserted at intervals of 2.5–3 m in the pile. A ditch is dug around the base of pile for water runoff. Alternate layers of straw and soil are used as covering for pit storage. For indoor storage, crates or small piles laid on earth cellar floors are satisfactory. Small quantities of turnips may be stored in a cool cellar and covered with moistened clean sand to keep them from drying out. Storage temperature in a cellar or in a cold storage room should remain between 0° and 1.5°C, with a relative humidity of 90–95%. 5.3.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Cross pollination, by various insects, is necessary for good seed production. In USSR, 16–17 colonies of bees/ha are used, but 2 or 3 hives are sufficient to increase pollination and to insure good seed set. Isolation of varieties necessary for pure seed production; in England at least 900 m; in New Zealand, 400 m. Should be well-isolated from all other forms of B. juncea, B. campestris, and B. napus. Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) and Black rot are the most serious diseases. Other fungi attacking turnips include: Albugo candids, Alternaria brassicae, A. brassicicola, A. oleracea, A. herculea, A. tenuis, Botrytis cinerea, Cercospora albo-maculans, C. brassicicola, C. brassicae, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum higginsianum, Corticium solani, Cystopus candidus, Curvularia inaequalis, Erysiphe polygone, E. communis, Fusarium oxysporum, F.conglutinans, Gloeosporium concentricum, Leptosphaeria napi, Macrophomina phaseoli, Macrosporium macrosporum, Mycosphaerella brassicicola, Oidium erysiphoides, Peronospora parasitica, P. brassicae, Phoma lingam, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia sp., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Septomyxa affine, Stemphylium botryosum, Streptomyces scabies, SpongosporaTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 26 of 99
  • 27. subterranea. Turnips may be parasitized by Orobanche cernua, or attacked by the following bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacterium aroideae, Erwinia carotovora, E. aroideae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Pseudomonas maculicola, P. madrasensis, Xanthomonas campestris, and X. vesicatoria campestris, and X. vesicatoria. Viruses isolated from turnips include: Beet mild yellowing, Beet ringspot, Cabbage blackspot, Cauliflower mosaic, Crinkle mosaic, Cucumber mosaic, Kukitachina mosaic, Turnip latent, Turnip mosaic and Curly top. Nematodes attacking turnips include: Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Helicotylenchus dihystera, H. pseudorobustus, Heterodera cruciferae, H. schachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. i. acrita, M. javanica, Nacobbus aberrans, Pratylenchus neglectus, P. penetrans, P. projectus, and Trichodorus christiei. Turnip aphid, root maggot and flea beetles are the most injurious insect pests. 5.3.7 ENERGY According to the phytomass files annual productivity ranges from 4 to 11 MT/ha. Indian studies showed DM yields of 530–1,260 kg/ha after 38 days with 61–191 kg extractable protein; 820–2,090 kg/ha after 52 days with 90–265 kg extractable protein. If this much were available in 45 days, and plots were cropped continuously (perhaps impractical, if not impossible), DM yields might run 6–16 MT/ha with ca 800–2,000 kg/ha, the residues remaining for potential energy conversion. Seed yields in Minnesota and Canada run over 1,000 kg/ha/yr, and the oil from such seeds is being considered for energy purposes. 5.3.8 USES Turnips are one of the most commonly grown and widely adapted root crops, as general farm crop, truck crop, or home-garden crop. Roots eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable, and tops as potherb like spinach. Roots also grown for feeding to livestock during fall and winter.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 27 of 99
  • 28. 5.4 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF WHITE MUSTARD FIGURE-III: White Mustard crop and seeds Erect, sparsely-hairy branching winter annual herb, developed from a taproot; stems up to 1.5 m tall, usually with stiff de-flexed hairs, but sometimes glabrous; leaves petiolate, alternate, ovate or obovate, to 8 cm long and 4 cm wide, pinnately dissected into 3–5 rounded segments, usually hispid but not scabrid; flowers yellow, in elongated racemes, hairy, patent, the beak broad, flattened, 10–30 mm long, attenuate; seeds 4–8 per pod, globular, yellowish to light brown, 2 mm in diameter, the innner seed coat containing mucilage, cotyledons containing oil with pungent taste but no odor. 2n = 24. Fl. spring and summer; fr. summer and fall. 5.4.1 GERMPLASM Two subspecies are recognized; subsp. alba—with lyrate-pinnatified or lyrate-pinnate leaves and siliques 20–40 mm long and 3–4 mm wide, the valves usually hispid, with a beak 10–30 mm long, and yellow or pale brown seeds; and subsp. dissecta (Lag.) Bonnier—with leaves twice pinnatifid, not lyrate, with the terminal lobe ovate and the lateral lobes oblong-linear and siliques 25–30 mm long and 3.5–6.5 mm wide, the valves slightly hairy or glabrous, the beak 10–20 mm long and the seeds grayish-brown. Assigned to the Mediterranean Center of Diversity white mustard or cvs thereof is said to tolerate frost, high pH, heavy soil, low pH, smog, and weeds. (2n = 24).Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 28 of 99
  • 29. 5.4.2 DISTRIBUTION Native to the Mediterranean region and the Crimea, but introduced into northwestern Europe, Russia, Japan, North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, India, North Africa, Pakistan and China. It has become naturalized in many areas and is a weed of cultivated lands, especially flax-fields. 5.4.3 ECOLOGY White Mustard is a quick-growing long-day annual crop that prefers temperate climates with some humidity. Can withstand high temperatures, but very hot days during flowering and ripening may reduce seed setting and lower quality of seed. Requires high nutrient soils with high level of nitrogen, but may be grown on a wide range of soils from light to heavy, growing best on relatively heavy sandy loamy soils. Not suited to very wet soils. Ranging from Boreal Moist to Wet through Tropical Dry Forest Life Zones, white mustard occurs where annual precipitation varies from 3.5 to 17.9 dm (mean of 43 cases = 7.7), annual temperature from 5.6 to 24.9°C (mean of 43 cases = 10.5), and pH of 4.5 to 8.2 (mean of 36 cases = 6.6). 5.4.4 CULTIVATION Land to be sown to mustard should be prepared in the fall. Seed may be sown in early spring with a seeder at rate of 4–5 kg/ha and then the land harrowed. In Great Britain seed is sown at rate of 12 kg/ha on heavy soils and up to 14 kg/ha on light soils. In the Pacific States sowing may be as early as January. Crop may be cultivated, harvested, and handled with ordinary farm machinery. For salad greens, plants are havested when a few cm tall, when only the first pairs of leaves (seed-leaves) have expanded. Crop is usually grown in greenhouses, thus crops can be produced year round if a temperature of 10– 15°C is maintained. Seed is sown on the surface of soil, on firm level beds; watered with a fine spray, then covered with steam-sterilized net sack-cloth, which is sprayed to keep it moist, and removed when seedlings are 2.5–3.5 cm tall, in about 4 days in spring and autumn and 6–7 days in winter. The yellowish seed-leaves turn green in 2–3 days and then the crop is cut. It is usually marketed in small boxes, sometimes packed together with cress. For home use, small quantities of seed may be grown on wet flannel on a dish, covered to exclude light and to keep the seedlings moist. 5.4.5 HARVESTING Seeds are ripe for harvest when they are hard and black. Fruits do not shatter readily and can be direct combined. It is important to harvest the seed when ripe, since the seed weight increases substantially during the last 2–3 days before the crop is ready to harvest in August or earlier. For pure seed production, varieties must be isolated at least 360 m apart. From seeding to harvest usuallyTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 29 of 99
  • 30. requires about 4 months in the US. In temperate India it is grown as a winter garden crop. 5.4.6 BIOTIC FACTORS White mustard is 100% pollinated by wind and insects, mainly honey- bees. Among diseases infesting white mustard are the white-rust Albugo candida, an Alternaria leaf spot, the powdery mildew Erysiphe polygoni, the downy mildew Peronospora parasitica, the clubroot Plasmodiophora brassicae, and the stemrot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nematodes include Ditylenchus dipsaci, Heterodera cruciferae, H. schachtii, H. trifolii, Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus penetrans, and P. pratensis. 5.4.7 ENERGY If the experimental seed yields of 8,000 kg/ha are correct, the 25-30% oil content could add up to nearly 2.5 MT oil per hectare. 5.4.8 USES White mustard is grown for its seed, used as a condiment and for soils they yield; as a salad plant; and as a green fodder crop or as green manure. Seeds yield 20–35% of a golden-yellow mild tasting oil which is used as lubricant and illuminant. White Mustard Oil is also a by-product of the condiment industry in countries where the seed is partially deolated before milling. Oil also used in Sweden in the manufacture of mayonnaise. Seedling used as a salad plant, eaten raw in salads and sandwiches. Leaves are used as potherbs. In the US mustard is second in demand only to pepper among spices. Commercial mustard usually combines white mustard for pungency with black mustard for aroma, and the yellow color is due to the addition of turmeric. Vinegar is added to prevent the speedy decomposition experienced with mustard freshly prepared from the dry powder. Whole seeds are used for pickles and may be boiled with such vegetables as cabbage and sauerkraut. This is grown as a cover crop because of its rapid growth. Oil cake is used for fattening sheep.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 30 of 99
  • 31. 5.5 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF BLACK OR BROWN MUSTARD FIGURE-IV: Black / Brown Mustard crop and seeds Much-branched, aromatic, fast-growing, pubescent annual herb, to 4 m tall, with taproot; lower leaves lyrate-pinnatisect, With 1-3 pairs of lateral lobes and larger terminal lobe, hispid on both surfaces; upper leaves linear-oblong, entire or sinuate, glabrous, dentate, all leaves petiolate; flowers in enlongate racemes, regular petals yellow, 7-9 mm long, stamens 6, fruit a silique, long slender beaked pod, 1.0-2.0 cm long, smooth cylindrical, 1.5-2 mm wide with 10- 12 seeds, beak seedless, on short (2.5-6 mm) pedicels; seeds dark reddish- brown to black, oval to spherical, about 1 mm in diameter, more or less covered with white pellicle, taste pungent. Fl. May–June; fr. June–Oct. 5.5.1 GERMPLASM Many cvs developed, include English, Barn, Trieste and California. Reported from the Eurosiberian, and African Centers of Diversity, black mustard or cvs thereof is reported to tolerate aluminum, laterite, low pH, poor soil, smog and weed. (n = 4–11, 2n = 16.) 5.5.2 DISTRIBUTION Origin unknown, but some believe it to be from a Mediterranean center with a secondary center in the Near East as in Pakistan and India. Now it is widespread in Central and South Europe, and other areas with a temperate climate. It is a frequent weed of waste places and cultivated fields.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 31 of 99
  • 32. 5.5.3 ECOLOGY Black mustard, adapted to a wide variety of climatic conditions, is mainly suited to tropical areas, and grown chiefly as a rainfed crop in areas of low or moderate rainfall. Suited to many types of soils except very heavy clays; grows best on light sandy loams, or deep rich fertile soils. Ranging from Boreal Wet through Tropical Desert to Dry Forest Life Zones, black mustard is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3 to 17 dm (mean of 40 cases = 8.5), annual temperature of 6 to 27°C (mean of 40 cases = 12.7), and pH of 4.9 to 8.2 (mean of 34 cases = 6.5) 5.5.4 CULTIVATION Land should be prepared in fall to a fine tilth, as the seeds are very small. Seed may be sown with seeder in early spring at rate of 3-4 kg/ha. In Sri Lanka, seed is broadcast, or, as a pure crop, drilled in rows 22 cm apart. Seeds germinate quickly, first leaves being visible within 48 hours after sowing. Plants are thinned to stand ca 10–50 cm apart in row. In Sri Lanka often intercropped with kurakkan (Eleusine coracana). 5.5.5 HARVESTING Flowers about 45 days after sowing, and is ready to harvest in another 6– 7 weeks. In the United States, planting, harvesting and threshing are mechanized. Crop is cut green in August (mainly by combine in Montana), and allowed to ripen. To avoid shattering, pods are harvested when still closed but mature, preferably early in the day. Sometimes plants are cut and dried on the threshing floor prior to threshing by beating with wooden flails. 5.5.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Black Mustard is insect-pollinated. Bees collect the copious mustard nectar and produce a mild-flavored, light-colored honey. Mildews appear on the leaves causing malformation of flower heads and pods, a situation often controlled by sulfur-dusting or spraying with Bordeaux mixture. Main insect pest is Mustard sawfly (Athalia lugens proxima), larvae of which feed on the leaves. Nematodes include Ditylenchus dipsaci, Heterodera crucifera, H. schachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, Nacobbus aberrans, Xiphinema indicum, Pratylenchus penetrans, and P. pratensis 5.5.7 ENERGY After only 30 days, 720-970 kg DM are available from poor soils in India, of which 137-176 kg are extractable protein. At 40 days, 1,450-1,610 kg DM with 226-283 kg extractable protein, at 52 days, 1,680-2,230 kg DM with 215-329 kg extractable protein. In a suitable cool but frost free climate, such yields mightTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 32 of 99
  • 33. possibly be repeated every 45 days or so with annual yields closer to 2,400 extractable protein from 12-18 MT/ha. 5.5.8 USES Black mustard is cultivated for its seeds, the source of commercial table- mustard, used as a condiment and medicine. Seeds contain both a fixed and an essential oil, used as a condiment, illuminant, lubricant, and soap constituent. Black mustard is mixed with white mustard (Sinapis alba) to make mustard flour, used in various condiments as "English Mustard" when mixed with water and "Continental Mustard" with vinegar. Mustard flowers are good honey producers. Mustard is agriculturally used as a cover crop. Mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) is used in cat and dog repellents. 4.6 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CANOLA FIGURE-IV: Canola crop and seeds Annual or biennial, when sown late and flowering the following spring, with slender or stout, hard, long, fusiform tuberous taproot; stems erect, much- branched, up to 1.5 m tall, often purple toward base; leaves glaucous, the lower ones lyrate-pinnatifid or lobed, with petioles 10–30 cm long, glabrous or with a few bristly hairs, upper stem leaves lanceolate, sessile, clasping, more or lessTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 33 of 99
  • 34. entire; flowers pale yellow, 1.2–1.5 cm long, open flowers not overtopping buds of inflorescence; inflorescence much-branched, up to 1 m tall as an elongating raceme; silique 5–11 cm long, 2.5–4 mm wide, with slender beak 0.5–3 mm long. Underground part curved or crooked for 5–7.5 cm and then dividing into stout horizontal branches. Fl. late spring to fall; fr. early summer to fall. 5.6.1 GERMPLASM It is thought that crosses of Brassica oleracea subsp. oleracea (2n = 18) with B. rapa (2n = 20) gave rise to subsp. pabularia (2n = 38), from which subsp. napus (2n = 38) and subsp. rapifera (2n = 38) and other cvs were derived. Brassica napus subsp. napus—Target type has dark green leaves, mostly self- pollinated, height 1.3–2 m tall, seed very dark brown to black when mature, 130,000 seeds/lb., maturing in December in Western Australia, requiring 192– 204 days to maturity. Brassica napus subsp. pabularia (DC.) Janchen (Syn.: B. napus var. pabularia (DC.) Reichenb.)—Hanover kale, Leaf-rape, Siberian kale, has a slender annual root and crispate, dissected leaves. Brassica napus subsp. oleifera DC.—Oilseed rape, Summer rape is a biennial with non-tuberous root and lyrate-pinnatifid leaves. Main variety grown in Canada and Western Australia, including Target, Turret, Oro, and Zaphyr, the last two being free of erucic acid. Leading rape cvs for oilseeds in Minnesota are: Golden, Nugget, and Tankal which originated in Canada. Winter rape cvs are: Tenus, Matador, and Dwarf Essex. Rapeseed oil is the principal commercial source of erucic acid; however, there is no urgency to develop cvs with higher erucic acid content since its production is controlled by a single gene. Among annual cvs, Argentine Black is the best type to grow in western Canada, as it requires the same time as wheat to mature, grows to 66–105 cm tall, with a coarse profusely branched main stem, but the fruit tends to split open and shatter the seed. Golden a selection of Argentine type, yields 3–4% more oil and is more resistant to lodging. Polish rape is 3 weeks earlier maturing than Argentine types, yielding 60–70% as much oil. Reported from the Mediterranean and Eurosiberian Centers of Diversity, rape or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate bacteria, frost, high pH, laterite, low pH, and virus. (2n = 38) 5.6.2 DISTRIBUTION Known only as a cultigen, sometimes escaped. Cultivated throughout temperate regions, in most European countries, but naturalized in most. 5.6.3 ECOLOGY Canola requires fertile, well-drained soils. It responds favorably to nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, but can be injured by contact with the fertilizer. Use only low rates of fertilizers in drills where both seed and fertilizer empty into same tubes. Sunny days and cool nights are favorable for growth; dry weather at harvest time is essential. Ranging from Boreal Moist to Rain through Tropical DryTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 34 of 99
