• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
How can we Reduce the Carbon Emissions from our Church
 

How can we Reduce the Carbon Emissions from our Church

on

  • 1,440 views

How can we Reduce the Carbon Emissions from our Church

How can we Reduce the Carbon Emissions from our Church

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,440
Views on SlideShare
1,440
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    How can we Reduce the Carbon Emissions from our Church How can we Reduce the Carbon Emissions from our Church Document Transcript

    • Guidance on Energy Efficient Operation andReplacement of Plant and EquipmentDeliverable D9 Carbon Management ProgrammeChurch of EnglandSeptember 2008
    • Table of ContentsIntroduction.................................................................................................................................. 2 This guidance document ................................................................................................... 4Churches ...................................................................................................................................... 5 How can we reduce the carbon emissions from our church? ........................................... 5 How much energy does a church use and how much carbon dioxide does this emit? .... 7 Where do we start? ......................................................................................................... 10 How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions? ............................................................... 14 Energy walk-round checklist ........................................................................................... 15 What about renewable energy? ...................................................................................... 17 Further information .......................................................................................................... 18Cathedrals .................................................................................................................................. 19 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 19 Energy and carbon dioxide emissions from cathedrals .................................................. 21 Creating an energy saving routine .................................................................................. 22 How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions? ............................................................... 25 Energy walk-round checklist ........................................................................................... 26 Renewable energy .......................................................................................................... 28 Further information .......................................................................................................... 29 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 30Clergy Homes ............................................................................................................................ 30 Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from a home ................................. 31 Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project .......................................................................... 33 How to reduce emissions from domestic properties ....................................................... 34 Good practice in domestic properties ............................................................................. 36 Tools and resources for the home occupier.................................................................... 37Schools....................................................................................................................................... 38 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 38 Schools energy use and carbon dioxide emissions ........................................................ 39 Guidance for schools ...................................................................................................... 41 Measuring the energy consumption of schools............................................................... 43 What is an energy efficient school? ................................................................................ 45 Renewable Energy......................................................................................................... 46 Further information .......................................................................................................... 47Offices48 Reducing the carbon footprint of offices ......................................................................... 48 Where is energy consumed in a typical office?............................................................... 49 A plan for reducing the carbon footprint .......................................................................... 50 Further links:.................................................................................................................... 52Appendices ................................................................................................................................ 53 Reading a meter.............................................................................................................. 53 Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment in Cathedrals and Churches.......... 57
    • GlossaryKilowatt hoursA unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour.Kilowatt hours are used to measure the amount of gas or electric that we are billed by the Utilitycompanies.Carbon dioxide (CO2)The most important greenhouse gas. CO2 emissions result from the combustion of fuel, from landuse changes (agricultural processes, deforestation etc) and from some industrial processes. CO2emissions are limited by the Kyoto protocol.Greenhouse gasesGreenhouse gases are those which contribute to the greenhouse effect when present in theatmosphere. Six greenhouse gases are regulated by the Kyoto Protocol, as they are emitted insignificant quantities by human activities and contribute to climate change. The six regulatedgases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).Emissions of greenhouse gases are commonly converted into carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)based on their 100 year global warming potential. This allows a single figure for the total impactof all emissions sources to be produced in one standard unit. Conversion factors of greenhousegas to CO2e are calculated by the IPCC and Defra publish guidance on which set of conversionfactors to use.Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)There are six main greenhouse gases which cause climate change and are limited by the Kyotoprotocol. Each gas has a different global warming potential. For simplicity of reporting, the massof each gas emitted is commonly translated into a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) amount sothat the total impact from all sources can be summed to one figure.Carbon footprintThe total set of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an individual or organisation, event orproduct. It should be expressed in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).What is green electricity?Green electricity is generated by renewable energy; sun, wind, water, the heat of the earth andwell managed forests. Usually “green” electricity is supplied to our homes and other buildingsusing the national grid by a utility company that charge for a “green” tariff.Care should be taken when considering “green” tariffs as they will be supplied on the basis of partof the electricity being generated by renewable sources. Some tariffs may also have otherenvironmental benefits and some “green” tariffs will supply electricity that has been generatedfrom 100% renewable sources.The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has announced that thecalculating of greenhouse gas emissions from “Green” tariffs should now use the same conversionfactor as the normal grid supplied electricity. For more information see the DEFRA website.Emissions conversion factorWhen calculating emissions from energy use it is common to know what quantity of energy wasused, either in kWh or by volume or mass of input material. Emissions factors enable a conversionto be made from the input measure of energy to the amount of carbon dioxide emissions that willresult. UK conversion factors for energy to CO2 are published by DEFRA.