  • 35. to Moist Forest Life Zones, rape is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3 to 28 dm (mean of 90 cases = 8.3), annual temperature of 5 to 27°C (mean of 90 cases = 11.6), and pH of 4.2 to 8.2 (mean of 86 cases = 6.2). 5.6.4 CULTIVATION Fall plowing and preparation of a good firm seedbed is desirable as rape seeds are small. Cultipacking before seeding make a firm even seedbed. Germination must be fast with uniform emergence for the crop to get ahead of the weeds. Seed of Polish and Argentine types germinate readily when moisture and temperature conditions are suitable. Seed rate and spacing of rows varies in different areas. Sow seed with a grain drill, in rows 30-40 cm apart. Because seed are so small, it is recommended to mix 50-50 with cracked grain, so as to spread out the rape seed; for a 10 kg/ha rate, calibrate the drill for 20 kg/ha of mixture. If fertilizer is used mixed with the seed when sowing, sow about 30 kg/ha of mixture and mix at the time of sowing. Seed may be sown with a grass- seed attachment, or broadcast and then harrowed or disced lightly. Depth of sowing should be 2.5 cm or less, but seedlings will emerge from 5 cm or more if soil does not crust on top. Seedlings develop slowly and are easily destroyed by drifting soil. Spreading manure where drifting might start helps trap drifting soil. Early sowings give higher yields, but crop is more susceptible when emerging, - 4°C either killing or injuring seedlings, whereas -2°C has no affect when one month old. Sowing in late April or early May is best in northern areas; sowing as late as June or early July give rather good results. Rape may be planted after grains, flax, corn, potatoes, sugar beets or fallow, but not after rape, mustards or sunflowers. 5.6.5 HARVESTING Because the fruit ripens evenly and shatters easily, in order to avoid shattering it is recommended that the crop be harvested when yellow and windrow to ripen until seed inside is ust changing from yellow to brown. Dry, mature seed may be harvested directly with combine. To combine standing crop, it is best to leave the crop until seeds are fully ripe, and with reel speed reduced to two-thirds normal speed for cereals, harvest crop during cloudy weather when plants are moist, thus reducing shattering. In some areas crop is cut by hand and then flailed with sticks after drying in sun for a few days. In humid and temperate regions, artificial drying may be necessary. 5.6.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Rape is 70% self-pollinating and 30% cross-pollinated. Even if wind and insects are absent, seed are still produced. Yield increases with honeybees. Competes with alfalfa and clover for insect pollination. Rape honey has slightly less flavor and granulates more easily than clover honey. Following fungi are known to cause diseases in rape: Albugo candida, A. macrospora, AlternariaTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 35 of 99
  • 36. brassicicola, A. brassicae, A. oleracea, A. tenuis, Botrytis cinerea, Cercospora brassicicola, C. armoraciae, Cercosporella brassicae, Cylindrosporium brassicae, Cytopus candidus, Erysiphe communes, E. polygoni, Leptosphaerella napi, Mycosphaerella brassicicola, Ophiolobus graminis, Pernonospora parasitica, P. brassicae, Plasmodiophora brassicae, Phoma lingam, P. napobrassicae, P. oleracea, Phyllosticta brassicae, Pythium debaryanum, P. perniciosum, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia libertiana, S. fuckeliana, S. sclerotiorum, Stemphylium consortiale, Tuberculariella brassicae. Viruses causing diseases of rape include: Argentine sunflower, Cabbage black-ring, Cauliflower mosaic, Cucumber mosaic, Trinidad cucumber mosaic, Turnip crinkle, Tobacco mosaic, Yellow spot of Nasturtium. Bacterial diseases are caused by Pseudomonas destructans, P. maculicola and Xanthomonas campestris. Insects are major pests of rape; sprayings should be planned and official recommendations followed. Fleabeetles, cutworms, red turnip beetles attack seedlings, and these, along with Diamondback moth, Beet webworm, Bertha armyworm and Imported cabbage worm, attack from bud stage until maturity. Red-legged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor), in western Australia, Cutworms (Agrotis spp.); Cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella); Rutherglen bug (Nysius vinitor); aphids; weevils (Listroderes costirostris); Cabbage white butterfly (Artogeia rapae); Australian budworm (Heliothis punctigera). Nematodes include Ditylenchus dipsaci, Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Heterodera crucifera, H. schactii, Meloidogyne artiellia, M. hapla, M. javanica, M. sp., Nacobbus aberans, Pratylenchus neglectus, and P. penetrans. 5.6.7 ENERGY In Europe, ca 1 million MT rape and colza seed are produced per year. One estimate puts the straw associated with such a seed yield at 1.2 million MT (DM). However, another estimate would put the straw yield at 5.8 million MT suggesting a grain: straw ratio of only 0.17. The oil content runs 35–45%, and oil yields of more than 1 MT/ha are reported. In Canada, the report yields of only 718 kg/ha in the low-glucosinolate cv Bronowskil compared to 1,304 for Target. Yield data for their 1972 trials at Saskatoon were ca 2,960 kg/ha (41.7% oil) for Target ca 2,560 (39.6%) for Zephyr, ca 3,010 (44.2%) for Midas, ca 2,630 (42.4%) for ISZN71-1788, ca 2,500 (41.7%) for SZN71-1787 ca 2,720 (42.3%) for SZN71-1785, ca 2,550 kg/ha (41.1% oil) for SZN71-1784, nearly all yielding more than a metric ton oil per hectare (Finlayson et al., 1973). In three experiments comparing autumn- and spring-sown rape in Britain, seed yields for the spring sown ranged from 963–2,284 kg/ha, for autumn-sown, from 1,787– 2,783 kg/ha. Not only did the autumn-sown crop have higher yields, it had a higher oil content (42.0–44.5%) than the spring sown (35.8–38.5%) (Scott et al., 1973). Scott et al. (1973), indicate aerial DM yields of 1–2 MT with seed yields of about the same magnitude suggesting a straw factor of 1. Rape oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines. A mixture of castor oil and rape oil, with 1% α-Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 36 of 99
  • 37. napththlyamine can be used as a lubricant in internal combustion engines. Vegetable oil (safflower, mustard, rape) is better than alcohol as a diesel extender, with mixtures up to 75% vegetable oil possible compared with 20% alcohol. Vegetable oils provide >2x the gross energy and 10x more net energy. Rape yields of 1500 kg/ha would yield 500 kg oil and 1000 kg high protein meal. One tenth of a farms acreage can produce energy for the other 9/10 according to some optimistic estimates. The world low production yield was 400 kg/ha in Ethiopia, the international production yield was 856 kg/ha, and the world high production yield was 3,000 kg/ha in Belgium and Luxemburg (FAO, 1980a). The oil content runs 35–45%, and oil yields of more than 1 MT/ha are reported. 5.6.8 USES Grown sparingly for young leaves used as potherb; more generally grown as forage for livestock feed, and as source of rapeseed oil. Rape oil used in food industry, as an illuminant and lubricant, and for soap manufacture. Residual rapeseed cake, though low in food value, used as livestock feed. Rapeseed oil has potential market in detergent lubrication oils, emulsifying agents, polyamide fibers, and resins, and as a vegetable wax substitute. According to the Chemical Marketing Reporter (April 26, 1982) "the most common use for the oil is still in the production or erucic acid, a fatty acid used in turn in the manufacture of other chemicals. Sprouts are used dietetically and as seasoning. 5.7 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CASTOR BEANS FIGURE-V: Castor Beans crop and seedsTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 37 of 99
  • 38. Coarse perennial, 10–13 m tall in the tropics, with the stem 7.5-15 cm in diam., but usually behaves as an annual in the temperate regions 1-3 m tall; stems succulent, herbaceous, very variable in all aspects; leaves alternate, orbicular, palmately compound, 1-6 dm broad, with 6-11 toothed lobes, glabrous; flowers numerous in long inflorescences, with male flowers at the base and female flowers at the tips; petals absent in both sexes, sepals 3-5, greenish; stamens numerous, 5-10 mm long; ovary superior, 3-celled with a short style and 3 stigmas; fruit a globose capsule 2.5 cm in diameter, on an elongated pedicel, usually spiny, green turning brown on ripening, indehiscent in modern cultivars, usually containing 3 seeds; seeds ovoid, tick-like, shiny, 0.5-1.5 cm long, carunculate, vari-color with base color white, gray, brownish, yellow, brown, red, or black, with the outer pattern gray or brown to black, the pattern varying from fine to coarse, veined or finely dotted to large splotches, poisonous and allergenic, possibly fatel, from 1,000 to 11,000 per kg, commercial varieties having 2200 to 3200 per kg (Reed, 1976). 5.7.1 GERMPLASM Reported from the African Center of Diversity, castorbean or cvs thereof is reported to tolerate bacteria, disease, drought, fungi, high pH, heat, insects, laterite, low pH, mycobacteria, nematodes, poor soil, salt, slope, smog, SO2, virus, weed, wind, and wilt. (Duke, 1978). Many cvs developed; two of the best commercial ones are: Conner and Kansas Common, which give from 51.3 to 55.6% oil. (2n = 20) 5.7.2 DISTRIBUTION Probably native to Africa, Castorbean has been introduced and is cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world, frequently appearing spontaneously. 5.7.3 ECOLOGY Ranging from Cool Temperate Moist to Wet through Tropical Desert to Wet Forest Life Zones, castorbean is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 2.0 to 42.9 dm (mean of 68 cases = 12.7) annual temperature of 7.0 to 27.8°C (mean of 68 cases = 20.4) and pH of 4.5 to 8.3 (mean of 29 cases = 6.5). Grows best where temperatures are rather high throughout the season, but seed may fail to set if it is above 38°C for an extended period. Plant requires 140–180 day growing season and is readily killed by frost. Irrigated crops require 2–3.5 acre- feet of water to produce satisfactory yields. High humidity contributes to the development of diseases. Plants do best on fertile, well-drained soils which are neither alkaline nor saline; sandy and clayey loam being best.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 38 of 99
  • 39. 5.7.4 CULTIVATION Castor is propagated entirely by seed treated to resist disease. Seeds retain their viability 2-3 years. After seedbed has been deeply cultivated, seed of the dwarf cvs in mechanized countries are planted 3.7-7.5 cm deep in rows 1 m apart; seeds about 25 cm apart in the rows; at rate of 15 kg/ha. For unmechanized societies which prefer larger cvs, seeds are planted 60 by 90 cm apart, 2-4 seeds per hole, and then thinned to one plant; this gives about 30,000 plants/ha. Cultivate shallowly until 0.6-0.9 m high. Irrigation is usual practice in the United States; in India castor is a dryland crop. Castor exhausts the soil quickly. In the United States 45-135 kg/ha of nitrogen is added in split applications. Leaves, stalks and seed hulls are disked into the field following harvest. In India 89 kg/ha of nitrogen gives the highest yields. Where phosphorus is deficient, 40–50 kg/ha of P2O5 is recommended. In Australia 200 kg/ha of superphosphate is applied. Furrow irrigation is preferred, but subirrigation reduces weed problems. Normally irrigation commences after plants have 6–8 leaves; overirrigation on heavy soils should be avoided; final irrigation should be 3-4 weeks before harvest. In the United States 1,500 to 2,000 cu m of water per hectare is applied during the growing season. In Brazil 2,400 cu m of water is applied during the 3 months between flowering and harvest, with about 400 cu m being applied at each irrigation at 15 day intervals. Seed may be planted by hand or with a corn planter with special plates, after the soil has become warm and out of danger of frost. Time varies with the locality; Illinois, early May; Venezuela, June–July; Australia, August–December; Morocco, March; Brazil (south), September–November; Brazil (north), January–March; India, July; Taiwan, August–September or April–May. For seed increase, castor should be planted on fallow land, and should not follow small grains or another castor crop. In India it is rotated with ragi, groundnuts, cotton, dryland chillies, tobacco or horsegram (Reed, 1976). 5.7.5 HARVESTING Non-mechanized societies prefer shattering cvs, as opposed to the non- dehiscent dwarf strains developed in the United States. Fruits are harvested when fully mature and the leaves are dry, in about 95–180 days depending on the cv. In tropics, harvest is from wild or native plants. Planting and harvesting may be done by hand methods or be completely mechanized. Harvesting should begin before rainy season in tropical regions, but in dry regions it is best to harvest when all fruits are mature. In India fruit is picked in November; in the United States harvesting begins in October. In the tropics most harvesting is by hand; the spikes are cut or broken off, the capsules stripped off into a wagon or sled, or into containers strapped on the workers. Unless the capsules are dry, they must be spread out to dry quickly. In India fruits are collected and spread in piles to dry in the sun until they blacken. In the United States drying may beTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 39 of 99
  • 40. accomplished by frost or by the use of defoliants; chemical defoliants are also used in Australia. In South Africa and Australia modified wheat headers are used for harvesting; in the United States more expensive harvesters are used which shake capsules from plants by jarring plants at their bases. Relative humidity of 45% or less is required for efficient operation with mechanical harvesters. Seed capsules shatter easily in most cvs. Some indehiscent varieties are threshed by ordinary grain thresher at 400–800 r.p.m. cylinder speed. After harvesting, seeds must be removed from the capsules or hulls, usually with hulling machines if capsules are dry. Percentage of seed to hull averages 65–75, depending upon the maturity of the seed at harvest. In India seeds are beaten out with sticks, winnowed and screened to remove hulls and trash. In South Africa, Brazil and the United States seed is decorticated with special castorbean decorticators. When small amounts of seed are involved, they may be decorticated on a rubbing board. An ordinary thresher is rarely suitable since the beater bar or peg drums break up the soft seeds. Castor oil is manufactured by running cleaned seed through the decorticating machines to remove the seed coat from the kernel; the more complete this operation the lighter the oil. Castor seeds cannot be ground or tempered as flaxseed or soybeans. Unbroken or uncrushed seeds should be gotten to the press. Preheating may make heavy viscous oil more mobile. Seed is put in cage press, and number 1 oil is obtained, which needs little refining but has to be bleached. Oil remaining in the press-cake is extracted by solvent methods and is called number III oil, which contains impurities, and cannot be effectively refined. Castorbean oil can be stored 3–4 years without deterioration. 5.7.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Castor bean is both self and cross-pollinated by wind, varying from 5-36% depending on the weather conditions. Pollen sheds readily between 26-29°C, with a relative humidity of 60%. For single cross hybrid seed production, strains giving a 1:1 ratio or pistillate and heterozygous monoecious plants are used, the latter being rogued 1-5 days before flowering begins. Three-way cross hybrids can also be used. For open pollinated types, roguing of all off-types is done after the last cultivation, and for pure seed production isolation necessity depends on the wind velocity. For hybrid and open pollinated types in the United States, stands are isolated 300-720 m, but in areas of less wind velocity, less distance may be sufficient. Fungi known to attack Castorbean plants include: Alternaria compacta, A. ricini, A. tenuis, A. tenuissima, Aspergillus itaconicus, A. niger, A. quercinus, Botrydiplodia manilensis, B. ricinicola, B. theobromae, Botryotinia ricini, Botrysphaeria ribis, Botrytis cinerea (Gary mold), Cephalosporium curtipes, Cercospora canescens, C. coffeae, C. ricinella, Cercosporella ricinella (Leaf spot), Cladosporium herbarum, Clitocybe tabescens, Colletotrichum bakeri, C. erumpens, C. ricini, Corticium solani, Didymella ricini, Diplodia natalensis, D. organicola, D. ricinella, D. ricini, Discosporella phaeochlorina, Epicoccum nigrum,Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 40 of 99
  • 41. Erysiphe cichoracearum, Fusarium moniliforme, F. orthoceras, F. oxysporum, F. sambucinum, F. semitectum, Gibberella pulicarus, Glomerella cingulata, G. ricini, Haplosporella manilensis, Lecanidion atratum, Leveillula lanata, L. taurica, Macrophomina phaseoli, Macrophoma phaseoli, Ph. ricini, Macrosporium cavarae, M. ricini, Melampsora euphorbiae, M. ricini, Melampsorella ricini, Mecrostroma minimum, Mucor fragilis, Mycosporella ricinicola, M. tulasnei, Myrothecium roridum, Oidiopsis taurica, Peniophora cinerea, Phoma macropyrena, Ph. ricini, Phomopsis ricini, Ph. ricinella, Phyllosticta bosensis, Ph. ricini, Phymatotrichum omnivorum (Root rot), Physalospora abdita, Ph. propinqua, Ph. rhodina, Ph. ricini, Ph. obtusa, Phytophthora cactorum, Ph. cinnamomi, Ph. palmivora, Ph. parasitica, Pleospora herbarum, Pythium aphanidermatum, P. debaryanum, P. gracile, P. intermedium, P. proliferum, P. ultimum, P. vexans, Rhabdospora ricini, Rhizoctonia solani, Schiffnerula ricini, Schizophyllum commune, Sclerotinia fuckeliana, S. minor, S. ricini, S. sclerotiorum, Scierotium rolfsii, sphaceloma ricini. The following bacteria also cause diseases: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacterium lathyri, B. ricini, Pseudomonas solanacearum, Xanthomonas ricini, X. ricinicola. Striga lutea parasitizes the plants. Nematodes isolated from Castorbean include: Aphelenchoides asterocaudatus, A. bicaudatus, A. subtenuis, Helicotylenchus cavenssi, H. pseudorobustus, H. schachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria and var. thamesi, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. incognita acrita, M. javanica, M. thamesi, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. neglectus, P. pratensis, P. scribner, P. vulnus, P. zeae, Radopholus similes, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Tricephalobus longicaudatus, and Tylenchorhychus mashhoodi (Golden, p.c. 1984). Several insects are pests. In India the Capsule borer (Dichocrocis punctiferalis) bores into young and ripening capsules; and the Castor semilooper (Achoea janata) are the worst pests. In Tanganyika damage by capsid and myrid bugs are a limiting factor causing immature fruit to drop. Green stinkbugs, leaf- hoppers, leaf-miners and grasshoppers are pests that feed on the leaves. Most insects may be controlled by insecticides. Because some of the varieties are quite tall, wind storms are a potential hazard to a crop. 5.7.7 ENERGY Gaydou et al. (1982) rank oilseeds more promising for energy in Malagasy than sugarcane and cassava. Castor was least promising of the four oilseeds, producing 1,200–2,000 liters oil/ha (equivalent to 11,300 to 18,906 kwh) compared to tung at 1,800–2,700 l, purging nut at 2,100–2,800 l, and oilpalm at 2,600–4,000 l/ha. They calculated ca 1,000 l ethanol for cassava and 2,500 for sugarcane. Yields of 5 MT seeds are reported. When the oil is expressed, the remaining oil cake amounts to 45-50% of production (Devendra and Raghavan, 1978). In some of the dwarf temperate trees (treated as annuals), the straw factor is not much more than one, but perennial tropical trees may have a standing biomass of 25 MT/ha or more. The hull residue is calculated at 0.25Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 41 of 99