    • Carbon OffsetAn emissions reduction, commonly resulting from a project undertaken in the developing world,which has been sold to compensate for emissions elsewhere. Offsets are commonly used to net offcorporate emissions so that an organisation can claim to be carbon neutral. See The CarbonTrust three stage approach to developing a robust offsetting strategy.Carbon neutralCommonly accepted terminology for something having net zero emissions (for example, anorganisation or product). As the organisation or product will typically have caused somegreenhouse gas emissions, it is usually necessary to use carbon offsets to achieve neutrality.Carbon offsets are emissions reductions that have been made elsewhere and which are then soldto the entity that seeks to reduce its impact. In order to become carbon neutral it is important tohave a very accurate calculation of the amount of emissions which need to be offset – requiringcalculation of a carbon footprint.Good practiceA term used in this document to indicate a building that has a low annual energy consumption persquare metre of floor area (kWh/m²). This benchmark (kWh/m²) is commonly used to comparebuildings energy consumption performance. Good practice is defined as the top 10% of a givencategory of buildings that were surveyed to produce the benchmark figure.TRVsThermostatic radiator valves are fitted to radiators or heat emitters to limit the flow of heat into aroom. They are set manually to a desired temperature and will automatically sense when thattemperature is reached and limit the flow of heat.LampsLamps are light bulbs and they are used in luminaires (light fittings) to produce light fromelectrical energy.EfficacyThis is the measure of the amount of light emitted per watt (lumens per watt or lm/W) ofelectrical power consumed by a lamp. Together with the life expectancy of the lamp figures forefficacy can provide and indication of the efficiency of the lamp.CFLsCompact fluorescent Lamps are commonly used as an energy efficient replacement fortraditional Tungsten lamps. CFLs are now produced with a range of efficacies, power ratingsand are suitable for a range of fittings and uses.The U-valueThermal transmittance (i.e. the U-value) is a measure of how much heat will pass through onesquare metre of a structure when the air temperatures on either side differ by one degree. U-values are expressed in units of Watts per square metre per degree of temperature difference 2(W/m deg C).Whole life costWhen considering the purchase of a new energy consuming appliance, piece of equipment orplant the purchaser should consider the other factors rather than just the initial cost. The wholelife cost considers the initial cost, the cost in use (energy consumption costs) for its lifespan,maybe maintenance costs and then perhaps the disposal costs. This enables a fuller picture ofcost of the appliance, piece of equipment or plant across its lifespan
    • Faber Maunsell 2IntroductionManaging and reducing energy consumption can have significantbenefits for everyone. Reducing energy consumption reduces costs,releases funds to be spent in other areas and helps to reduce thevolume of harmful greenhouse gases being released into theatmosphere. It has been calculated that the Church of England emits approximately 330,656 tonnes of carbon dioxide (tCO2) per year.Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge facing the world today. Rising globaltemperatures will bring changes in weather patterns, rising sea levels and increased frequencyand intensity of extreme weather. The effects will be felt in the UK; internationally there may besevere problems for people in regions that are particularly vulnerable.Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a givenregion experiences. The 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change (IPCC) stated that human activity is “very likely” the primary driver of theobserved changes in climate.The Church of England has an ongoing commitment to reduce the energy being consumed andthe greenhouse gas emissions that are produced. In June 2006 the Church launched Shrinkingthe Footprint, a national strategic campaign led by the Bishop of London. This project aims tochallenge and support the whole Church to shrink its carbon environmental footprint to 40% ofcurrent levels by 2050.Within the Church of England each diocese and parish has, or is in the process of developing,their own approach to tackling the issues of our climatic impact. Centrally this ongoingcommitment has so far delivered the following projects: • “Measuring our Footprint” – It undertook a national energy audit, which gathered information on the energy consumed from churches from across the nation. • In 2007 it undertook the Carbon Trust’s Carbon Management Programme • During 2008 “Greening the Spires” completed church and cathedral energy surveys • And also in 2008 with the support of the Energy Saving Trust (EST) the Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project was completed.
    • Faber Maunsell 3 Carbon Management Programme The Carbon Trust Carbon Management Programme investigates all the possible sources of carbon dioxide emissions or other greenhouse gases from an organisation. The programme then works with the organisation to identify key areas where reductions in emissions can be achieved. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Source Parsonage houses - Gas Parsonage houses - 16.4% Electricity 13.5% Church - Electricity 17.2% Offices - Gas 0.9%Offices - Electricity Church - Gas 1.1% 39.7%Palaces - Gas Church - Oil 0.3% Cathedral - Electricity 7.3% Palaces - Electricity 0.3% 1.4% Church - Other fuel Cathedral - Gas 0.0% 1.8% For the Church of England a Carbon Footprint has been estimated that covers the carbon dioxide emissions from the 16,200 churches, 43 cathedrals, around 100 offices, and roughly 13,000 clergy homes and many other buildings. In 2006 – 2007 it has been estimated that the Church of England emitted over 330,000 tCO2. Greening the Spires This project utilised Carbon Trust funding to carry out energy surveys at 24 Churches and 6 Cathedrals from 7 dioceses. At each site the opportunities for energy savings were investigated and estimations of the potential energy, carbon and financial savings were reported. The energy savings found during these investigations have been supplemented by reference and guidance documents to produce the church and cathedral guidance sections for reducing carbon emissions. Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project It is estimated that the 13,000 clergy homes emit just around 99,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. After churches this makes them the second largest contributor to the overall emissions of the Church of England. The Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project was an investigation into the possibilities for energy efficient refurbishment for clergy homes. The project was undertaken by Marches Energy Agency and run with the help of the Energy Saving Trust and some project sponsors. It investigated insulation, high efficiency boilers, renewable energy and behaviour change to create energy and carbon dioxide savings.
    • Faber Maunsell 4This guidance documentThis guidance document is aimed at people that are responsible or want to be responsible forenergy consumption, the carbon footprint and/or the environmental impacts of a building. Thesections can be used independently; they each present essential information and provide asimple plan and actions to get you started. This guidance document is split into sections foreach of the major building types within the Church of England. • Churches • Cathedrals • Clergy Homes • Schools • Offices • Appendices – references are made to the detail in this section by this information mark. o Reading your meter o Technical guidance table - Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment in Churches and Cathedrals
    • Faber Maunsell 5ChurchesHow can we reduce the carbon emissions from our church? The 16,200 churches are responsible for 65% of the total carbon dioxide emissions of the Church of EnglandCarbon dioxide emissions from churches arise from a limited number of activities. Mainlyemissions come from energy used when heating and lighting a church but at larger sites otheractivities like hot water generation, kitchen and catering activities and office energy use will alsocontribute. It should be noted that using energy, whether it is electrical energy or fossil fuels likegas, oil or coal, will result in the release of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Thisguidance document sets out information that is aimed to help each church reduce its carbondioxide emissions; • Where is energy used? • Where do emissions come from? • A plan to create a routine of energy saving • What about renewable energy? • And where you could find further information?This guidance document will link to some further information on carbon emissions and energy,reading meters and conducting energy walk rounds and guidance that include technical detailon replacement and refurbishment of energy saving appliances and plant, an information signwill indicate that further information is available.The next page shows a list of the most important actions that can be undertaken to save energyand carbon dioxide emissions. The table includes: • An indication of cost. • The expected range of energy savings as a percentage. • The cost savings from an average church.
    • Faber Maunsell 6 Top actions to reduce a typical church’s carbon footprint The table below shows the typical energy saving actions that a church could undertake and the potential savings that these could achieve. More information on these actions can be found in the Church and Cathedral Guidance Table – found in the appendix of this document. Typical energy Typical cost saving as a % of saving from Capital cost Description of action the annual heating or £ heating, electric electrical bill or total billBegin a routine of energy saving Low or no cost 5-15% total £280 totalImprove boiler controls £1-5,000 5-10%heat £300-1000heat £10-30 perInsulate hot water pipes 5%heat £200-350heat metreInstall draught proofing £200 -£5,000 2.5-10%heat £50-700heatReducing heat loss associated with £250 -£1,000 1%heat £0-100heatwindows <£100 toReplace lighting installation 3-50%electric £15-800electric £4,000Replace boiler £2-15,000 15-25%heat £200-1000heat total =this is a total energy saving electric=this is a saving from the electricity consumption heat = this is a saving from the heat consumption
    • Faber Maunsell 7How much energy does a church use and how much carbondioxide does this emit?The energy consumption of a church varies with size, age, heating type, weekly occupancy andthe community use of the buildings. It is possible to compare the energy consumptions ofchurches using the benchmarks. Benchmarks are defined by investigating the actual energyconsumption of a range of sites. This information is then compiled to indicate the energyconsumed as a Normalised Performance Indicator (NPI). Typically this is the annual energy 2consumption per square metre of floor area (kWh/ m per year) and will represent buildings thatare average performers (Typical Practice), the top 10% of performers (Good Practice).The table below shows the benchmarks established by the Chartered Institute of BuildingService Engineers (CIBSE). CIBSE have compiled energy consumption and floor areas from anumber of sites to compare churches by the amount of fossil fuel (this is most commonlynatural gas) and electrical energy. The information is presented in the volume of kilowatt hours(kWh) they consume per square metre (m²) of floor area, or kWh/m². Good Typical practice operation Fossil Fuel 80 kWh/m² 150 kWh/m² Electricity 10 kWh/m² 20 kWh/m²The typical operation benchmark is the average consumption of the sampled buildings. TheGood Practice figures indicate what could be achieved if the church that is being operatedefficiently. Fossil fuel energy used in churches, 43% of churches use natural gas and 21% use oil for heat energy.An average churchIn 2008 a series of surveys were undertaken to outline the possible energy saving opportunitiesfor the Church of England. The table below displays the average energy consumption, cost andcarbon dioxide emissions, from the church energy surveys that were undertaken. Tonnes kWh Benchmark Cost £ CO2 Fossil fuel 151,581 151 kWh/m² £4,244.27 29 tCO2 Electricity 17,339 35 kWh/m² £1,387.12 9 tCO2Energy use within a churchThe charts below show the information collected during two of the energy surveys. Energy isconsumed differently in each church and the charts show urban/suburban and rural churchenergy consumption. The rural church typically has lower energy consumption with the majorityof energy used for heating and lighting the church and associated buildings. For theurban/suburban church the size, community centre, kitchen/café, office and longer hours ofoccupation mean the energy consumption is greater.
    • Faber Maunsell 8 Rural church Urban/Suburban church and community centre Hot Water Ventilation 4% Lighting Small Power 1% Lighting 17% 12% 20% Kitchen 8% Hot Water 6% Heating 79% Heating 53% The average energy consumption of all the rural churches surveyed is less than a tenth of that used by urban and suburban churches; the average energy consumption of a rural church is approximately 13,000kWh and average energy consumption of an urban and suburban church is approximately 165,000kWh per year. What are the carbon dioxide emissions of a church? The carbon dioxide emissions from the energy use of a building or site are usually combined to create a simple carbon footprint. Below are two example simple carbon footprints for the rural and urban/ suburban churches used above. Rural church Urban/Suburban church and community centre Ventilation Hot Water Small Power 1% 7% 18% Lighting Lighting 30% 31% Kitchen 6% Hot Water 10%Heating Heating 62% 35% Comparing the charts we those on the previous page we can see that the activities using electricity contribute to a greater proportion of the carbon footprint of a building or site.
    • Faber Maunsell 9 The average carbon dioxide emissions from The average carbon dioxide emissions from the the surveyed churches surveyed churches Electricity, 9tonnes Gas, 29tonnesThe above chart shows the proportion of carbon dioxide emissions that arise from the averageelectricity and gas use of the churches surveyed. More information on carbon dioxide emissionsand creating footprints can be found on page 14.
    • Faber Maunsell 10 Where do we start? Tackling the energy consumed in a building or series building requires lots of actions to be undertaken. The plan below shows these keys actions as a routine of energy saving. Nominate someone to take responsibility of energy and CO2Create carbon footprint and Create meter reading schedule compare and record book Undertake energy walk-round – take meter reading Work through energy checklist and identify ….. A list of actions that will reduce A low carbon replacement list - emissions – actions could be when will equipment be replaced undertaken during housekeeping and would an energy efficient or part of an awareness campaign options cost extra? Create awareness campaigns – ask others to help manage the way energy is used, look for help to reduce emissions Report on the progress made: • Newsletters. • To cathedral management. • Notice boards. Create an energy policy - Integrate lower energy use and the quest to reduce emissions into the day to day running of the church More detail on these actions is contained on the following page.