  • 42. times production. Hulls have about the same fertilizer value as fresh barnyard manure. 5.7.8 USES Castorbean is cultivated for the seeds which yield a fast-drying, non- yellowing oil, used mainly in industry and medicines. Oil used in coating fabrics and other protective coverings, in the manufacture of high-grade lubricants, transparent typewriter and printing inks, in textile dyeing (when converted into sulfonated Castor Oil or Turkey-Red Oil, for dyeing cotton fabrics with alizarine), in leather preservation, and in the production of Rilson, a polyamide nylon-type fiber. Dehydrated oil is an excellent drying agent which compares favorably with tung oil and is used in paints and varnishes. Hydrogenated oil is utilized in the manufacture of waxes, polishes, carbon paper, candles and crayons. Blown Oil is used for grinding lacquer paste colors, and when hydrogenated and sulfonated used for preparation of ointments. Castor Oil Pomace, the residue after crushing, is used as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. Although it is highly toxic due to the ricin, a method of detoxicating the meal has now been found, so that it can safely be fed to livestock. Stems are made into paper and wallboard (Reed, 1976). 5.8 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SUNFLOWER FIGURE-VI: Sunflower crop and seedsTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 42 of 99
  • 43. Variable, erect, often unbranched, fast-growing, annual herb; stems 0.7- 3.5 m tall, hirsute; leaves alternate, ovate, long-petroled, lamina with 3 main veins, 10-30 cm long, 5-20 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, lower leaves opposite and cordate; flowering head terminal on main stem, 10-40 cm in diameter, rotating to face the sun, sometimes drooping, heads on lateral branches smaller; outer ray flowers neuter with yellow ligulate corolla, disc florets numerous, spirally arranged, perfect; ovary inferior with single basal ovule; achenes obovoid, compressed, slightly 4-angled, variable in size and coleo, seldom less than 1 cm long, usually from 1-1.5 cm long, full-colored or striped. Taproot strong, penetrating to depth of 3 m and with large lateral spread of surface roots. Fl. late summer and fall; fr. fall. 5.8.1 GERMPLASM Reported from the North American (and secondarily, the Eurosiberian) Center of Diversity, sunflower, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate disease, drought, frost, fungi, high pH, laterite, limestone, low pH, mycobacteria, photoperiod, poor soil, rust, salt, sand, smog, virus, weeds, and waterlogging (Duke, 1978). Botanically, the sunflower is treated as the following subspecies: ssp. lenticularis in the wild sunflower; ssp. annuus is the weedy wild sunflower; and ssp. macrocarpus is cultivated for edible seeds. Cultivars are divided into several types: Giant types: 1.8-4.2 m tall, late maturing, heads 30-50 cm diam., seeds large, white or gray, or with black stripes; oil content rather low; ex. Mammoth Russian. Semi-dwarf types: 1.3-1.8 m tall, early maturing, heads 17- 23 cm diam., seeds smaller, black, gray or striped; oil content higher; ex. Pole Star and Jupiter. Dwarf types: 0.6-1.4 m tall, early maturing, heads 14-16 cm diam., seeds small, oil content highest; ex., Advance and Sunset. Gene centers are in the Americas, with genuine resources for resistance in southern United States and Mexico. Two types of male sterility are known. Although sunchoke is the name given to the hybrid with the jerusalem artichoke, much of what is sold as sunchoke in the United States is, in fact, straight Jerusalem artichoke. (2n = 34) 5.8.2 DISTRIBUTION Native to western North America, sunflower is the only important crop to have evolved within the present confines of the United States. Early introduced to Europe, Russia, and then in later stages in Pakistan. The species has now spread to countries both tropical and temperate. 5.8.3 ECOLOGY Sunflowers are grown from the Equator to 55° N Lat. In the tropics, they grow better at medium to high elevations, but tolerate the drier lowlands. They thrive wherever good crops of corn are grown, Young plants withstand mild freezing. Plants are intolerant of shade. As sunflowers have highly efficient rootTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 43 of 99
  • 44. systems, they can be grown in areas which are too dry for many crops. Plants are quite drought-resistant except during flowering. In South Africa, reasonable yields have been obtained with 25 cm of rainfall by dwarf cultivars. Giant types require more moist conditions. Crop may be grown on a wide range of soils, including poor soils, provided they are deep and well-drained. Plants are intolerant of acid or waterlogged soils. Ranging from Boreal Moist through Tropical Thorn to Wet Forest Life Zones, sunflower tolerates annual precipitation of 2–40 dm (mean of 195 cases 11.4), annual temperature of 6–28°C (mean of 194 cases = 19.6), and pH of 4.5–8.7 (mean of 121 cases = 6.6) (Duke 1978, 1979) 5.8.4 CULTIVATION Seed, harvested at 12% moisture content and stored, will retain viability for several years. Sunflower production may be adapted to mechanized or unmechanized societies. Propagation is always by seed. Plant with corn or beet planter, 2.5–7.5 cm deep, spaced 0.2 m apart in 0.6–0.9 m rows; seed rate of 5.6 kg/ha, giving about 62,500 plants per ha. Sunflower may be planted earlier in spring than corn since plants are more tolerant to frost. Early weed control is an important factor in yield, so cultivate lightly in early stages of crop. Sunflowers respond well to a balanced fertilizer based on soil test, usually a 1-2-3 NPK ratio is best, with a need for boron and other trace elements on lighter soils. Foliar fertilizers of liquid NPK on plants increases yield 62% with one application and 97% with two applications. Sunflowers should not occur in rotation more than once in every 4 years, and should not be in rotations with potatoes. 5.8.5 HARVESTING Crop matures about 4 months from sowing; some Russian cvs mature in 70 days. Harvest when involucral bracts turn yellow and seeds become loose, but before shedding begins. Harvesting methods are similar to those of corn: heads are gathered, dried, and threshed. For fodder or silage, crop is harvested at the flowering stage. Seed oil is either cold- or hot-pressed. Cold-pressed oil is usually pale yellow, with a mild taste and pleasant odor, much esteemed as a salad and cooking oil, especially for butter substitutes. Hot-pressed oil is reddish yellow and is used for technical purposes and as burning oil. With modern methods, hot-pressed oil may be refined for edible purposes. 5.8.6 BIOTIC FACTORS In USDAs Agriculture Research (Dec. 1978), a new pest of sunflower is reported. A scarab beetle (Phyllophaga lancolata) devastated more than 400 ha near Lehman, Texas. Eucosma womonana, is also a newly reported sunflower pest in Texas (Ag. Res., Aug. 1980). Seed set low when selfed, as most cultivars seed set low when selfed, as most cultivars are self-incompatible. Florets on one head open over 5–6 days and may wait 2 weeks for fertilization. Cross-pollinationTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 44 of 99
  • 45. may be facilitated by 2–3 hives of honeybees per ha, the hives spaced in rows 300–400 m apart, as they need to be distributed to give coverage to all blooms. Gophers dig up seeds; birds eat tremendous amounts of seeds from the maturing crop. Insects can be destructive to seeds not stored properly. The following fungi are known to cause diseases in sunflowers: Albugo tragopogonis, Alternaria tenuis, Alternaria zinniae, Armillaria mellea, Ascochyta helianthi, Botrytis cinerea, Cercospora bidentis, Cercospora helianthi, Cercospora helianthicola, Cercospora pachypus, Corticium rolfsii, Cystopus cubicus, Cystopus tragopogonis, Diaporthe arctii, Diplodina helianthi, Entyloma polysporum, Erysiphe chicoracearum, Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium conglutinans, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium javanicum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium sambucinum, Fusarium scirpi, Fusarium semitecum, Fusarium solani, Helminthosporium helianthi, Leptosphaeria helianthi, Leveillula compositarum, Leveillula taurica, Macrophomina phaseoli, Oidium helianthi, Ophiobolus helianthi, Phialea cynthoides, Phoma oleracea, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, Pythium debaryanum, Pythium irregulare, Pythium splendens, Pythium ultimum, Rhabdospora helianthicola, Rhizoctonia rocorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Rhizopus nodosus, Sclerotinia fuckeliana, Sclerotinia libertiana, Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Septoria helianthi, Sphaerotheca fulginea, Sphaerotheca humuli, Uromyces junci, Verticillium albo-atrum, Verticillium dahliae. Bacteria reported as infecting sunflowers are the following: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacterium melleum, Erwinia aroides, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas helianthi, and Pseudomonas solanacearum. Virus diseases reported from sunflowers are: Apple mosaic, Argentine sunflower, Aster yellows, Brazilian tobacco streak, Cucumber mosaic, Tomato spotted wilt, Peach ringspot, Peach yellow-bud mosaic, Pelargonium leaf-curl, Tobacco necrosis, Tobacco ringspot, and Yellows. Sunflowers are parasitized by the following flowering plants: Cuscuta pentagona, Cuscuta arvensis, Orobanche aegyptiaca, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche muteli, Orobanche ramosa, Striga hermonthica, Striga asiatica, Striga lutea, Striga senegalensis. Sunflowers are attacked by many nematodes: Anguina balsamophila, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi, Ditylenchus destructor, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Helicotylenchus cavenessi, Helicotylenchus microcephalus, Helicotylenchus microlobus, Helicotylenchus pesudorobustus, Heterodera schachtii, Longidorus maximus, Meloidogyne arenaria, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita acrita, Meloidogyne javanica, Meloidogyne thamesi, Paratylenchus minutus, Pratylenchus penetrans, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Trichodorus christiei, and Xiphinema ifacolum. 5.8.7 ENERGY According to the phytomass files (Duke, 1981b), annual productivity ranges from 3 to 15 MT/ha. North Dakota researchers are testing a small augerTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 45 of 99
  • 46. press, operated on the farm, that can extract ca 75–80% of the oil in sunflower seeds, or ca 55 gallons (barely more than one 42-gallon barrel) from an average yield of 1,400 lbs/acre. According to S&E Newsmakers #4 (September 1981), It takes one acres production to farm and produce 8 to 11 more acres, our usual 10:1 ratio. In North Carolina, Harwood (1981) concluded that sunflower seed was most promising for on-farm production of vegetable oil fuels, soybeans, peanuts, and cottonseed considered not well suited. Sunflowers yield ca 2.5 MT/ha, with ca 40% oil, indicating a potential of 250 gallons oil/ha if seed were processed in mill. On farm processing would produce closer to 200 gallons (ca 5 barrels) at a cost of more than $2.00 per gallon. Production costs are less than one barrel per hectare. Harwood puts the energetic returns at greater than 5:1 compared to 3:1 for peanuts, 2:1 for soybeans, and 1:1 for cottonseed. Pratt et al. (VODF Seminar II, 1981) report an endurance test involving engines fueled with various mixtures of sunflower oil (25–50%) with diesel oil (75–50%). Two motors needed repair, ten were operating with no apparent difficulties, of which two were said to be doing even better. Ohio yields on poor soils (Wood County) were only 260 lb/acre (yielding 9.3 gallons of screw press oil); and on good soils (Champaign County), 1.680 lb/acre (yielding 69.1 gallons oil) cropped after wheat in a double cropping system (Ohio Report July–August 1981, p. 63). Sunflower oil should be dewaxed before being used as a diesel substitute. In Australia, sunflower first commercially planted in 1967, has great potential for expansion as a rainfed energy crop. Little water is required for processing oilseeds (unlike ethanol), and the seed coat can provide sufficient energy for heat and steam for oil extraction. Australians figure a net energy gain of 2 liters for every 3 liters produced (Quick, 1981). A hundred kg of dry seed will yield about 40 kg oil, 15–25 kg hulls, and 40 kg proteinaceous meal. Hulls have been pressed into fuel "logs". Threshed heads are ground and fed to cattle elsewhere. The heads are rich in pectin (Robinson, Ag. Ext. Service, Univ. of Minn.) Sheaffer et al. (1976, Univ. Md. Ag. Exp. Station) report studies showing that sunflower yields 33.1 MT silage/ha compared to corn at 19.26 MT/ha. According to the phytomass files (Duke 1981b), annual DM productivity ranges from 3 to 15 MT/ha. DM yields averaged closer to 5 MT spaced at 43,000 plants/ha, 8 MT spaced at 172,000 plants/ha near Clarksville, Maryland. In these experiments, the sunflower followed barley. Jake Pages discussion in Science 81 (July–August 1981, 92–93) is picturesque: "But I happen to like sunflowers... They can be grown almost anywhere in the country and you can grow between 500 and 3,000 pounds of sunflower seeds on an American acre in three months if youre clever. The soil can be lousy, the rainfall terrible...if the average American corn farmer put 10 percent of his land into sunflowers, he could become self-sufficient in fuel. It seems that using vegetable oil may be more efficient, in a net energy sense, than growing plants for conversion into alcohol (another nice alternative fuel) because the processing for alcohol is more elaborate, expensive, and energy intensive."Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 46 of 99
  • 47. 5.8.8 USES Sunflower seed is the worlds second most important source of edible oil. Sunflower oil is used for cooking, margarine, salad dressings, lubrication, soaps, and illumination. A semi-drying oil, it is used with linseed and other drying oils in paints and varnishes. Decorticated press-cake is used as a high protein food for livestock. Kernels eaten by humans raw, roasted and salted, or made into flour. Poultry and cage birds are fond of raw kernels. Flowers yield a yellow dye. Plants used for fodder, silage and green-manure crop. Hulls provide filler in livestock feeds and bedding. 5.9 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF COTTON FIGURE-VII: Cotton crop and seeds Annual subshrub, up to 1.5 m tall; branches of two kinds: vegetative and fruiting; leaves alternate, petiolate, palmately 3-5-lobed, hirsute, blade cordate, as broad as long, 7.5-15 cm across; flowers 6-8 on each fertile branch, large, white or yellow, subtended by a reduced calyx and 3-4 large green fringed bracts; staminal column surrounding style made up of 100 or more stamens; ovary superior, 3-5-carpellate; fruit a dehiscent capsule, 4-6 cm long, spherical, smooth, light green, with few oil glands; seeds 1 cm long, ovoid, dark brown, about 36 per fruit, bearing hairs of two kinds on the epidermis: long fibers called lint and short fibers strongly attached to seedcoat called fuzz; weight of 100Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 47 of 99
  • 48. seeds 10-13 g; well-developed taproot with numerous laterals penetrating as deeply as 3 m. Fl. variable as to locality, approx. 3 months after planting. 5.9.1 GERMPLASM Reported from the Middle American, South American, and African Centers of Diversity, upland cotton, or cvs thereof is reported to tolerate bacteria, disease, drought, fungus, hydrogen floride, high pH, insects, low pH, nematodes, photoperiod, sand, virus and waterlogging (Duke, 1978). Authors recognize seven entities or botanical varieties: palmeri, morilli, richmondi, vucatanense occurring wild on coastal dunes in Central America, and marie-galante, punctatum, and latifolium, these latter forms being known as Upland Cotton, forming the basis of much of the worlds commercial cotton. Hundreds of cultivars are known; Auburn 56, Bayou, Auburn 623 RNR and Darminii being resistant to rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Varieties are sometimes classed according to fiber length, as: Long Staple, Acala cultivars; Medium Staple, Deltapine and Coker 100 Wilt, and Short Staple, Lankart. G. hirsutum is an allopolyploid containing one set of chromosomes homologous with Old World linted cottons (Genome A) and one set of homologous with a New World wild species (Genome D). Cytoplasmic male sterility has not yet been found, but gametocides are being developed which prevent pollen development in some cultivars. (2n = 52) 5.9.2 DISTRIBUTION Cotton is believed to have originated in Central America. In its transition from tropical to temperate regions, American Upland Cotton has lost the perennial, short-day habit to become highly vegetative producing few or no fruiting branches when grown during long days. Annual forms were developed in which all periodicity controls were lost. American Upland Cotton was taken from Mexico to United States about 1700. During American Civil War, it was introduced into most tropical and subtropical countries of the world. It now forms basis of all commercial cotton crops of Africa outside the Nile Valley, all those of South America except in Peru and northern Brazil, of the modern Russian crop, and much of that of northern India and Pakistan, and the Philippine Islands, as well as that of the Cotton Belt of the United States. Upland and Cambodian varieties are invading the Chinese crop, and where these cottons are developed in southeast Asia, they will be based on these types and hybrids between them. 5.9.3 ECOLOGY Ranging from the Cool Temperate Moist to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Moist Forest Life Zones, Upland Cotton is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 2.9 (irrigated) to 27.8 dm (mean of 36 cases = 11.3), annual temperature of 7.0 to 27.8°C (mean of 36 cases = 20.7), and pH of 4.5 to 8.4 (mean of 31 cases = 66). In the Northern Hemisphere, cotton production extendsTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 48 of 99