    • Faber Maunsell 11Putting a plan into action • A routine of energy saving is a commitment to reducing energy consumption. Most likely you are already undertaking some if not lots of actions to manage and reduce energy consumption, i.e. using energy saving light bulbs, closing doors and turning things off. These actions should be incorporated into a plan that is carried out annually and incorporates elements that will tackle emissions from the building as a whole, see page 10. Below is some further information on the actions listed in the plan to help create a routine of energy saving. • Nominate someone to be in charge of monitoring energy consumption and to take responsibility of a programme of energy saving. This role may fit easily with the duties of the Church Warden or Parish Clergy but anyone that is interested could undertake this role. Once in place the first action that this person should undertake is to review the above plan undertake the actions. • Meter reading schedule, meter readings should be undertaken regularly (monthly, quarterly or at least annually) to monitor energy consumption, costs and help with emissions. Guidance on how to do this can be found in the appendix. Meter reading and recording energy consumption is an important part of Shrinking the Footprint. Energy information will help the Church of England measure its progress towards carbon dioxide emissions reduction. • Create a carbon footprint, use meter readings to measure the amount of energy (natural gas, electricity, oil, LPG etc) being used each year to construct a simple carbon footprint. Further guidance on how to create a carbon footprint see page 14. Each week 16,200 churches consume approximately £203,000 of electricity • Energy walk-rounds are used to establish where energy is being used, to reduce wasteful practices and to establish which appliances, equipment or plant, will need replacing. An energy walk-round is a simple tour of inspection of a building or site. Armed with a checklist, you simply walk around the church and other buildings and make a systematic visual inspection of each room and circulation areas. An energy walk-round can be carried out as part of the Church’s Calendar or Care. The inspection should note down where: • energy is being wasted (i.e. good housekeeping practices are not being followed) • repair or maintenance work is needed (to reduce energy costs) • there is a need for capital investment (to improve energy efficiency) By undertaking an energy walk round is possible to understand where energy is being used and how it can be reduced. The overall aim is to use this information to construct two separate lists: • A list of actions that will reduce emissions (Good Housekeeping). • A low carbon replacement list (Repairs and Maintenance). The energy walk-round checklist can be found on page 15 and 16. A Good housekeeping list that will reduce emissions is a simple task list. The questions on the checklist will get you started. Once you have undertaken the energy
    • Faber Maunsell 12 walk-round and completed the checklist you will be able to construct your Good Housekeeping list. A Low carbon replacement list, eventually it will be necessary to replace current appliances, equipment and plant (boilers, hot water heaters, air conditioning units). At this point the church should invest in new equipment, before doing this it should consider the energy efficiency and the longer term running costs of the equipment. Even if you have to pay more for the equipment the lower running costs usually payback on this extra investment. More information on these replacement options can be found in the appendix. Outcomes of the energy walk-rounds, including the good housekeeping and low carbon replacement lists, could be reviewed as part of the quinquennial inspections. • Create awareness campaigns. Once you worked out how much energy you are using, where you are using energy and developed an action plan it is time to bring on board support. Creating energy awareness campaigns and other schemes will help you make progress and implement your action plan. Encourage others to take part and focus on the day to day things included in the checklist. Use the actions in the checklist to get you started but ask for people’s opinions and create awareness campaigns specific for your church. The key to a good awareness campaign is to have a specific aim that you would like to achieve and to undertake the campaign for a fixed period of time, i.e. tackle heating during winter and reducing lighting during summer. Once complete replace the campaign and review your progress. • Monitor success and report. Once your programme of energy saving is up and running it is important to keep track of your progress. Monitor meter readings and awareness campaigns and report on your progress; • How effective is the awareness campaign? Do people like it? Has it achieved what was hoped? How effective have you been? • How much energy are you using? • What are the emissions from this? • What is the cost? A good place to do this would be on a notice board with a graphic display like a chart. A report could then be presented at the Annual Parish Meeting. For more information on monitoring, meter reading, and comparisons of performance look at See the appendix. • Create an energy policy to integrate this focus on energy reduction and lower carbon dioxide emissions into the day to day running of the church. The Church of England has committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions to 40% of current levels by 2050. To achieve this it will require an ongoing commitment from all areas of the church. Integrating energy saving and managing your carbon dioxide emissions into the day to day working life of the church is key to encouraging ongoing progress. An ongoing commitment is normally set out in a policy or statement. Many churches and diocese already have these and there is more information available through the
    • Faber Maunsell 13 Shrinking the Footprint website, see links section on page 18. This policy or statement can then be displayed and referred to internally when decisions need to be made and externally by the public and other organisations. Could you incorporate the themes of reducing energy consumption, reducing waste or pollution, global equality, social pressures due to changing environments into the weekly services? Could the parish be encouraged to think about their own carbon footprints? The goal would be to get the rest of the church involved and to help make the link between energy efficiency in the church, the carbon footprint, and the broader community. Perhaps you could begin this process by holding an extra PCC meeting or a special coffee morning to discuss the issues. • Repeat Once completed repeat the cycle. Undertake another walk round and complete the checklist. Reflect on previous awareness campaigns and create new ones. Once you understand your energy consumption/carbon footprint and the options for energy saving perhaps you can set a target for energy reduction?The following section gives further information on calculating a Carbon Footprint and containsan energy walk-round checklist to help get you started.