  • 49. to 37°N in the United States, 47°N in Soviet Union, and 42°N in Manchuria. In the Southern Hemisphere, the limits are 32°S in South America and Australia, and to about 30°S in Africa. Sensitive in any stage to frost, cotton limits are set by the early and late frosts. Cotton is crop of warm plains, grown commercially from sealevel to 1,200 m, with some perennial forms found at 1,800 m. A long-season plant, cotton requires a minimum of 180-200 frost-free days of uniformly high temperatures, averaging 21-22°C. Full sunlight is critical for proper development. Where rainfall is less than 500 mm annually, irrigation should be practiced. Amount of rainfall is not as important as when it falls. Heavy rains injure plants. Moderate rainfall is preferable during vegetative growth followed by a dry period to allow the bolls to mature and be picked. Cotton is tolerant of a wide variety of soils, but thrives best on deep, friable, moisture-holding soils with good humus supply. Optimum pH is 5.2-7. In India, cotton is grown on black alluvial and red soils; in USSR, major crop grown on alluvial soils; in Ukraine, on hernozem soils; and in Egypt, on alluvial soils along Nile River. 5.9.4 CULTIVATION Seeds of some cultivars require a 2-3 month period of dormancy. Seeds lose viability quickly under moist conditions. Commercial cotton is always grown from seed, sown when soil temperatures are at least 18°C. Seed is sown in drills or in hills. The hill-drop method is perhaps best if hand-hoe labor is used. Plant 2.5 cm deep under normal conditions. Seed rate of 17-28 kg/ha gives a good stand with 75,000-150,000 plants/ha, allowing for some losses. Row width of 100 cm is most suitable for mechanization. Seedbed preparation should include eradication of residue from past crops, maintenance of drainage, good tilth, elimination of hardpans, control of weeds and pests. Periodic cultivation and weeding is practiced. Chemical herbicides are routine in many countries. Insect control is one of the most costly items. Pre- and post-planting pesticide application is practiced. Irrigation is used when soil moisture is inadequate or when soil is poor in moisture-holding ability. An increasing amount of cotton is grown under irrigation yearly. Fertilizers are also a major item; for large harvests nutrients must be continually replaced. Amounts depend on soils; local agents should be consulted. Rotation is a recommended practice. Short rainy seasons often allow only the single crop to be grown. Where possible, a rotation of fallow, wheat, fallow, peas, cotton, fallow has proved practical. 5.9.5 HARVESTING Planting to flowering is 80-110 days with another 55-80 days until the boll opens. Hand-harvesting still accounts for the largest percentage of harvest in spite of advances in mechanization. Hand methods provide a higher grade of cotton and get more from the fields. One man can pick about 50-110 kg of seed cotton per day. On the average a two-row mechanical picker can harvest 1,400 kg of seed cotton per hour. Proper ginning is important in determining the qualityTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 49 of 99
  • 50. of the fiber and the price. Seed removal is done almost exclusively by one of many ginning processes on the market today. After linters and fuzz have been removed from seed, the oil is expressed. 5.9.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Chan et al. (1978) reported on a condensed tannin (molecular weight 4,850) that was a major antibiotic component (against Heliothis virescens) comprising 3.4% of the dried flower buds. At 0.2% in the diet, the condensed tannin retarded larval growth by 84%. Fungi known to cause diseases in cotton include the following: Aecidium desmium, A. gossypii, Alternaria gossypina, A. humicola, A. macrospora, A. tenuis, Arthrobotrys superba, Ascochyta gossypii, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. luchuensis, A. nidulans, A. ochraceus, A. penicilloides, A. repens, A. ustus, A. versicolor, Botryosphaeria ribis, Cephalosporium acremonium, Cephalothecium roseum, Cercospora althaeina, C. gossypina, Choanephora conjuncta, Ch. cucurbitarum, Cladosporium herbarum, Colletotrichum gossypii, Diplodia gossypina, Discosphaerella phaeochlorina, Epicoccum purpurascens, Eremothecium ashbyii, Fusarium anguioides, F. coeruleum, F. concolor, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. vasinfectum, Gibberella fujikuroi, Glomerella gossypii, Helicobasidium purpureum, Helminthosporium gossypii, Hendersonia sarmentorum, Humicola fusco-atrata, Hypochnus aderholdii, Hyponectria gossypii, Kuehneola desmium, Leptosphaeria spp., Leveillula malvacearum, L. taurica, Macrophomina phaseoli, Macrosporium gossypii, Memnoniella echinata, Monilia crassa, M. sitophila, Mucor racemosa, Mycosphaerella areola, M. gossypii, Myrothecium verrucaria, Nectria cinnabarina, Nematospora coryli, N. gossypii, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, Neurospora sitophila, Nigrospora gossypii, N. oryzae, N. sphaerica, Ozonium auricomum, O. texanum, Pellicularia filamentosa, Penicillium glaucum, Pestalotia gossypii, Pestalozziella gossypina, Phakospora desmium, Ph. gossypii, Phlyctaena gossypii, Phoma corvina, Ph. gossypii, Phomopsis malvacearum, Phyllosticta gossypina, Ph. malkoffii, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, Physalospora rhodina, Phytophthora parasitica, Pleospora nigricantia, Puccinia stakmanii, Pullularia pullulans, Pythium aphanidermatium, P. debaryanum, P. ultimum, Ramularia areola, Rhinotrichum macrosporum, Rh. tenellum, Rhizoctonia aderholdii, Rh. solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Schizophyllum, commune, Sclerotium rolfsii, Septoria gossypina, Stachybotrys atra, S. lobulata, Thielaviopsis basicola, Trichoderma viride, Trichothecium roseum, Valsa gossypina, Verticillium albo- atrum, V. dahliae. Bacterial disease isolated from cotton include: Aerobacter closacea, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus gossypina, Xanthomonas malvacearum. Virus isolated from this cotton include: Abutilon mosaic, Anthocyanosis, Brazilian tobacco streak, Enation mosaic, Euphorbia mosaic, Leaf curl, and Red-leaf droop. Striga asiatica (S. lutea) parasitizes the plant. Some ailments of cotton are due to deficiencies of Ca, K, or Mg, others due toTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 50 of 99
  • 51. Mn toxicity. Many nematodes attack cotton, and developing nematode-resistant varieties of cotton is very important. Some of those isolated from cotton are: Aphelenchus avenae Belonolaimus gracilis, B. longicaudatus, Criconemella ornata, C. rustica, C. sphaerocephala, Discolaimus paraconura, Helicotylenchus cavenessi, H. dihysteria, H. mycrocephalus, H. microlobus, H. pseudorobustus Hoplolaimus galeatus, H. seinhorsti, H. paraobustus, H. tylenchiformis, Hemicyliphora membranifer, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. thamesii, M. hapla, M. incognita, M, incognita acrita, M. javanica, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. coffeae, P. delattrei, P. pratensis, P. vulnus, Rotylenchus reniformis, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, S. bradys, Trichodorus chistei, Tylenchorrhynchus annulatus, T. claytoni, T. dubius, T. martini, Xiphinema americanaum, X. indicum, X. ifacolum, and X. insigne. The Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the most, destructive of the insects attacking cotton. Other insect pests include: Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), Cotton leaf-perforator (Bucculatrix thurberiella), Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), and Bollworms (Heliothis zea and H. virescens). 5.9.7 ENERGY The harvest index of seedcotton is 1:2, i.e. for each kg of cotton seed there is about 2 kg aerial biomass residue. In some countries (e.g. Turkey, Russia), even this is used for fuel. The residue coefficient, defined as the ratio of the weight of dry matter of residue to recorded harvested weight, ranges from 1.20 to 3.00 (assuming both lint and seed are included in production). Upper limits were determined by USDA experts (NAS, 1977a). Vaing and Delille (1983) report on a modified 25-HP tractor used in Mali which ran on cotton stalks (6.3– 11.8 Kg /hr). Seedcotton is the usual production and yield unit. Of the seedcotton, almost nothing is truly wasted, usually 1/3 is lint, and 2/3 is seed (with ca 20% oil, 20% protein). About 5% is called linters, the so-called short fibers or fuzz, which is almost pure cellulose acetate. Another 5% is seed coat, which contains ca 7% raffinose. The hulls (ca 5%) are ground up and used for fertilizer or filler. Noting that diesel fuel energy accounted for 10-24% of total energy required for growing and harvesting cotton, fertilizer for 50-65% and pesticides for 19-28%, Sistler and Smith (1981) concluded "There are many gocd reasons to reduce tillage in cotton, but saving energy may not be one of them if the operator has to be replaced with a high energy pesticide." 5.9.8 USES Cultivated primarily for its vegetable seed fiber, the raw material for a large volume of textile products, this species is considered the most important of the cotton-yielding plants, providing the bulk of commercial cottons. Linters are of intermediate texture and shorter than those of G. barbadense. Seeds yield a semi-drying and edible oil, used in shortening, margarine, salad and cooking oils, and for protective coverings. Residue, cottonseed cake or meal is importantTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 51 of 99
  • 52. protein concentrate for livestock. Pigg (1980) reports that bread, made with cottonseed protein is an even better source of protein than enriched white bread, six slices of which provide 20% of the adult RDA. Low-grade residue serves as manure, bedding and fuel. Fuzz, which is not removed in ginning, become linters in felts, upholstery, mattresses, twine, wicks, carpets, surgical cottons, and in chemical industries such as rayons, film, shatterproof glass, plastics, sausage skins, lacquers, and cellulose explosives. 5.10 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF JATROPHA FIGURE-VIII: Jatropha tree and seeds Shrub or tree to 6 m, with spreading branches and stubby twigs, with a milky or yellowish rufescent exudate. Leaves deciduous, alternate but apically crowded, ovate, acute to acuminate, basally cordate, 3 to 5-lobed in outline, 6-40 cm long, 6-35 cm broad, the petioles 2.5-7.5 cm long. Flowers several to many in greenish cymes, yellowish, bell-shaped; sepals 5, broadly deltoid. Male flowers many with 10 stamens, 5 united at the base only, 5 united into a column. Female flowers borne singly, with elliptic 3-celled, triovulate ovary with 3 spreading bifurcate stigmata. Capsules, 2.5-4 cm long, finally drying and splitting into 3 valves, all or two of which commonly have an oblong black seed, these ca 2 x 1 cm.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 52 of 99
  • 53. 5.10.1 GERMPLASM Reported from the Central and South American Centers of Diversity, physic nut, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate Slope. There is an endemic species in Madagascars J. mahafalensis, with equal energetic promise. (2n = 22) 5.10.2 DISTRIBUTION Though native to America, the species is almost pantropical now, widely planted as a medicinal plant which soon tends to establish itself. It is listed, e.g., as a weed in Brazil, Fiji, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Salvador. 5.10.3 ECOLOGY Ranging from Tropical Very Dry to Moist through Subtropical Thorn to Wet Forest Life Zones, physic nut is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 4.8 to 23.8 dm (mean of 60 cases = 14.3) and annual temperature of 18.0 to 28.5°C (mean of 45 cases = 25.2). 5.10.4 CULTIVATION Jatropha grows readily from cuttings or seeds. Cuttings strike root so easily that the plant can be Jused as an energy-producing living fence post. 5.10.5 HARVESTING For medicinal purposes, the seeds are harvested as needed. For energy purposes, seeds might be harvested all at once, the active medicinal compounds might be extracted from the seed, before or after the oil, leaving the oil cake for biomass or manure. 5.10.6 BIOTIC FACTORS Agriculture Handbook No. 165 lists the following as affecting Jatropha curcas: Clitocybe tabescens (root rot), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (leaf spot), and Phakopsora jatrophicola (rust). 5.10.7 ENERGY The clear oil expressed from the seed has been used for illumination and lubricating, and more recently has been suggested for energetic purposes, one ton of nuts yielding 70 kg refined petroleum, 40 kg "gasoil leger" (light fuel oil), 40 kg regular fuel oil, 34 kg dry tar/pitch/rosin, 270 kg coke-like char, and 200 kg ammoniacal water, natural gas, creosote, etc. In a startling study, Gaydou et al. (1982) compare several possible energy species with potential to grow in Malagasy. Oil palm was considered energetically most promising.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 53 of 99
  • 54. 5.10.8 USES According to Ochse (1980), "the young leaves may be safely eaten, steamed or stewed." They are favored for cooking with goat meat, said to counteract the peculiar smell. Though purgative, the nuts are sometimes roasted and dangerously eaten. In India, pounded leaves are applied near horses eyes to repel flies. The oil has been used for illumination, soap, candles, adulteration of olive oil, and making Turkey red oil. Nuts can be strung on grass and burned like candlenuts (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). Mexicans grow the shrub as a host for the lac insect. Ashes of the burned root are used as a salt substitute (Morton, 1981). Agaceta et al. (1981) conclude that it has strong molluscicidal activity. Duke and Wain (1981) list it for homicide, piscicide, and raticide as well. The latex was strongly inhibitory to watermelon mosaic virus (Tewari and Shukla, 1982). Bark used as a fish poison (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). In South Sudan, the seed as well as the fruit is used as a contraceptive (List and Horhammer, 1969–1979). Sap stains linen and can be used for marking (Mitchell and Rook, 1979). Little, Woodbury, and Wadsworth (1974) list the species as a honey plant.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 54 of 99
  • 55. SECTION 6 AVAILABILITY OF CLASS-I RESOURCES 6.1 GENERAL TRENDS Oil crops in Pakistan are classified as traditional (rapeseed, mustard, groundnut, sesame, linseed and castor) and non-traditional (sunflower, soybean and safflower) along with oil trees such as olive (being grown here for quite some time), and coconut and oil palm (both being recent entries). Cottonseed, rapeseed, mustard, groundnut, sesame, sunflower and soybean oils are being used for edible purposes, while castor and linseed oils are meant for industrial uses. Cottonseed, a by product of cotton crop, is the major contributor (73%) to the domestic production of vegetable oil. All these crops fit well in the country’s ecology with their production status as follows:- During the past two decades cotton has shown a tremendous increase in area and production. Its area increased by 63.6% and production by 302%. But due to recent leaf curl virus (LCV) problem, cotton production decreased in spite of increase in area. There has been slight variation in the province wise distribution of area and production. Due to third picking of cotton (being a high return crop), appreciable proportion of wheat crop is sown late which is not economically attractive, have paved the path for alternate crops such as sunflower. • RAPESEED Rapeseed mustard group of crops contribute about 16% of the domestic edible oil production but their area is continuously decreasing. During the last 24 years, these have registered reduction of 46% in the area and 23% in production. This decrease has been mainlly in Punjab and Sindh while NWFP and Balochistan have shown upward trend. One of the major reasons of downward trend in this area is the direct competition of rapeseed mustard with wheat and winter fodders. • GROUNDNUT Groundnut cultivation is concentrated in Rawalpindi Division in Punjab, and has some presence in Sindh and NWFP. During the last one decade, comparative increase in area in NWFP was more and its share in the total pie increased to 12.1% in 1992-1993.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 55 of 99
  • 56. • SUNFLOWER Sunflower was introduced in Pakistan during the early sixties but could not get much attention of farmers due to the absence of proper follow up and a proper marketing system. The area during 1970-71 to 1980-81 was stagnant, but increased from 1980-81 to 1990-91 with fluctuations. The province wise area shows that Punjab is sharing 76.6%, Sindh 20.8% and NWFP 2.6%. It is mostly being grown by progressive farmers as a cash crop. • SOYBEAN Soybean could not be popularized; it suffered setbacks due to various reasons. Its cultivation remained limited to a small acreage, showing a declining trend. In 1993-94, however, it registered some increase in area. This crop is popular only in NWFP. Safflower could not get any receptivity in NWFP, Punjab, and Balochistan. Even in Sindh, it could not get popularity in spite of repeated efforts and maintains only a symbolic presence in the province • SESAME Sesame, one of the ancient crops of Indo-Pak sub continent, is considered a minor crop and is cultivated on a limited area in all the four provinces. Since 1980-81, the area has almost doubled (44, 100 to 82,200 hectares) where Punjab is sharing 42.9%, Sindh 42.2%, Balochistan 10.6% and NWFP 3.9%. Linseed is one of the minor oilseed crops, mostly used for non edible purposes. Its arrea and production has remained almost stagnant during the last 24 years. In 1970-71 Punjab was sharing 99.7% which dropped to 44.1% compared to Sindh where it increased from 25 to 55.9%. • CASTOR BEAN Castor is grown since pre-historic times in this region and is used as a source of industrial oil. Its maximum area (45,900 hectares) was planted during 1978-79; thereafter it started declining due to lack of demand in the local market and diminishing export. During 197-71, the share of Sindh was 59.9%, Balochistan 31.2%, and Punjab 2.9%. No crop is reported in NWFP. • MAIZE The maize grain has about 5% high quality edible oil and is popular among health conscious people; it fetches a premium price. During the last 24 years, its area has increased by 38.4% and production by 86.9%. NWFP is its major producer in the country. According to an estimate, if all the maize grain produced in the country is used for oil purposes, a total of 46,200 tons of oil can be obtained. It would contribute significantly towards total vegetable oil production.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 56 of 99
  • 57. • RICE Rice bran has high oil content ranging from 14-17% and compares favorably with other local vegetable cooking oils. According to an estimate, it can potentially contribute 28,200 tons of oil annually. However, it is not being fully exploited in Pakistan. • OIL PALM Oil palm is a recent entry into Pakistan’s edible oils scene. Experimental cultivation is restricted to small scatter red patches at Government research farms and a few progressive farms in Tando Muhammad Khan and Mirpur Khas. The local experience about its production problems is limited. A recent survey (1994) conducted by PARC, shows that 95,145 hectares are moderately suited and 797,580 hectares marginally suited for its cultivation in four districts of Sindh (Thatta, Badin, Hderabad and Mirpur Khas). • COCONUT Coconut contains 64% oil, which is used for cooking and other purposes. It has been grown at the domestic level for a long time. A general survey of PARC in 1979 estimated that about 15,000 scattered coconut plants exist in and around Karachi and other coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan. • OLIVE Olive is an important source of good quality oil. It contains 20-30% oil in its outer pulp. Many efforts have been made in Pakistan to promote this oil tree. In 1965, 02-year old saplings of 07 varieties were imported form Italy and planted near Fateh Jang, but could not get further propagation due to unknown reasons, inspite of showing apparently good tangible results. • JOJOBA Jojoba contains 50% oil with an impressive industrial potential. In 1980, its seeds were imported by PARC and significant work was done on this oil bearing crop. Various research studies proved that it can be successfully grown on marginal lands, on the borders of Cholistan desert and in the rainfed areas of Punjab and Balochistan. • PONGAME AND JATROPHA Pongame and Jatropha have impressive potential of oil used for production of Bio-diesel. Land in Pakistan is available but no significant cultivation was done in the past. Clean Power has identified land for mass cultivation of these plants, with an objective to ehnhance the production of Bio-diesel sources.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 57 of 99
  • 58. 6.2 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL CROPS IN PAKISTAN Efficient utilization of agricultural resources is the key element in sustainable agricultural productivity. The utilization of land is, however, a complex phenomenon as it is simultaneously governed by several factors including physical, biological, social and economical. In order to fit in crops of priority in the cropping system, the basic requirement is the agro-ecology. While discussing oil crops, it is necessary to give small accounts of the respective ecologies, which will help understand and correctly assess success and failure in achieving productivity of these crops in different regions of the country. In one study, Pakistan has been divided into various ecological zones on the basis of physiographic, climate and soils. (Table A). 6.2.1 REGION – 1 ♦ THATTA ♦ BADIN ♦ HYDERABAD The climate is arid, tropical with moderately hot summers and very mild winters. Two types of soils are prominent; clayey and silty. The clayey soils contribute one half of the area which occurs in shallow basins and is strongly saline. The cultivated areas have mostly non-saline clayey soils. The remaining 50% area is silty and leveled to flat region. Soils are strongly saline and stratified with thin layers of silt loam and very fine sandy loam. Parts of the irrigated areas having clayey soils are covered with rice, sugarcane, pulses (lentil and matri) and berseem fodder. Banana orchards are also grown here. This region can offer appreciable area for oil palm and coconut plantations. Other oilseed crops which can be grown here are sunflower, rapeseed-mustard, soybean and castor.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 58 of 99
  • 59. 6.2.2 REGION – 2 ♦ HYDERABAD ♦ NAWABSHAH ♦ BADIN ♦ JACCOBABAD ♦ THARPARKAR ♦ SUKKUR ♦ SANGHAR ♦ RAHIM YAR KHAN ♦ DADU ♦ SIBI ♦ KHAIRPUR ♦ SHIKARPUR ♦ LARKANA ♦ The lower Indus plains have been formed by the meandering and shifting courses of the Indus river. The region has been divided into a series of flood plains of different ages and having distinct micro-surface configurations. Manchar lake mostly derives its water during the summer season form this region. Main soils are calcareous silt loam and silty clays with weak structure and good porosity. About 20% area is salt-affected, some of these are saline sodic but others contain gypsum. The climate is arid, sub-tropical, and continental with hot summers and mild winters. The zone can be sub-divided into northern and southern regions. The northern region is extremely hot in summer. Southern zone is comparatively mild. This is canal-irrigated (left bank Indus) land predominately occupied by cotton, wheat, mustard, sugarcane and barseem. Rice, wheat and barseem are the main crops on the right bank. Sorghum is the main crop in the southern part of Dadu district because of water shortage. Safflower can be grown on residual moisture after rice and castor on marginal lands in all over this region. Rapeseed-mustard already occupies an appreciable area, therefore, can be further promoted easily. Sunflower and soybean also have a wide scope of horizontal increase in this region. 6.2.3 REGION – 3A ♦ THARPARKAR ♦ RAHIM YAR KHAN ♦ KHAIRPUR ♦ BAHAWALPUR ♦ NAWABSHAH ♦ BAHAWALNAGAR ♦ SANGHAR This region includes Thar and Cholistan deserts. The entire sandy desert is spotted with xerophytic vegetation. Water run-off collected in the adjoining dunes conserve enough moisture for scanty agriculture in the southern part of this region. The area is mainly barani, with shortage of water for cattle and human consumption. The climate is arid (desert), sub-tropical with very hot summers and mild winters. Being a desert, the region has sandy soils and moving sand dunes. The clayey soils are saline sodic over half of the area but all calcareous with weak structure. Main land use of this region is grazing of sheep goats, camels and cattle. Guar and millet are important crops of the south which are grown during favorable rainfall. In southern part of the region, where rainfallTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 59 of 99
  • 60. is about 30 mm, wheat is also an important crop on loamy soils and castor is grown on sandy loam. Groundnut, jojoba, sesame, rapeseed-mustard and safflower can also be grown in this region for which promotion programmed would be needed. 6.2.4 REGION – 3B ♦ MUZAFFARGARH ♦ MIANWALI ♦ SARGODHA The climate is arid to semi-arid and sub-tropical continental. This area has stable sand ridges which have sand and loamy fine sandy soils. All the soils are moderately calcareous and have low organic matter. In addition, some narrow strips of silty and clayey soils exist which are moderately to strongly calcareous and locally saline sodic. Predominant land use of the area is grazing of livestock (goat, sheep, camels and cattle). The northern part where rainfall ranges between 300-350 mm is used for dry farming mainly gram and wheat. Some area is under canal irrigation and cotton, sugarcane, guar, millet and wheat are grown. This area has great potential for groundnut, rapeseed-mustard, castor, sesame and jojoba plantation. Sunflower can also creep in some niches of this region. 6.2.5 REGION – 4A ♦ BAHAWALNAGAR ♦ KASUR ♦ RAHIM YAR KHAN ♦ FAISALABAD ♦ MULTAN ♦ JHANG ♦ VEHARI ♦ SHEIKHUPURA ♦ MUZAFFARGARH ♦ GUJRANWALA ♦ SAHIWAL ♦ SARGODHA ♦ LAHORE ♦ GUJRAT This region includes the land between Sutlaj and Jhelum rivers comprising of Rachna, Chaj and Bari Doaabs and is rated superior agricultural land of the country. The eastern half has semi arid (steppe) sub tropical continental type of climate. The south western portion of this zone has arid sub tropical continental climate. The soils are loam to clay loam. Southern and central parts are dominated by calcareous silt loams with weak structure, whereas clay soils are minor and occurring in patches. The soils are deep. Suitable crop rotations can accommodate oilseeds. Most common are cotton sunflower/soybean, rice- sunflower/soybean-rice and potato-sunflower/soybean-potato. Inter-cropping is also possible. Such as soybean, sunflower with sugarcane, melons with sunflower, cotton with soybean, etc. Canal irrigated cropping is the main land use of this region. In the northern parts, rice, wheat and are seem are the main crops on clayey soils and wheat, sugarcane, melon and oilseeds are grown on loamyTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 60 of 99
  • 61. soils. In the southern parts, the main crops are cotton, sugarcane, maize and wheat. Fruit orchards of citrus and mango are also important especially in the central parts. Sunflower, rapseed-mustard, soybean and linseed are the main crops grown in this region and have a wide scope for further expansion. 6.2.6 REGION – 4B ♦ PESHAWAR ♦ MARDAN The valley of Peshawar is irrigated by the Kabul river and its tributaries, the Swat and Kalapani rivers. These river systems are perennial. The central part of the Peshawar valley, a flat plain is one of the most fertile areas of the country. it has semi-arid (steppe) sub tropical continental type of climate with little rain both in winter and summer. The soils of central parts of the valley are clayey (silty clays and silty caly loams) and slightly-to-moderately calcareous. It is the most intensively cultivated region. The canal irrigation is predominant and main crops are sugar beet, tobacco, wheat and barseem. Lately, sugar beet and tobacco has gained importance. Fruit orchards, pears, peaches and plums are considerably covered. Some dry area is planted with wheat, millet, gram and groundnut. Sunflower, rapeseed, mustard, soybean, groundnut and olive are the potential oilseed crops of this region. 6.2.7 REGION – 5 ♦ D.I.KHAN ♦ RAWALPINDI ♦ BANNU ♦ JHELUM ♦ MIANWALI ♦ GUJRAT ♦ ATTOCK ♦ GUJRANWALA ♦ ABBOTABAD ♦ SIALKOT The region covers the salt range, potowar plateau and the Himalayan piedmont plain. The salt range separates the pothowar plateau form the Indus plain. The region is nearly humid with hot summers and colds winters. Most of the agriculture is dependent on rain; however, in some valleys, spring-water and water collected in small dams is available for irrigation. Soils of the eastern part of the region are predominant silt loams, silty clay loam, and clay laoms. In the southern and south-western parts, the soils are mainly calcareous and loamy. Rained cultivation, mainly wheat and millet are the predominant crops. Eastern parts are irrigated. The clay soils are covered with rice and wheat and the loamy soils are used for millet, maize, wheat, oilseeds, pulses and fodder. This plateau offers a vast area for groundnut and sesame cultivation. Rapeseed-mustard and sunflower crops have great potential to become major contributors. Quite significant part of it can be converted in to canola belt with minimum efforts. Castor, jojoba, safflower and soybean also have niches for cultivation.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 61 of 99
  • 62. 6.2.8 REGION – 6 ♦ RAWALPINDI ♦ HAZARA ♦ MANSEHRA Swat and Kohistan area is in the north with high mountains. The southern mountainous areas have small mountain ranges and plateaus. The climate is classified as humid with mild summers and cold winters without any pronounced dry season. The soil texture is silt loams to silty clays and is either non- calcareous or slightly calcareous with pH ranging from 5.8-8.1. About 25% of the area is under rain fed cultivation and the remaining area is under forests. In rain- fed areas, the main crops are maize and wheat. Rice is grown in small areas which are irrigated with water form springs or streams. Fruit orchards of apples are important at altitude above 1500 m. On low hills, olive is grown. Olive, soybean, groundnut and rapeseed-mustard are the target oilseed crops for this region. 6.2.9 REGION – 7 ♦ CHITRAL ♦ FATA ♦ DIR ♦ PATA ♦ SWAT ♦ KOHAT The region shares boundaries of Karakuram Mountains and valleys. These valleys are characterized by extreme aridity. However abundant water for irrigation on terraces is available. It has mild summers and severe winters. Soils are deep clayey formed of alluvial materials. Soils at 2100 m altitude are characteristically non calcareous and acidic, with pH 5.5-6.5. Most of the area is used for grazing; however, a major part is under forest. Deep part of the valleys is used for growing maize and wheat under rain fed conditions. Under favorable conditions, rice is also grown. Fruit orchards are confined to flanks of streams where irrigation water is available. At lower altitudes, olive and soybean can be promoted. In valleys, soybean, rapeseed-mustard and sesame are potential crops. 6.2.10 REGION – 8 ♦ KOHAT ♦ KALAT ♦ BANNU ♦ SIBBI ♦ FATA ♦ QUETTA ♦ ZHOB ♦ KARACHI ♦ LORALITitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 62 of 99
  • 63. It is composed of barren hills with steep slopes and plateaus intervened by valleys. Most of the soil has xerophytic bushes and grasses. There are numerous hill torrents which carry flash floods. It is arid and semi-arid high land with mild summers and cold winters. Being a mountainous area with valleys, the soil is mainly calcareous but deep and loamy. The lower part has strongly saline loamy soils. The flood water is collected in Bandats and crops are grown on residual moisture. It is predominantly a grazing area; however, a small area is covered with orchards of apple, peaches, plums, apricot and grapes. Alfalfa, maize and wheat are also grown where irrigation water is available. Rapeseed-mustard, groundnut, sesame, sunflower and olive are the potential oil crops for this region. 6.2.11 REGION – 9 ♦ KARACHI ♦ KHARAN ♦ DADU ♦ GHAGI ♦ MAKRAN ♦ LASBELLA The northern part of the region comprises of mountains with intermountain basins and plateaus. The southern part forms watershed, the drainage of which enters the Indus plain on the east and the Arabian sea on the south. The region has arid tropical type of climate with consistently dry season. The coastal belt receives sea breeze and therefore, the summer is not too hot along the coast. Soils in the plain area are deep, strongly calcareous, silt loam with weak structure. Vegetation in xerophytic and is characterized by thorny shrubs and grasses in the lower region. High altitudes have forests of juniper and wild olive. Cultivation on deep valley soils depends mainly on spate irrigation by diverting torrent water into fields. In the north, what is the main crop but melons are also grown. In the south, sorghum and millet are the important crops. Along the coast, castor bean is grown very extensively. This region offers suitable area for oil palm and coconut cultivation. Castor cultivation can easily be expanded manifold. Sunflower, rapeseed-mustard and safflower have great scope in Bandats of Balochistan. 6.2.12 REGION – 10 ♦ D.I. KHAN ♦ D.G. KHAN ♦ KARACHI It comprises the piedmont plains of the Suleiman ranges, sloping towards the Indus River. The large numbers of hills rains often introduce flash floods which are trapped for Rodkohi irrigation. Climate of this region is arid and hot sub tropical continental. The soil is loamy in gentle sloping near the mountains butTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 63 of 99
  • 64. clayey in leveled areas. All these soils are strongly calcareous. Strong salinity and or sodicity occur only in a narrow strip at the junctions of piedmont plain and the river flood plain. Torrent water cultivation is the main land use under which wheat, sorghum, millet and some gram are grown. A part of the clayey soils in the central part of the region are under canal irrigation where sorghum and rapeseed mustard are the main crops. Rice is grown in narrow strips forming the junction of the piedmont and river plains. Sunflower, mustard, soybean, safflower, castor and ground nut are the target oilseed crops for promotion and horizontal spread. 6.3 COMMENTS In Pakistan, where the population is increasing at an annual rate of 3.1%, the staple food crops (wheat, rice and other grains) have very high priority substantiated by the need for food security and political stability. Oilseed crops occupy a secondary position in this scenario. Keeping this fact in view, the scope for horizontal expansion of oilseeds is rather limited. Further expansion would, therefore, be possible in areas which are under-exploited and where competition with other crops is not much. Some additional area can be brought under oilseeds by enhancing the land use efficiency. It could be done by using the fallow lands available in different cropping stems. Inter cropping in the major crops can also offer more area. However, most of our efforts should concentrate on vertical expansion through increasing crop productivity. This would be the most logical approach for future and can be achieved through developing area specific production technologies and high yielding varieties. District-wise potential areas in the four provinces available for promotion of various oilseed crops and trees are indicated in Table B. • Rapeseed-mustard can be grown as autumn and winter crops. At present, the total area under these crops is about 223 thousand hectares. It can be increased to more than 800 thousand hectares mostly utilizing rain-fed areas, where crop competition is not very high. Zaid-Kharif season is another avenue for horizontal expansion which offers a sizeable land for its cultivation as a catch crop. The present practise of its inter cropping with rabbi fodder and wheat can also be encouraged. Eruca sativa and Brassica juncea can be promoted on marginal and culture able dry areas as these crops are substantially drought tolerant. • Groundnut is an established crop and is presently grown on an area of about 90 thousand hectares. Since the crop requires sandy soils for optimum production, it enjoys a very specific agro ecological niche where it has least competition with any major crop. Vast additional area of aboutTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 64 of 99