    • Faber Maunsell 14How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions?Once you know the amount of energy used, normally the annual consumption figures in kWh,calculating the carbon dioxide emissions is simple. Because carbon dioxide is released as fossilfuel is burnt it is possible to measure and calculate the volume of gas released for every kWh orlitre of energy used. The table below shows a list of carbon dioxide levels, or conversion figures,for the main fuel types. These figures are revised regularly for government and posted on theDepartment of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) website. Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, CO2 emissions by fuel type for the UK kgCO2/kWh kgCO2/litre Electricity 0.537 - Natural Gas 0.185 - Domestic Heating Oil 0.252 2.674 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) 0.214 1.495 * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.When considering action to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions it is important toconsider the relative emissions from the different types of energy we use. Investigation hasshown that approximately 43% of churches use Natural Gas and 21% use Domestic Heating Oilas their main heat source. If we compare the kgCO2 per kWh for these two fuel types we cansee that the emissions per kWh of natural gas are roughly ¾ of the emissions of DomesticHeating Oil with emissions from electricity significantly higher then both of these.Below is a worked example of calculating carbon dioxide emissions from typical energyconsumption information. Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked example *Total Energy multiplied Units kgCO2/unit emission in consumed by kgCO2Electricity kWh 55,000 x 0.537 29,535Natural Gas kWh 156,000 x 0.185 28,860Heating Oil Litres 1500 x 2.674 4,011 Total 62,406 * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000The example shows that this site emits 62.4tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbon dioxideemission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculating tool:www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htmWhen reading gas meters it is important to make a note of the unit of measurement on themeter. Some meters use cubic feet, others use cubic metres, conversion factors are listed ongas bills, more information on reading meters can be found in the appendix.
    • Faber Maunsell 15 Energy walk-round checklistDate or Survey: Undertaken by:Begin by taking meter readings. Then move from room to room noting where energy saving actions are or are not beingundertaken, make notes on the Good Housekeeping actions that could save energy.Good housekeeping actions Yes? Church Other buildingsRecord meter readings (include units, kWh,litres, m³ etc) List which building(s) the meter applies tooLightingIs lighting switched off when not required(subject to safety)?Are time clocks for external lighting correct?Is outside lighting switched off whilst there isdaylight?Have windows and lights been cleaned?Heat and Hot WaterHas the boiler or heating convectors orelectric heaters been maintained/serviced?Are curtains and blinds drawn at dusk?Are radiators (or other heat emitters) freefrom obstruction?Is draught proofing intact and working?Are the time clock(s) on the heating controllerset correctly?Are electric hot water heaters switched off atthe end of the day? oIs the hot water thermostat is set 60 C oAre thermostats set to 16 to 18 C whilst thechurch is in use?Is the church heating turned off or setback to o8 C whilst not in use?Are radiator TRVs set correctly?Kitchen actionsAre switch on/off times set correctly tominimise time unused?Are fridge, freezer and dishwashertemperatures monitored?Is electrical equipment switched off at the endof the day?General actionsIs all electrical equipment switched off at theend of the day?Are computers and I.T. appliances switchedoff when not in use? Now construct your list of Good Housekeeping actions.
    • Faber Maunsell 16Date or Survey: Undertaken by:Whilst looking at the Good Housekeeping actions that could save energy you should consider the appliances and plant andtheir replacement or maintenance. Are they low energy? How can low energy consumption be maintained? Could they bereplaced with lower energy consuming versions? EstimatedReplacement/Maintenance replacement Church Other buildings dateHeating, check -• Boiler performance/reliability• Install/repair/replace boiler controls• Install/repair/replace thermostats• Air filters on convection heaters• Install/replace pipe insulation•Lighting, check -• Lighting levels, is it dull or bright, are you using daylight?• Types of fittings and lamps, are there any efficient versions available?• Install/rearrange/reposition lighting controls•Other Electrical, check energyratings of -• Computers• Printers• Photocopiers• Fridges• Freezers• Hot water urns•General building:• Maintain door closing mechanisms• Install/repair/replace draught proofing• Install/top up insulation in appropriate roof spaces• Repair dripping taps•Other:•••••• Once completed create a list of appliances and plant that need replacing and maintaining and investigate lower energy consuming options. For more information on replacement and maintenance see the appendix
    • Faber Maunsell 17What about renewable energy?The renewable energy sources are: • The Sun • Wind • Well managed forests (i.e. wood) • Intrinsic heat of the Earth • And movement of waterThese resources can be harnessed by the following technologies: • Solar photovoltaic panels for electricity and solar flat plate panels or evacuated tubes for heat collection • Wind turbines at range of scales • Burning wood in boilers for heat (i.e. biomass heat) • Hydro turbines at a range of scales • Ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling generationThe energy output from renewable technologies is dependant on the availability of renewableresources (e.g. sun, wind) and can be impacted by site specific constraints such asovershading, ground condition and building design. Because of this, it is not possible to find asingle renewable technology solution that can be applied to all sites. Therefore selecting theappropriate renewable technology can be very complex.More information on the types of renewable energy and how to select the appropriate renewabletechnology can be found in the Renewable Energy Appraisal document. This report highlightsthe issues that need to be considered when assessing the technologies that are most suitablefor any given site. The aim is to provide guidance to individual parishes that wish to installrenewable energy technologies on their church so that they can make an informed decision andobtain the best cost benefits balance.It should be noted that energy efficiency improvements should be implemented beforeconsidering renewable energy technologies. Energy efficiency improvements in most instancesprovide a more cost effective way of saving CO2, and money than the renewable technologies This diagram illustrates the amount of energy that can Reduce be saved by different types of action and the decreasing ease with which this energy can e saved. The top of the diagram displays the easy action of turning things off, Efficiency the middle section looks to use energy more efficiently which may require some investment, the final section RE reflects the resources required to utilise renewable energy (RE) for the remaining energy or CO2 savings.Figure 0 Energy hierarchyFor more information on the use of renewable energy please see the links below.
    • Faber Maunsell 18Further informationDocumentsThe Cathedral and Church Buildings Division hold two further supportingdocuments: • Renewable Energy Appraisal • Research Report on Grant Funding AvailabilityTechnical documents for places of worship: • New Work in Historic Places of Worship, English Heritage, 2003. • Energy conservation in traditional buildings, English Heritage, 2008 • Heating your church, Bordass, W. and Bemrose, C. Church Care, 1996 - although this is focused on Parish Churches the description of heating systems and heat and humidity are useful when considering the appropriate systems for Cathedral.Christians tackling environmental issues: • How Many Light bulbs Does it Take To Change a Christian? Foster, C. and Shreeve, D Church House Publishing, 2007. • Dont Stop at the Lights: Leading your church through a changing climate, Foster, C. and Shreeve, D. Church House Publishing, 2008.WebsitesChurch Care websitewww.churchcare.co.ukChurch maintenance and repair, Calendar of Carehttp://www.churchcare.co.uk/calendar.phpShrinking the FootprintTo keep up to date on the developments with the Church of England’s progress towardsreducing its carbon footprintwww.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/church40.phpThere are also a list of links and resources available on the following pagewww.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/link_res.phpConversion factors for carbon dioxide emissions, Department forEnvironment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/envrp/conversion-factors.htmThe Carbon Trust, publications pagewww.carbontrust.co.uk/publications
    • Faber Maunsell 19CathedralsIntroductionEnergy, environmental issues and renewable energy are growing areas of concern and interestfor us all. This includes those working to operate, maintain and protect cathedrals, as reflectedin the Cathedral Fabric Commission’s Annual Report 2007. Cathedrals, although limited in thescope of refurbishment work that can be undertaken, represent a significant opportunity forsaving energy and carbon dioxide emissions. In total the 43 cathedrals in the Church of England are estimated to emit over 10,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (tCO2) a year. This is equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide emissions from over 1,800 average homes.This document has been constructed to support cathedral staff that wish to begin a structuredprogramme of energy saving. This guidance document aims to help you establish a plan toreduce the carbon footprint of the cathedral and give you some ideas about how you will goabout it. This document consists of the following sections: • Energy and carbon dioxide emissions from cathedral’s • Creating an energy saving routine • How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions? • Energy walk-round checklist • Renewable energy • Further informationThis guidance document also links into further information on reading meters and technicalinformation on the replacement of energy using equipment that may be useful when working tocreate a greater awareness with other cathedral staff.The next page shows a list of the most important actions that can be undertaken to save energyand carbon dioxide emissions. The table includes: • An indication of the capital cost. • The expected range of energy savings as a percentage. • An indication of the cost and carbon dioxide savings. • And the years that the investment may take to pay back.
    • Faber Maunsell 20The information contained in the table is based upon 6 cathedral energy surveys carried out in2008. The cost and carbon dioxide savings are calculated using the average of the energyconsumed at each of the sites visited. Average Energy Average Capital annual CO2 Description saving annual cost cost saving % saving £ (tonnes) Begin routine of None 5% total £1,850 total 12.5 total energy saving^ Insulate hot water £10-30 per 3% heat £900 - £1,800 heat 4.2 heat pipes metre Install draught £400-£1,500 2-9% heat £300 - £1700 heat 3 - 13 heat proofing Upgrade lighting 1.5 – 30% Approx £1,000 £250 – £5,700 electric 33 electric controls electric Install efficient 5 – 10% £1,500-£4,000 £900 - £1,800 heat 7 – 14 heat boiler controls heat Install energy £1,500 - 5 – 50% £950 - £9,500 electric 5.5 - 66 electric efficient lighting £100,000 electric £10,000 - Upgrade Boiler 10-15% heat £1,800 - £2,760 heat 14-21 heat £100,000 total =this is a total energy saving electric=this is a saving from the electricity consumption heat = this is a saving from the heat consumption
    • Faber Maunsell 21Energy and carbon dioxide emissions from cathedralsThe energy consumption of different cathedrals can not be directly compared due to thevariation in the size, heating systems, occupancy, lighting systems and the events heldthroughout the year. Therefore it is important for cathedral staff to record fossil fuel (generallynatural gas) and electricity consumption monthly so that they can check performance againstprevious years.In 2008 a series of surveys were undertaken to outline the possible energy saving opportunitiesfor the Church of England. The table below displays the average energy consumption, cost andcarbon dioxide emissions from the cathedrals surveyed. kWh Cost £ Tonnes CO2 Fossil fuel 740,000 £18,400 140 tCO2 Electricity 255,000 £19,000 110 tCO2 If lighting efficiency is improved at a cathedral as part of the scheduled lighting refurbishment it could create a saving of over £3,500 a year with little or no extra initial financial outlay.Carbon dioxide emissions from a cathedralThe chart below shows an approximate breakdown of the carbon dioxide emissions from acathedral. Although actual emissions may be different at each cathedral this chart gives anindication of the relative importance of each area of energy consumption. The approximate split carbon dioxide emissions from a cathedral Ventilation Small Power 1% 17% Lighting 31% Kitchen 6% Hot Water 9% Heating 36%
    • Faber Maunsell 22 Creating an energy saving routine Tackling the energy consumed in a building or series building requires lots of actions to be undertaken. The plan below shows these keys actions as a routine of energy saving. Nominate someone to take responsibility of energy and CO2Create carbon footprint Create meter reading schedule and record book Undertake energy walk-round – take meter reading and create… A list of actions that will reduce A low carbon replacement list emissions Create awareness campaigns Report on the progress made: • Newsletters. • To cathedral management. • Notice boards. Create an energy policy Putting a plan into action • A routine of energy saving is a commitment to reducing energy consumption. Most likely you are already undertaking some if not lots of actions to manage and reduce energy consumption. These actions should be incorporated into a plan that is carried out annually. Below is some further information on the actions listed above. • Nominate someone to be in charge of monitoring energy consumption and to take responsibility of a programme of energy saving. • Meter reading schedule, meter readings should be undertaken regularly (monthly, quarterly or at least annually) to monitor energy consumption, costs and help with emissions. Guidance on how to do this can be found in the appendix. Meter reading