  • 65. 339,000 hectares can be brought under it in its specific ecological zone as rain fed crop. It also has scope for expansion in irrigated areas where soils are sandy loams and are not attractive for other crops. • Sesame is grown in irrigated as well as rain fed areas on about 78,000 hectares in all the provinces. It is a hardy crop and has potential for further expansion in rain fed areas. It can be also be grown on the margins of fields in irrigated areas in addition to its mono culture in small blocks. It can also be inter cropped with some kharif crops. Potentially, its area can be increased to 313,000 hectares by putting it in different cropping zones. • Like maize, sunflower can be grown almost all over Pakistan. The crop is already grown in rotations such as cotton-sunflower-cotton, rice-sunflower- rice, potato-sunflower-potato. It can also be introduced on riverine and northern semi arid rain fed areas. It is estimated that more than 800,000 hectares is available for its promotion in the entire four provinces. • Safflower being native of this region is grown for centuries and has shown good performance in rice areas of Sindh, as Dobari crop. Considerable area which is left fallow after rice can be brought easily under this crop. Being deep rooted; it has potential on residual moisture in rain fed areas of Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab and NWFP. As a conservative estimate, about 165 thousand hectares can be brought under its cultivation. • Presently maximum area of soybean is in the province of NWFP indicating its suitability for this region. Its further promotion in Malakand/Swat/Dir, Mardan, Swabi, Mansehra and Peshawar areas is possible. It has also been successfully cultivated in Sindh and Punjab provinces. Some of the marginal rice area in northern Punjab can be replaced by soybean as a better alternate crop since rice production is surplus. It is estimated that about 0.2 to 0.3 million hectares of rice crop can be easily replaced by better alternate crops, for which soybean is the best option. For this purpose an appreciable area in Gujrat, Sargodha, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Sahiwal and Okara can be diverted for soybean cultivation. • The climatic requirements for castor cultivation prevail throughout Sindh, Punjab, some parts of Balochistan and NWFP. This offers a vast area for castor production in all the four provinces. Most of the Sindh province usually remains frost free; therefore, two crops can easily be grown in a year. Conventional castor growing areas are Lasbella and Tharparkar, but its plants are found growing almost all over the country, indicating its suitability and hardy nature. Its area can be increased to 290,000 hectaresTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 65 of 99
  • 66. fairly easily. Its plantation on field borders and water channels will be another easy and quick way for enhancing its production. • Jojoba is a prospective crop for areas where no oil field crop can be grown successfully. Patronizing it and adding to options for trade off in an effort to achieve self-reliance in indigenous edible oil production, would be a good strategy. • Like jojoba, the marine halophyte, Sapphire offers great promise for increased vegetable oil production in areas where no other crop competes with it for resources such as land, water etc. The studies on is agronomy and other aspects related to production may be started and its prospective areas along sea coast and sandy deserts be identified. • As indicated earlier, Pakistan has approximately 200,000 hectares under wild olive in various parts of the country which can be converted to bearing olive. The main areas of concentration are the north western parts of Punjab, Azad Kashmir, Soan Valley, Kherimurat range in Attock distric, Taru near Peshawar and Swat in NWFP and AJK. It can also be extended to other areas of the country including Soan Valley and Balochistan. • The scope for establishing coconut plantation in the southern irrigated belt of Sindh and along the 800 km long sea coast is bright. The plantations can be established both in the form of linker plantations around the rice fields in G. M. barrage area and also in the form of regular plantations. Being a slat tolerant plant, it can flourish well all over such areas. • According to a survey conducted by PARC, Islamabad, a large area of lower Sindh region is suitable for cultivating oil palm and coconut. The survey classified the land as moderately well suited for its cultivation. The potential areas are shown in Table C.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 66 of 99
  • 67. Table A: Land identified as suitable for the cultivation of oil palm Name of Location Area (ha) Name of Location Area (ha) Class B Class C Land Land K. T. Bandar 3,389 Matli 11,264 Ghora Bari 13,728 Tando M. Khan 29,999 Shah Bandar 9,036 Nindo Shah 11,917 Pir Putho 2,606 Tando Bago 4,652 Chur Jamali 10,167 Kunri 6,449 Thatta 3,041 Umerkot 26,283 Arbab Abdullah 11,382 Digri 85,174 Tando M. Khan 34,670 Jhudo 6,775 Natal 6,604 Jamesabad 38,138 Khalhar 792 Tando Allahyar 47,261 Tandojam 108,154 Mirpur Khas 22,487 Khirpro 23,315 Tando Adam 24,392 Hala 18,936 Total 92,121 465,196 6.4 CROP SPECIFIC CONSTRAINTS 6.4.1 SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEEDS Sunflower, rapeseed-mustard, soybean, groundnut, safflower, sesame and linseed contribute in domestic oilseeds production. These are recognized as minor crops and farmers give a lower priority to them at the time of crop selection process. This psyche of the growers by itself is a big bottleneck for their future propagation. Though rapeseed-mustard are familiar crops for the farmers and has no marketing problems, their area has declined due to direct competition with wheat, chick pea, lentils and winter fodders. Rapeseed mustard oil is not regular cooking oil due to the presence of higher erucic acid and glucosinolates and therefore, it cannot be used more than 5% in oil blending for ghee manufacturing. 6.4.2 GROUNDNUT Groundnut area increased at a slow rate but productivity could not increase due to medium and low yielding varieties, use of marginal lands and application of low inputs. It is mostly grown on low fertility soils having low water holding capacity. In irrigated areas, it is substituted by other high income crops. Non-availability of quality seed and use of low seed rate, lack of plant protection measures, high cost of harvesting, non-availability of machinery, highly fluctuating market prices, limited demand and economic non viability of oil extraction are the major obstacles in the promotion of this crop.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 67 of 99
  • 68. 6.4.3 SESAME Sesame is a low yielding crop due to its poor genetic potential. Higher yiedl losses in the field and during post harvest handling due to shattering, and absence of plant protection practices are the major restraints. Recently there have been breakthroughs in commercial varieties in USA which can help enhance its production. Linseed is a minor oilseed crop grown on small acreage. It is low yielding plant carrying low returns. Not much work has been done to improve its varieties. 6.4.4 COTTON The farmers have shown considerable interest in growing sunflower to supplement their incomes. However, the efforts for its promotion have not been optimally effective. Its national average yield confirms the production technology gaps which result in low productivity. Inadequate transfer of technology and its poor adoption are the major reasons for low productively. It needs more inputs (high nutrients doses at the time of planting) and managerial attention. High temperatures at grain filling stage restrict seed development and tax considerable yields. Presently, most of the sunflower varieties have long maturity and thus delay planting of cotton crop. Early and medium maturity varieties have long maturity and thus delay planting of cotton crop. Early and medium maturity varieties with high yield are needed. All the hybrids grown are of exotic origin. Their seed is imported and therefore, is costly. This adds to the input cost. Some of the sunflower problems are unique, like bird attack at maturity, which causes considerable yield losses, laborious harvesting, drying and cleaning of seeds and other post harvest issues. 6.4.5 SOYBEAN Soybean has never picked up appreciable area in Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan. In NWFP it has a significant presence but faces a lot of difficulties in spreading further. Because of late maturing varieties, it faces difficulty in fitting well in rice-soybean-rice and cotton-soybean-cotton rotations. The seed loses its viability quickly and seed rate is considerably high. Its further exxpansion poses serious problems of seed production, storage and transportation. Its variety requirements also change with change in latitude form South to North. Hence, Pakistan needs different varieties for different provinces. Soybean inoculums produced at NARC needs special care for keeping its vialbitiy intact while transported over long distances. The crop is susceptible to tobacco mosaic virus which taxes the yield consideralby. Non availability of threshers and considerable yield losses due to shattering are also the limitations in its further promotion.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 68 of 99
  • 69. 6.4.6 SAFFLOWER Safflower is not accepted by farmers due to its spiny nature. When dry, its stinging pinted leaves make manual harvesting unpleasant. It is a long duration plant, photosynthetic ally inefficient and low in oil content. However, obtaining high yield under good management and optimum inputs in possible. Weak efforts on variety improvement and lack of proper harvesting and threshing machinery are the other handicaps. 6.4.7 PONGAME AND JATROPHA Farmers, forest department and local communities of Pakistan are not well aware about the importance of these plants. So no mass plantation was found in Pakistan as per studies by Clean Power. Clean Power is the first company to start an awareness program about the cultivation of these plants, and about the uses of oil from these plants. Both plant species have no specific constraints for their cultivation. 6.5 GENERAL PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS Several compulsions in the overall agricultural sector do have their implications on oilseed crops. Management of water resources and supply of inputs are the obstacles in improving production. Growers need quality inputs for improving production but immoral an illicit practices cause heavy losses. Appropriate machinery for planting, harvesting and threshing is also not available at the right time. Oilseed crops are given low priority, therefore, are grown on marginal lands. This results in low yields and return to farmers, thereby accelerating the vicious cycle of low productivity. Agriculture support services are provided mostly to major crops only, and oilseeds crops do not get much focus. This leads to lack of know-how of production technologies. Inputs are also not used optimally because of low level of crop technology and non-availability of production credits and area-specific production technologies. Large gaps exist between actual and potential yields. No proper arrangements are available in the county for the production of pre- basic, basic and certified seed of oilseed crops. Imported seed is expensive and adds to high cost of inputs, thus pushing the small farmers away. The induction of the private sector into seed supply proved tardy. The public seed sector is slag with all its inherited inefficiencies.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 69 of 99
  • 70. 6.6 STATUS OF SHORT-LISTED FIELD CROPS 6.6.1 PONGAME Pongame is a fast growing medium-sized tree. It is introduced as a shady ornamental tree in recent years by forest department. It is cultivated along the road sides in Islamabad city only and some areas of Rawalpindi. No exect data exist on the number of trees in these twin cities. The Pongame tree is cultivated for two purposes: (1) as an ornamental tree in gardens and along avenues and roadsides, for its fragrant Wisteria-like flowers and (2) as a host plant for lac insects. It has been appreciated as an ornamental tree in recent years in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Well-decomposed flowers are used by gardeners as compost for plants requiring rich nutrients. Its leaves serve as green manure and as fodder. The seeds contain pongam oil… a bitter, reddish brown, thick, non- drying, nonedible oil, 32-36% by weight. The wood is yellowish white, coarse, hard, and beautifully grained, but is not durable. Use of the wood is limited to cabinetmaking, cart wheels, posts, and fuel. Both the oil and residues are toxic. Still the press cake is described as a "useful poultry feed." Seeds are used to poison fish. Still it is recommended as a shade tree in the country according to forest department. Dried pongame leaves are used in stored grains to repel insects. Leaves often plowed green manure, thought to reduce nematode infestations. Its int-o ground as spreading roots make it valuable for checking erosion and stabilizing dunes. Twigs are used as a chew stick for cleaning the teeth. The ash of the wood is used in dyeing. 6.6.2 RAPESEED - MUSTARD Rapeseed-mustard play an important role in the oilseed sector as it is the major group of winter oil crops and contributes about 16 percent edible oil in the domestic production. The area of these crops has been decreasing since 1970- 71. During 1970-71, its area was 0.510 million hectares with a production of 0.269 million tons. Within one decade, i.e. by 1980-81, its area decreased to 0.417 million tons and production to 0.252 million tons. This decreasing trend is still continuing. Presently, the area has declined to 0.275 million hectares with a production of 0.207 million tons, thus registering a reduction of 46.1 percent in area and 22.9 percent in production during the last 24 years (Table 2).Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 70 of 99
  • 71. Table 2: Area, production & average yield of rapeseed-mustard in Pakistan Period yield Area Production Average (000 ha) (000 tons) (kg/ha) 1970-71 510.0 269.0 527 1980-81 417.0 252.5 606 1989-90 307.1 233.1 759 1990-91 303.5 228.3 752 1991-92 286.5 219.7 767 1992-93 284.6 206.9 727 1993-94 268.5 197.4 735 1994-95 275.1 207.4 754 Annual growth rate -2.54 -1.08 1.51 % 754 527 1970-71 606 1980-81 735 1989-90 1990-91 759 1991-92 1992-93 727 1993-94 752 1994-95 767 FIGURE-IX: Avg yield of Mustard in Pakistan (Kg/ha) Reduction in rapeseed-mustard area in Punjab and Sindh is conspicuous while in NWFP and Balochistan it increased by 1.2% and 6.4% respectively. The average yield is very low compared to other countries. However, it increased from 526 kg/ha in 1970-71 to 754 kg/ha in 1994-95 showing 1.51% annual growth rate. Rapeseed-mustard is unfortunate in the sense that it has direct competition with wheat, as both are grown in the same season. Farmers prefer to grown wheat as it is a staple food and crop. Rapeseed mono-culture on large blocks of 5 to 10 acres is rarer. It is now diverging mostly into intercrop with winter fodder and wheat and catch crop in Zaid Kharif season. Assuming noTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 71 of 99
  • 72. change in production incentives, it is logical to expect a further decrease in area in the years to come. 6.6.3 CASTOR Castor originated in the Indo-Pak sub-continent; has been growing here since time immemorial. Its oil is mostly used for industrial purposes and is an excellent lubricant for high speed aero-engines. Castor is found growing wild in abundance and on the side of water courses almost everywhere in Pakistan. As a crop it is mostly cultivated in Sindh and Balochistan. In 1970-71, a total of 14,312 hectares were planted, producing 4,675 tons of seed. The area reached its peak in 1978-79 (45,986 hectares) producing 35,349 tons of seed (Table 3). Since then, the area is on decline and now (1993-94) it is grown on 2,159 hectares only. The fall in area was due to non-availability of improved varieties, lack of demand in the local market and the loss of export markets. Table 3: Area, production and average yield of Castor in Pakistan Period yield Area Production Average (000 ha) (000 tons) (kg/ha) 1970-71 14.31 4.68 323 1980-81 45.99 35.35 769 1989-90 23.46 18.28 779 1990-91 15.69 10.29 656 1991-92 15.11 9.94 658 1992-93 3.05 2.09 686 1993-94 7.78 5.74 738 1994-95 2.16 1.58 729 Annual growth rate -7.9 -4.6 3.6 % 323 729 1970-71 769 1980-81 738 1989-90 1990-91 779 1991-92 1992-93 686 1993-94 656 658 1994-95 FIGURE-X: Avg yield of castor bean in Pakistan (Kg/ha)Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 72 of 99
  • 73. The province-wise distribution shows that castor was planted in Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan during 1970-71. The share of Sindh was 59.9%, Balochistan 31.2%, Punjab 2.9%, with no crop in NWFP. Gradually, its cultivation concentrated mostly in Sindh, contributing more than 90% of the total area and production. Average yield of castor has shown steady improvement over the last 23 years. It was 323 kg/ha in 197-71, which almost doubled (729 kg/ha) in 1993-94, registering an annual growth rate of 3.6%. 6.6.4 SUNFLOWER As an oilseed crop, sunflower was introduced in Pakistan during the early sixties. Its expansion remained restricted due to the absence of systematic follow up and adequate market mechanism. In 1970-71, the total area was 670 hectares with a production of 480 tons and remained almost stagnant for one decade. After 1980-81, the area started increasing but with considerable year to year fluctuations. In 1991-92, the area increased considerably to 66,900 hectares and production reaching its ever maximum of 102,500 tons (Table 4). However due to insufficient marketing setup the area declined by 18.5% to 23.5% in the two subsequent years. Table 4: Area, production and average yield of Sunflower in Pakistan Period yield Area Production Average (000 ha) (000 tons) (kg/ha) 1970-71 0.67 0.48 719 1980-81 6.75 5.04 746 1989-90 37.40 46.43 979 1990-91 47.50 41.60 1,109 1991-92 66.90 102.50 1,532 1992-93 54.50 65.70 1,201 1993-94 51.20 62.50 1,220 1994-95 75.00 102.00 1,373 Annual growth rate 18.8 24.1 4.5 %Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 73 of 99