    • Faber Maunsell 23 and recording energy consumption is an important part of Shrinking the Footprint. Recording energy information will help the cathedral and the Church of England measure its progress towards carbon dioxide emissions reduction. • Create carbon footprint, use meter readings to measure the amount of energy (natural gas, electricity, oil, LPG etc) being used each year to construct a simple carbon footprint. Further guidance on how to create a carbon footprint is on page 25. It is possible to make a 25% saving by creating a routine of energy saving and merely specifying the right energy efficient equipment upon replacement • Energy walk-rounds can be carried out as part of the normal cathedral maintenance programme. The energy walk-round checklist is an outline of the actions that need to be considered and can be used to inform any maintenance programmes already in operation. The inspection should consider the following principles where: • energy is being wasted (i.e. good housekeeping practices are not being followed) • repair or maintenance work is needed (to reduce energy costs) • there is a need for capital investment (to improve energy efficiency) By incorporating the above energy saving criteria into your inspection work you can create an ongoing focus on the energy saving performance of the building. The overall aim of an energy focused inspection or walk-round is to construct two separate lists: • A list of actions that will reduce emissions (Good Housekeeping). • A low carbon replacement list (Repairs and Maintenance). The energy walk-round checklist is included on page 26. A Good housekeeping list will help to you to create awareness raising campaigns that can be used to involve cathedral staff and visitors. The questions on the checklist on page XX will get you started. A Low carbon replacement list will help you plan investment to create energy savings and carbon dioxide emission reductions. When considering new appliances and plant it is important to consider the whole life cost (the annual energy consumption in use multiplied by the life span) as well as the initial investment. Studies into whole life costing have shown that higher capital investment for better performance usually produces long term energy savings. More information on replacement options, whole life costs and payback periods can be found in the appendix. It is especially important to consider the energy consumption performance of new appliances or plant before undertaking any programmes of works to the cathedral. Rewiring, installing new audio-visual systems and conducting lighting replacements are very important opportunities for reducing the energy consumption of a cathedral. Outcomes of the energy walk-rounds, including the good housekeeping and low carbon replacement lists, could be reviewed as part of the quinquennial inspections. • Create awareness campaigns. Creating energy awareness campaigns and other schemes will help you gain support for your work. Commonly, the outcomes of awareness campaigns are shared with building users alongside key energy consumption costs or carbon dioxide emissions to demonstrate the importance of day
    • Faber Maunsell 24 to day actions like switching off lights in areas with adequate daylight. The actions on the energy walk-round checklist are a great place to start. • Monitor success and report. Once your routine of energy saving is up and running it is important to keep track of your progress. Monitor meter readings and awareness campaigns and report on your progress; • How effective is the awareness campaign? Do people like it? Has it achieved what was hoped? How effective have you been? • How much energy are you using? • What are the emissions from this? • What is the cost? • Create an energy policy to integrate energy and lower carbon dioxide emissions into the day to day running of the cathedral. The Church of England has committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions to 40% of current levels by 2050. To achieve this it will require an ongoing commitment from all areas of the Church. Integrating energy saving and managing carbon dioxide emissions into the day to day working life of the cathedral is key to encouraging ongoing progress. An ongoing commitment should be set out in a policy or statement that is agreed and endorsed by the staff and clergy involved with managing the cathedral. At this stage it may be useful to ask for comments from relevant cathedral stakeholders or outside consultants or architects. This policy or statement can then be displayed and referred to internally when decisions need to be made and externally by the public and other organisations. • Repeat, once completed repeat the cycle. Undertake another walk round and complete the checklist. Reflect on previous awareness campaigns and create new ones. Once energy consumption and the carbon footprint of the cathedral is accepted and understood then consider setting a target for energy reduction?The following section gives further information on calculating a Carbon Footprint and containsthe Energy Walk-Round Checklist.
    • Faber Maunsell 25How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions?Use the annual energy consumption figures in kWh to calculate the carbon dioxide of thecathedral. Carbon dioxide is released as fossil fuel is burnt and it is possible to measure andcalculate the volume of gas released for every kWh or litre of energy used. The table belowshows a list of carbon dioxide levels, or conversion figures, for the main fuel types. Thesefigures are revised regularly for government and posted on the Department of Environment,Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) website. Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, CO2 emissions by fuel type for the UK kgCO2/kWh kgCO2/kWh Electricity 0.537 - Natural Gas 0.185 - Domestic Heating Oil 0.252 2.674 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) 0.214 1.495 * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.When considering actions to reduce carbon dioxide emissions it is important to consider therelative emissions from the different types of energy we use. If we compare the kgCO2 per kWhfor natural gas and domestic heating oil we can see that the emissions per kWh of natural gasare roughly ¾ of the emissions of domestic heating oil, emissions from electricity aresignificantly higher then both of these.Below is a worked example of calculating carbon dioxide emissions from typical energyconsumption information. Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked example *Total Energy multiplied Units kgCO2/unit emission in consumed by kgCO2Electricity kWh 55,000 x 0.537 29,535Natural Gas kWh 156,000 x 0.185 28,860Heating Oil Litres 1500 x 2.674 4,011 Total 62,406 * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000The example shows that this site emits 62.4tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbon dioxideemission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculating tool:www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htm
    • Faber Maunsell 26 Energy walk-round checklistDate or Survey: Undertaken by:Begin by taking meter readings. Then move from room to room noting where energy saving actions are or are not beingundertaken. Make notes on the Good Housekeeping actions that could save energy.Good Housekeeping actions Yes? Cathedral Other buildingsRecord meter readings (include units, kWh,litres, m³ etc) List which building(s) the meter applies tooLightingIs lighting switched off when not required(subject to safety)?Are time clocks for external lighting correct?Is outside lighting switched off whilst there isdaylight?Have windows and lights been cleaned?Heat and Hot WaterHas the boiler or heating convectors orelectric heaters been maintained/serviced?Are curtains and blinds drawn at dusk?Are radiators (or other heat emitters) freefrom obstruction?Is draught proofing intact and working?Are the time clock(s) on the heating controllerset correctly?Are electric hot water heaters switched off atthe end of the day? oIs the hot water thermostat is set 60 C oAre thermostats set to 16 to 18 C whilst thechurch is in use?Is the church heating turned off or setback to o8 C whilst not in use?Are radiator TRVs set correctly?Kitchen actionsAre switch on/off times set correctly tominimise time unused?Are fridge, freezer and dishwashertemperatures monitored?Is electrical equipment switched off at the endof the day?General actionsIs all electrical equipment switched off at theend of the day?Are computers and I.T. appliances switchedoff when not in use? Now construct your list of Good Housekeeping actions.