  • 74. 719 1373 1970-71 746 1980-81 1989-90 1220 979 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1109 1201 1993-94 1994-95 1532 FIGURE-XI: Avg yield of sunflower bean in Pakistan (Kg/ha) Though almost the entire sunflower crop is grown under irrigation, the average yields are still low. From 1970-71 to 1987-88, yield had been very low but since then its productivity has increased significantly, reaching a record of 1532 kg/ha in 1991-92. The province-wise distribution shows that in 1970-71, out of 670 hectares total area, 666 hectares were planted in Punjab and only 4 hectares in Sindh. There was no sunflower crop in NWFP up to 1976-77 and in Balochistan up to 1980-81. Since 1988-89, Punjab has been sharing 76.6% of the area compared to 20.8% in Sindh and 2.6% in NWFP. The proportionate area of Sindh is showing an increasing trend compared to other provinces. Per hectare yield on the basis of provinces showed a different pattern. In 1988-89, the average yield was 1299 kg/ha in Punjab, 735 kg/ha in Sindh and 1222 kg/ha in NWFP. During 1992-93, it reduced to 123 kg/ha in Punjab while in Sindh and NWFP increased to 905 and 1299 kg/ha, respectively. Sunflower is mostly grown by large and progressive farmers who are limited in number. A major increase in area can only be achieved when medium and small farmers start growing it. Sunflower found its place mostly as a catch crop in cotton, rice, potato and tobacco growing areas. It faces difficulties whenTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 74 of 99
  • 75. grown in rotation with cotton and potato. It delays the planting of cotton as its harvesting continues up to the end of June if sown late in February. In potato rotation, its planting gets delayed because potato is being harvested up to the end of February and beginning of March. Under both case, late planting taxes yield up to 20 percent. Medium maturing varieties of Sunflower can offer a solution for such a scenario. 6.6.5 COTTON Cotton is primarily grown for its fiber. However, it is the major source of vegetable oil constituting more than 73% of domestic production. Due to its price incentive and demand, the area under cotton increased by 63.6% during 1970-70 to 1991-92. During the same period, cottonseed production increased by more than 304%, i.e. from 1.080 million tons in 1970-71 to 4.362 million tons in 1991- 92 and average yield increased by more than 146% (Table 5). Table 5: Area, production and average yield of cottonseed in Pakistan Period yield Area Production Average (000 ha) (000 tons) (kg/ha) 1970-71 1,733.3 1,084 625 1980-81 2,108.5 1,430 678 1989-90 2,598.5 2,912 1,121 1990-91 2,662.2 3,274 1,230 1991-92 2,835.5 4,362 1,538 1992-93 2,835.9 3,082 1,087 1993-94 2,711.0 2,742 1,088 1994-95 2,652.8 2,961 1,116 Annual growth rate 1.94 4.32 2.19 % 1116 625 1970-71 678 1980-81 1088 1989-90 1121 1990-91 1991-92 1087 1992-93 1230 1993-94 1538 1994-95 FIGURE-XII: Avg yield of cotton in Pakistan (Kg/ha)Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 75 of 99
  • 76. During 1992-93, though the area increased, the production decreased by almost 30% due to the attack of cotton leaf curl virus. The latest estimates (1994- 95) place its area under cultivation at 2653 thousand hectares and production of cottonseed at 2962 thousand tons, representing a decline of 6.5% and 3.9% in area and production respectively, over the level of 1992-93. The production of cotton lint also fell short of the 1991-92 production (12 million bales) by 3 to 4 million bales. 1995 was the fourth consecutive year of crop suffering heavily on account of the leaf curl virus attack. The province-wise distribution of area and production changes very slightly. During 1970-71, Punjab was sharing 75.5% of the whole cultivated area and about 73.1% of the production. Sindh province had a share of 24.4% and 26.8% in area and production respectively. From 1970-71 to 1991-92, area in Punjab increased by more than 10%. On the contrary, area in Sindh decreased from 24.4% to 19.3%. Area in NWFP also decreased form 0.12% in 1970-71 to 0.028% in 1991-92. However, area and production in Balochistan remained almost stagnant with slight fluctuations. Due to high returns from cotton, farmers like to have third picking which forces them to keep the crop in field up to the end of January, sometimes dragging into the month of February. This practice is now common resulting in the late sowing of wheat crop. Late sown wheat is not remunerrative and farmers prefer to keep the land fallow rather than putting in effors for growing another crop for low returns. This scenario has helped alternate crops such as sunflower and soybean become popular. These can be planted in late January or during the whole month of February. 6.6.6 JATROPHA It is a fast growing shrub. It has been introduced as an ornamental plant in recent years in educational institutes. No exact data exists on the number of Jatropha shrubs in Pakistan. Clean Power is doing research on its botanical aspects i.e. cultivation, growth, botanical description, land identification and production of Bio-diesel from this plant. In future Clean Power will contribute a major role in promotion of cultivation and production of Bio-diesel and its byproducts.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 76 of 99
  • 77. SECTION 7 DESCRIPTION AND AVAILABILITY OF CLASS-II RESOURCES 7.1 WASTE VEGETABLE OIL Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) is obtained from edible oils – it is a product of repeated uses of edible oil for cooking. In Pakistan edible oils come from traditional crops i.e. sunflower, rapeseeds, canola and soyabean. 7.2 ANIMAL FATS Animal fats (AF) are obtained from livestocks and poultry. Historically Pakistani population used meat of buffaloes, cows, goats & sheep and poultry. They also use fats for cooking purposes. 7.3 AVAILABILITY WVO can be recycled, cleaned and reused as Bio-diesel. WVO is available in large quantities from restaurants, hotel chains, confectionaries and domestic cooking. WVO is one of the cheaper sources for Bio-diesel in developed countries, where the cooking oil is used only once. Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and due to diverse ecological conditions, the population is heavily dependent on agricultural products. For cooking purposes edible oil yielding crops and plants are cultivated on a large scale in the country. These edible oils are utilized in hotels, huts, local shops and every home of Pakistan. These are the major sources for collection of WVO. According to data published by the Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB), Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock, the annual demand for edible oil in Pakistan is 2.1 million tons. Asssuming that 10% of this amount will be available as WVO (this is an estimate on the very low side), the amount of WVO works out to be 210,000 tons (265.86 million liters). Estimating a 80% yield of Bio-diesel from WVO (as per practical experiments by Clean Power), an approximate quantity of 190,000 tons (240 million liters) of Bio-diesel can be obtained.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 77 of 99
  • 78. From the marketing point of view there is a chain of dealers for collection and further selling of WVO. Price for 1 liter of WVO from these sources may vary from Rs. 20-45, depending upon the quality and quantity of WVO (some hotels etc. reuse edible oil several times before disposing off their WVO, while others use them once or twice). There are minor constraints in collection of WVO, including cost constraints. But these can be overcome by developing strategies for coordination between dealers, stakeholders and users of WVO. Fixing of raw material rates by the GOP might be required, as will be subsidies on the production and sale of Bio-diesel.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 78 of 99
  • 79. SECTION 8 CLEAN POWER’S PRACTICAL DATA Present research work was conducted by Clean Power to study various aspects related to Bio-diesel production and application in Pakistan. Findings confined to collect data practically on the prices of raw material used for Bio- diesel, average yield of oil from seeds, production of Bio-diesel and quantity of byproducts produced after preparation of Bio-diesel. 8.1 FIELD RESEARCH ON RESOURCES • PONGAME 1- Random collection. 2- Intensive labour because of no existing channel. 3- Local labour were employed on daily wages. 4- Trees are scattered and each tree keeps on producing seeds form 8 months. Regular survey is requied to judge seed collection time period of trees. 5- When Pongame is used as a source of Bio-diesel on a mass-scale, trees would not be scattered, rather, organized block plantation would be developed. At the same time, collection and storage mechanisms will be in place. • EDIBLE OILS 1- Market availability – Attock. • WVO 1- Availabitiy on huts 2- Availabitiy from hotels and restaurant 3- Availabilty from stalk holders in Rawalpindi Average prices of cultived oil crops i.e. rape seeds, sunflower and Canola were almost constant (Fig. 6). Prices of Pongame seed are at an average of Rs. 400 to Rs. 600 per 40 kg of deshelled seed, depending upon availability (as per studied by Clean Power). Clean Power also conducted various surveys to find out the prices of WVO from local huts to large hotels i.e. Sarena, Marriot, Holiday Inn, KFC, Pizza Huts, Pear Continental, Akbar Internationa and Savour foods.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 79 of 99
  • 80. Prices of waste vegetable varied from 20-45 rupees per liter. Research findings also present data on production of Bio-diesel and byproducts (Table a). Data on various tests of oil as conducted by Attock Oil Refinary and Hydrocarbon development Institute were presented in reports (1-2). Fig. 6 Average Price list of Short list plants and WVO (Rs.) 2000 1800 P o ngam 1600 1400 Casto r B ean 1200 Safflo wer 1000 800 M ustard 600 Sunflo wer 400 200 WVO 0 1 Plant species and WVO FIGURE-XIII: Avg price list of Bio-diesel resources (Rs per 40 kg) 8.2 OIL EXTRACTION Practical findings showed that the percentage of oil yield remained the same as theoratical yield studied in literature except Pongame oil yield. It is stated in literature that pongame seeds yield 35% oil by weight, but in present study it is found that pongame seed yield of oil is about 25% by weight (Fig. 7 & 8). The reason for low production of Pongame oil as compared to literature was that collection of seeds by Clean Power was done during the monsoons. Due to excessive rain, the seeds were not fully dried. This affected the yield of oil.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 80 of 99
  • 81. In the first experiment, the seed coat was left on the seed during expelling. This reduced the oil yield considerably; it was found that only 5% oil was obtained; the seed coating absorbed most of the oil. Also the expeller was damaged by the hard seed coat. In the next experiment, the seeds were first deshelled and then sent to oil expellors for oil extraction; with this practice the oil yield increased to 25%. It is expected that if the seeds are properly dried, the oil yield will further increase. Clean Power is continuing its experiments with the Pongame seeds. Percentage production of oil in other seed crops such as rape seeds, canola, castor bean, sunflower and safflower remained same during practical experiments and theoratical in literature. 8.3 THE TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS The production of Bio-diesel from WVO is different from that of Pongame seed or any other oilseed. Bio-diesel is produced from WVO by a process called Transesterification, which is the chemical conversion of WVO into Bio-diesel in the presence of a catalyst. Glycerin and soap are the byproducts of transesterificaiton. Clean Power established a setup for Transesterification in the Biology Lab of Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. Small scale tranesterification facility is now available in Clean Power premises as well. The experiements of Clean Power revealed 80-90% yield of Bio-diesel from WVO i.e. processing of 100 liters WVO gives approximately 80-90 liters Bio-diesel. This figure is expected to improve with larger scale production, due to better handling of materials and equipments. 8.4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF BIO-DIESEL Clean Power performed laboratory testing of Bio-diesel samples, using the laboratories of Attock Refinery Ltd. (ARL), Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan (HDIP) Islamabad, and Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Islamabad. The chemical properties of Bio-diesel were compared with those of petroleum diesel. The lab results show that chemical properties of Bio-diesel are comparable with petroleum diesel, and are according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 81 of 99
  • 82. Fig. 7 Practical percentage of oil produciton from seed 35 30 25 Pongam Percentage 20 Castor Bean 15 Safflower 10 Mustard 5 Sunflower 0 Plant species FIGURE-XIII: Actual % oil yield (liters of Bio-diesel per 100 kg seed) Fig. 8 Theoratical percentage of oil yied from seeds 40 35 30 Pongam Percentage 25 Castor Bean 20 Saf f low er 15 Mustard 10 5 Sunf low er 0 1 Plant spe cie s FIGURE-XIV: Theoretical % oil yield (liters of Bio-diesel per 100 kg seed) The following three figures show the byproducts of the Transesterification process, and the Bio-diesel samples from various sources.These photographs are those of actual samples during experimentation by Clean Power.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 82 of 99
  • 83. FIGURE-XV: Transesterification byproducts - GlycerineTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 83 of 99
  • 84. FIGURE-XVI: Transesterification byproducts - SoapTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 84 of 99
  • 85. FIGURE-XVII: Bio-diesel SamplesTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 85 of 99
  • 86. SECTION 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Pakistan, with a land area of 79.61 million hectares, is located at the western end of the South Asian subcontinent. The wide variation in geography, altitude, soil, climate and culture has created a rich biological diversity of plants. It is estimated that the area contains 6,000 species of higher plants. Pakistan is basically an agricultural country, which has Kharif (summer) crops and Rabi (winter) crops. A number of cereals, legumes, vegetables, sugar crops, fodders, oil seeds and condiments are grown. Among these crops, oil seeds have greater economic importance with special reference to edible oil and alternative energy resources i.e. Bio-diesel. In previous years a lot of work has been conducted on various aspects of plants in Pakistan, but no reference exists on utilization of oil seeds for Bio-diesel application. Keeping in mind the shortage of petroleum products, the present research work was designed to study the biological resources used for Bio-diesel. The research identified global and national resources, and short-listed the most viable resources for Bio-diesel production. The short-listed resources include nine (09) plant species, WVO and AF. Out of these 09 plant species, 03 were wild i.e. Pongame, Jatropha and Castorbean, 06 plant species were cultivated including 04 rapeseed crops, cotton seed and sunflower. The study mainly focused on detailed description of plant species including botanical name, local name, English name, family name, morphology, germplasm, distribution, ecology, cultivation, harvesting, biotic factors, energy and other uses. The study also described the availability of these resources in Pakistan including general trends, crop specific constraints, status of existing field plants, average yield, and geographic distribution, identification of land resources for cultivation and extraction of percentage oil yield. The data of research work revealed that there are many plant species which have great potential for Bio-diesel production. In this study it was found that two species, Pongame and Castor bean have high oil yields (Pongame 25% and Castor bean 20%). The other plants including rapeseeds have 32% yield, while sunflower has 30% yield (Fig. 7). According to recent data on oil seed crops in Pakistan, total oil seed crops cover 625.6 hectares agricultural land (Table iii). Cotton covered largest area i.e. 2,619.4 hectares, and then rapeseeds 333.6 hectares area (Table i). Findings also revealed that total production of oil seed crops is 3,782 tons. AnnualTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 86 of 99
  • 87. production of rapeseed is 249 tons and cotton seed is 3,605 tons (Table v). All oil seed crops covered heighest cultivated area in Punjab and then Sindh. Castor bean is mostly cultivated in Balochistan. Pongame is not widely grown in any of the four provinces; it is only found in Rawalpindi / Islamabad, and has been grown in recent years. However, the quantities are not high. Climatic and soil conditions of Pakistan especially Potohar regions are favourable for cultivation of Pongame. Clean Power has started mega plantation of Pongame trees along railway tracks and on railway stations, in collaboration with Pakistan Railways and AEDB. First plantation was done at Sahila Railway Station; about 1,000 Pongame saplings were planted. This plantation will continue in an effort to build sufficient Pongame plantations for meeting the Bio-diesel requirements. At the same time, Clean Power is making efforts to introduce Jatropha in Pakistan. Due to the immense importance of Bio-diesel and its application in Pakistan, following are some important recommendations by Clean Power:- 1. Pakistan has vast areas of land available for cultivation. This research work should be utilized to develop targeted plant research with regard to Bio-diesel. Large-scale development, propagation and plantation of Bio- diesel producing oilseed crops and plants should take place. 2. In all developed countries, research and development has always played a vital role in profitable development of industry. In developed and some developing countries more and more R & D activities are being sponsored by the private sector and their Governments are assisting them and taking part in these activities by way of tax incentives and award schemes. 3. Policies should be designed and incentives offered by the Government encourage private and public sector companies to take part in the development of the Bio-diesel industry. 4. Priority should be given to quality, from the seeds to production of Bio- diesel to final use by consumer. Areas such as collection of seeds, extraction, processing, handling, storage and marketing should be given due importance. 5. The Bio-diesel project should be further expanded. There is a need to establish pilot projects in the effort to establish the supply chain and to commercialize Bio-diesel. The project may be extended step-wise, and could start with conversion of vehicle fleets of designated Government departments on Bio-diesel.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 87 of 99
  • 88. ANNEXURE I REFERENCES • Allen, O.N. and Allen, E.K. 1981. The Leguminosae. The University of Wisconsin Press. 812 p. • Burkill, J.H. 1966. A dictionary of economic products of the Malay peninsula. Art Printing Works, Kuala Lumpur. 2 vols. • C.S.I.R. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 1948–1976. The wealth of India. 11 vols. New Delhi. • Chan, B.G., Waiss, A.C., Jr., and Lukefahr, M. 1978. Condensed tannin, an antibiotic chemical from Gossypium hirsutum. J. Insect Physiol. 24(2):113–118. • Chandrasekar, V.P. and Morachan, V.B. 1979. Effect of advanced sowing of intercrops and nitrogen levels on yield components of rainfed sunflower. Madras Agr. J. 66(9):578– 581. • Chaurasia, S.C. and Jain, P.C. 1978. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of four medicinal plants. Indian J. Hosp. Pharm. 15(6):166–168. • Dorrell, D.G. 1981. Sunflower Helianthus annuus. p. 105–114. In: McClure, T.A. and Lipinsky, E.S. (eds.), CRC handbook of biosolar resources. vol. 11. Resource materials. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. • Duke, J.A. 1978. The quest for tolerant germplasm. p. 1–61. In: ASA Special Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, WI. • Duke, J.A. 1979. Ecosystematic data on economic plants. Quart. J. Crude Drug Res. 17(3–4):91–110. • Duke, J.A. 1981b. The gene revolution. Paper 1. p. 89–150. In: Office of Technology Assessment, Background papers for innovative biological technologies for lesser developed countries. USGPO. Washington. • Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. 1981. Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index with more than 85,000 entries. 3 vols. • FAO. 1980a. 1979. Production yearbook. vol. 33. FAO, Rome. • Gorelov, E.P., Rasulov, I.R., and Odilov, S.K. 1980. Fresh fodders in spring (Russian). Kormoproizvodstvo 5:34. (From abstract.) • Grieve, M. 1931. A modern herbal. Reprint 1974. Hafner Press, New York. • Hartwell, J.L. 1967–1971. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30–34. • Harwood, H.J. 1981. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: The North Carolina Situation. RTI Final Report FR-41U-1671-4. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. • Jenkins, B.M. and Ebeling, J.M. 1985. Thermochemical properties of biomass fuels. Calif. Agric. 39(5/6):14–16. • Leung, A.Y. 1980. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons. New York. • List, P.H. and Horhammer, L. 1969–1979. Hagers handbuch der pharmazeutischen praxis. vols 2–6. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. • Matai, S., Bagchi, D.K., and Chandra, S. 1973. Optimal seed rate and fertilizer dose for maximum yield of extracted protein from the leaves of mustard (Brassica nigra Koch) and turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Indian J. Agr. Sci. 43(2):165–169. • Morton, J.F. 1974. Folk remedies of the low country. E.A. Seemann Publishing, Inc., Miami, FL. • N.A.S. 1977a. Methane generation from human, animal, and agricultural wastes. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 88 of 99
  • 89. • Page, J. 1981. Sunflower power. Science 81 July/Aug: 92–93. • Parnell, C.B., Jr. 1981. Cotton Gossypium hirsutum. p. 115–122. In: McClure, T.A. and Lipinsky, E.S. (eds.), CRC handbook of biosolar resources. vol. II. Resource materials. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. • Pigg, D. 1980. Cottonseed bread—a new use for cotton. Texas Ag. Progress. Winter 1980. p. 20. • Pryde, E.H. and Doty, H.O., Jr. 1981. World fats and oils situation. p. 3–14. In: Pryde, E.H., Princen, L.H., and Mukherjee, K.D. (eds.), New sources of fats and oils. AOCS Monograph 9. American Oil Chemists Society. Champaign, IL. • Quick, G.R. 1981. A summary of some current research in Australia on vegetable oils as candidate fuels for diesel engines. (Abstr.) Seminar II, USDA, Peoria, IL. • Reed, C.F. 1976. Information summaries on 1000 economic plants. Typescripts submitted to the USDA. • Sistler, F.E. and Smith, P.A. 1981. A total energy model for cotton production. Louisiana Ag. 24(4):22–23. • Telek, L. and Martin, F.W. 1981. Okra seed: a potential source for oil and protein in the humid lowland tropics. p. 37–53. In: Pryde, E.H., Princen, L.H., and Mukherjee, K.D. (eds.), New sources of fats and oils. AOCS Monograph 9. American Oil Chemists Society. Champaign, IL. • Terrell, E.E. 1977. A checklist of names for 3,000 vascular plants of economic importance. Ag. Handbook 505. ARS, USDA. USGPO, Washington, DC. • Troxler, J. 1981. Intoxication mortelle de 19 genisses par la moutarde jaune (Sinapis alba L.) Sweizer Archiv Fur Tierheil Kunde 123(9):495–497. • Vaing, G. and Delille, V. 1983. design, production, and tests of a low-powered gas-driven prototype tractor for use in tropical countries. Machinisms Agricole Tropicale 81:3–43. • Watt, B.K. and Merrill, A.L. 1963. Composition of foods. USDA, ARS, Washington, DC. Agr. Handb. 8. • Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd ed. E.&S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London. • Wu Leung, Woot-Tsuen, Butrum, R.R., and Chang, F.H. 1972. Part I. Proximate composition mineral and vitamin contents of east Asian foods. In: Food composition table for use in east Asia. FAO & U.S. Dept. HEW.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 89 of 99
  • 90. ANNEXURE II GLOSSARY OF TERMS • Achene: A small dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit with tight tihin pericarp. • Acuminate: Said of an acute apex whose sides are somewhat concave and taper to a protracted point. • Acute: Sharp, ending in a point, the sides of the tapered apex essentially straight or slightly convex. • Adherent: A condition existing when two dissimilar organs or parts touch each other connivently but are not grown or fused together. • Alternate: Any arrangement of leaves or other parts not opposite or whorled; placed singly at different heights on the axis or stem. • Annual: Of one season`s duration from seed to maturity and death. • Anthesis: Flowering; strictly, the time of expansion of a flower when pollination takes place, but often used to designate the flowering period; the act of flowering. • Ascending: Rising up; produced somewhat obliquely or indirectly upward. • Attenuate: Showing a long gradual taper, applied to bases or apices of parts. • Awl-shaped: Narrow and sharp-pointed; gradually tapering from base to a slender or stiff point. • Biennial: Of 2 season duration from seed to maturity and death. • Bifid: Two-cleft, as apices of some petals or leaves. • Biotic Factor: Living components of an ecosystem. • Caducous: Falling off early, or prematurely, as the sepals in some plants. • Calyx: The outer whorl of floral envelopes composed of the sepals; the latter may be distinct, or connate in a single structure, sometimes petaloid as in some ranunculaceous flowers. • Campanulate: Bell shaped. • Capsule: A dry fruit resulting form the maturing of a compound ovary (of more than one carpel), usually opening at maturity by one or more lines of dehiscence. • Carpel: One of the folior unit of a compound pistil or ovary; a simple pistil has one carpel. A foliar, usually ovule-bearing unit of a simple ovary, 2 or more combined by connation in the origin or development of a compound ovar; a female or mega sporophyll of an angiosperm flower. • Clasping: Partly or wholly surrounding stem. • Coherent: Descriptive of two or more similar parts or organs of the same series touching one another more or less adhesively but not fused. • Cordate: Heart shaped; with a sinus and rounded lobes at the base, and ovate in general outline; often restricted to the basal portion rather than to the outline of the entire organ. • Corolla: Inner circle or second whorl of floral envelopes; if the parts are separate they are petals and the corolla is said to be polypetalous; if not separate, they are teeth, lobes, divisions, or are undifferentiated, and the corolla is said to be gamopetalous or sympetalous. • Cotyledon: Seed leaf; the primary leaf or leaves in the embryo; in some plants the cotyledon always remains in the seed coats and in others it emerges on germination.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 90 of 99
  • 91. • Culm: The stem of grasses and bamboos, usually hollow except at the swollen nodes. • Deciduous: Falling at the end of one season of growth or life, as the leaves of nonevergreen trees. • Deltoid: Triangular; deltalike. • Dentate: With sharp, spreading, rather coarse indentations or teeth that are perpendicular to the margin. • Divaricate: Spreading very far apart; extremely divergent. • Ecology: The branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment • Elliptic: Oval in outline, being narrowed to rounded ends and widest at or about the middle. • Elongate: Lengthened; stretched out. • Entire: With a continuous margin; not in any way indented; whole (may or may not be hairy or ciliate). • Germplams: The genetic material with its specific molecular and chemical makeup that comprises the physical foundation of the hereditary qualities of an organism. • Glabrate: Nearly glabrous, or becoming glabrous with maturity or age. • Glabrous: Not hairy; often incorrectly used in the sense of smooth. • Glaucous: Covered with a bloom or whitish substance that rubs off. • Glume: A small bract; in particular, one of the 2 sterile bracts at the base of most grass spikelets. • Herb: Plant naturally dying down each year; said also of soft branches before they become woody. • Hirsute: With rather rough or coarse hairs. • Hispid: Provided with stiff or bristly hairs. • Hypanthium: The cuplike receptacle derived usually form the fusion of the floral envelopes and androecium and on which are seeminlgly borne calyx, corolla and stamen; once generally accepted to have been formed solely by the enlargement or depressionof the torus; literally beneath the flower; the fruitlike body formed by enlargement of the cuplike structure and bearing the achenes on its upper and inner surface; sometimes erroneously termed the calyx tube. • Imparipinnate: Unequaliy pinnate; odd-pinnate; with a single terminal leaflet. • Indehiscent: Not regularly opening, as a seed pod or anther. • Lamina: A blade or expanded portion. • Lanceolate: Lance-shaped; much longer than broad; widening above the base and tapering to the apex. • Legume: Simple fruit dehiscing on both sides and the product of a simple unicarpellate ovary. • Lemma: in grasses, the flowering glume, the lower of the 2 bract, immediately enclosing the flower. • Ligulate: Strap-shaped, as a leaf, petal or corolla. • Linear: Long and narrow, the sides paralle or nearly so, as blades of most grasses. • Lobe: Any part or segment of an organ; specifically, a part of petal or calyx or leaf that represents a division to about the middle. • Lyrate: Pinnatifid, but with an enlarged terminal lobe and smaller lower lobes. • Mucronate: Terminated abruptly by a distinct and obvious mucro.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 91 of 99
  • 92. • Oblong: Longer than broad, and with the sides nearly or quite parallel most of their length. • Obovoid: Said of a terete solid that is obovate in outline. • Obtuse: Blunt, rounded. • Orbiculate: Circular or disc shaped, as leaf of Nelumbo. • Ovoid: A solid that is oval in flat outline. • Palea: In the grass flower, the upper of the 2 enclosing bracts, the lower one being the lemma. • Palmate: Lobed or divided or ribbed in a palmlike or hanlike fashion; digitate, although this word is usually restricted to leaves compound rather than to merely ribbed or lobed. • Panicle: An indeterminate branching raceme; an inflorescence in which the branches of the primary axix are racemose and the flowers pedicellate. • Patent: Spreading. • Pedicel: Stalk of 1 flower in a cluster. • Peduncle: Stalk of a flower cluster, or of a solitary flower when that flower is the remaining member of an inflorescence. • Perennial: Of 3 or more seasion`s duration. • Perigynous: Borne ro arising from around the ovary and not beneath it, as when calyx, corolla and stamens arise from the edge of a cup-shaped hypanthium; such cases are said to exhibit perigyny. • Petal: One unit of the inner floral envelope or corolla of a polypetalous flower, usually coloured an more or less showy. • Petiole: Leaf stalk. • Phyllotaxy: The arrangement of leaves or floral parts on their axis; generally expressed numerically by a fraction. • Pilose: Shaggy with soft hairs. • Pinnate: Feather-formed; with the leaflets of a compound leaf placed on either side of the rachis. • Pinnatifid: Cleft or parted in a pinnate. • Pinnatisect: Cut down to the midrib in a pinnate way. • Pubescent: Covered with short soft hairs: downy. • Raceme: A simple, elongated, indeterminate inflorescence with pedicelled or stalked flowers. • Scabrous: Rough; feeling roughish or gritty to the touch. • Sessile: Not stalked; sitting. • Setaceous: Bearign bristles. • Setose: Covered with bristles. • Silique: The long fruit of certain Cruciferae. • Stamen: The unit of the androecium and typically composed of anther and filament, sometimes reduced to only an anther; the pollen-bearing organ of a seed plant. • Stipel: Stipule of a leaflet. • Stipule: A basal appendage of a petiole; the 3 parts of a complete leaf are blade, petiole and stipules. • Strigose: With sharp, appressed straight haris, stiff and often basally swollen. • Sulcate: Grooved or furrowed lengthwise. • Tapering: Gradually becoming smaller or diminishing in diameter or width toward one end not abrupt. • Testa: Outer coat of a seed.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 92 of 99
  • 93. • Trifoliate: Three-leaved. • Truncate: Appearing as if cut off at the end; the base or apex nearly or quite straight across. • Unilocular: Containing a single chamber or cell. • Velutinous: Clothed with a velvety indumentum composed of erect, straight, moderately firm hairs.Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 93 of 99
  • 94. ANNEXURE III MEETINGS WITH DIFFERENT PERSONS DURING PROJECT 1. CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY: • Malik Auliya Khan Director Environment Directorate F-9, Park – Islamabad • Irfan Khan Niazi Assistant Director Environment Directorate F-9, Park – Islamabad • Malik Athar Security Guard Environment Directorate F-9, Park – Islamabad • Irfan Ahmad Nursary Incharge CDA Nursery Park Road – Islamabad 2. NATIONAL AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTRE: • Dr. Sultani Programe Incharge Range Land Research Institute NARC-Islamabad 051-9255050 • Malik Ramzan Joiya SSO Range Land Research Institute NARC-Islamabad 051-9255050 • Dr. Anwar Maqsood Director Wild Life, Islamabad NARC-Islamabad 051-9255050 (Ext.) • Khalid Rafique SO Range Land Research InstituteTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 94 of 99
  • 95. NARC-Islamabad • Zafar Ahmad Research Fellow Oil Seed Development Programme NARC, Islamabad • Muhammad Zaheer SSO NARC, Islamabad 051-9255012 (x-3101) 3. HYDROCARBON DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE OF PAKISTAN, ISLAMABAD: • Malik Sagheer Hussain Principal Scientific Officer Hydrocarbon Institute, Islamabad 051-9257821-4 (x- 113) • Dr. Shamsh Ul Haq X-Principal Scientific Officer Hydrocarbon Institute, Islamabad 051-9278380 • Dr. Ghulam Mujtaba Scenior Scientific Officer Hydrocarbon Institute, Islamabad 051-9257822 4. UNIVERSITY OF ARID AGRICULTURE, RAWALPINDI: • Dr. Muhammad Arshad Associate Professor Department of Botany University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpinid 051-9255012 (Exch) • Dr. Muhammad Sarwat Assoicate Professor University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpinid 051-9255012 (Exch) • Muhammad Moazm Nizam Assistant Professor Department of Botany University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpinid 051-9255012 (Exch)Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 95 of 99
  • 96. 5. FOREST INSTITUES: • Raja Muhammad Khalid Chief Conservative Officer Rawalpindi Division • Sajjid Qadoos Sub Divisional Forest Officer Talagang 0300-5517971 • Malik Muhammad Khan X-Superident Forest Office Mianwali 04592-31223 • Muhammad Saqib Sub Divisional Forest Institute Jehlum 0300-5517056 • Zareef Ahmad Assistant Professor Pakistan Forest Institute Peshawar • Abdul Basit Circle Office Forest Rawalpindi 6. HOLIDAY INN HOTEL, ISLAMABAD: • Izaz Ahmad HR Holiday Inn, Islamabad 051-2827311 • Ijaz Nabi Incharge Food & Beverages Holiday Inn, Islamabad 051-2827318 111-273-273 • Abdul Rehman Accountant Holiday Inn, Islamabad 051-2827320 (X-2532)Title Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 96 of 99
  • 97. 7. MARRIOTT HOTEL, ISLAMABAD: • Sultan Ahmad Cast Control 0300-5117608 • Faiz Khan Contractor Waste Material 0320-4903233 8. KFC, SUPER MARKET, ISLAMABAD: • Muhammad Zubair Manager 051-5519205 051-5580323 9. PIZZA HUT, ISLAMABAD: • Asfand Yar Manager 111-241-241 10. QUAID-I-AZAM UNIVERISTY, ISLAMABAD: • Dr. Mir Ajab Khan Assoicate Professor Department of Biological Sciences • Dr. Orang Zaib Hassan Associate Professor Department of Chemistry • Rashid Mahmood Ph.D. Scholar Department of Chemistry • Sher Khan Ph.D. Scholar Department of Chemistry • Abdul Rehman M. Phil. Department of ChemistryTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 97 of 99
  • 98. 11. ATTOCK OIL REFINERY LTD., RAWALPINDI: • Amir Khursheed Chemist 051-5487041 (X-2596) • Naveed Alam Chemist 051-5487041 (X-2596) 12. SHOPS: • Ijaz Ahmad Refreshment Center Commercial Market Rawalpindi 051-4410546 0333-5119011 • Samosa Center Faizabad, Rawalpindi • Fast Food Melody Market, Islamabad 13. CHEMICAL STORE: • Hamza Interprizer Muhammad Tanveer Hathi Chowk Rawalpindi 14. ELECTRIC OIL EXPELLERS: • Muhammad Arif & Brothers Hameed Electric Oil Expellers Village Hameed, T & D Attock 15. PAKISTAN COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, ISLAMABAD: • Dr. Muhammad Tahir Director PCSIR, Islamabad • Dr. Naseem Raouf PSO PCSIR, IslamabadTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 98 of 99
  • 99. 16. PAKISTAN RAILWAYS • Noor Muhammad Masood Khan Divisional Superitendent Rawalpindi Division • Arshad Salam Khattak Divisional Engineer Rawalpindi DivisionTitle Document No Research Report on Bio-diesel Resources 0001-100000-062-001 in PakistanOriginator Approval Date Document Issue No Page Ammad Rabia July, 2005 01 99 of 99