    • Faber Maunsell 27Date or Survey: Undertaken by:Whilst looking at Good Housekeeping actions consider the appliances and plant and their replacement or maintenance. Arethey low energy? How can low energy consumption be maintained? Could they be replaced with lower energy consumingversions? EstimatedReplacement/Maintenance replacement Cathedral Other buildings dateHeating, check -• Boiler performance/reliability• Install/repair/replace boiler controls• Install/repair/replace thermostats• Air filters on convection heaters• Install/replace pipe insulation•Lighting, check -• Lighting levels, are there areas that could use better daylight?• Types of fittings and lamps, are there any efficient versions available?• Install/rearrange/reposition lighting controls•Other Electrical, check energyratings of -• Computers• Printers• Photocopiers• Air conditioning systems• Over door heaters•General building:• Maintain door closing mechanisms• Install/repair/replace draught proofing• Install/top up insulation in appropriate roof spaces• Repair dripping taps•Other:• Fridges• Freezers• Other kitchen equipment• Hot water urns••• Once completed create a list of appliances and plant that need replacing and maintaining and investigate lower energy consuming options. For more information on replacement and maintenance see the appendix
    • Faber Maunsell 28Renewable energyThe renewable energy sources are: • The Sun • Wind • Well managed forests (i.e. wood) • Intrinsic heat of the Earth • And movement of waterThese resources can be harnessed by the following technologies: • Solar photovoltaic panels for electricity and solar flat plate panels or evacuated tubes for heat collection • Wind turbines at range of scales • Burning wood in boilers for heat (i.e. biomass heat) • Hydro turbines at a range of scales • Ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling generationThe energy output from renewable technologies is dependant on the availability of renewableresources (e.g. sun, wind) and can be impacted by site specific constraints such asovershading, ground condition and building design. Because of this, it is not possible to find asingle renewable technology solution that can be applied to all sites. Therefore selecting theappropriate renewable technology can be very complex.More information on the types of renewable energy and how to select the appropriaterenewable technology can be found in the Renewable Energy Appraisal document. This reporthighlights the issues that need to be considered when assessing the technologies that are mostsuitable for any given site. The aim is to provide guidance to individual parishes that wish toinstall renewable energy technologies on their church so that they can make an informeddecision and obtain the best cost benefits balance.It should be noted that energy efficiency improvements should be implemented beforeconsidering renewable energy technologies. Energy efficiency improvements in most instancesprovide a more cost effective way of saving CO2 and money than renewable technologies.Cathedrals, although historic buildings, may still be able to utilise renewable energytechnologies but you should always consult the appropriate statutory bodies.For more information on the use of renewable energy please refer to the Renewable EnergyAppraisal document, see below.
    • Faber Maunsell 29Further informationDocumentsThe Cathedral and Church Buildings Division hold two further supportingdocuments: • Renewable Energy Appraisal • Research Report on Grant Funding AvailabilityTechnical documents for places of worship: • New Work in Historic Places of Worship, English Heritage, 2003. • Energy conservation in traditional buildings, English Heritage, 2008 • Heating your church, Bordass, W. and Bemrose, C. Church Care, 1996 - although this is focused on Parish Churches the description of heating systems and heat and humidity are useful when considering the appropriate systems for Cathedral.Christians tackling environmental issues: • How Many Light bulbs Does it Take To Change a Christian? Foster, C. and Shreeve, D Church House Publishing, 2007. • Dont Stop at the Lights: Leading your church through a changing climate, Foster, C. and Shreeve, D. Church House Publishing, 2008.WebsitesCare of Cathedrals Rules 2006www.cofe.anglican.org/about/cathandchurchbuild/cathedralsguidanceEnglish Cathedralswww.englishcathedrals.co.ukChurch Care website – although not directly focused at Cathedrals there are some usefullinks and information availablewww.churchcare.co.ukShrinking the FootprintTo keep up to date on the developments with the Church of England’s progress towardsreducing its carbon footprintwww.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/church40.phpThere are also a list of links and resources available on the following pagewww.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/link_res.phpConversion factors for carbon dioxide emissions, Department forEnvironment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/envrp/conversion-factors.htmThe Carbon Trust, publications pagewww.carbontrust.co.uk/publications
    • Faber Maunsell 30Clergy HomesIntroductionClergy homes are estimated to contribute to almost a third of the total carbon footprint of theChurch of England. The 13,000 homes emit around 100,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. The average household could save around 1.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) a year by making their home energy efficientEvery year diocese surveyors inspect Clergy homes and implement renewal and refurbishmentprogrammes. These programmes include filling cavity walls and insulating lofts, installingthermostats and thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs), and installing new boilers and double orsecondary glazing as and when they can.Every five years Diocese surveyors are required to undertake a quinquennial inspection ofchurch buildings. With changing energy efficiency requirements in sold, rented and boughtproperties surveyors are beginning to look at energy consumption more closely.Earlier in 2008 the Church of England worked in collaboration with the Energy Saving Trust,Marches Energy Agency and two dioceses to undertake a programme that would identify thepotential energy savings that can be achieved through refurbishment of a range of types ofclergy homes. This project was called the Parsonages Sustainable Energy Project.This documentThis document provides information on energy saving actions for clergy homes aims. It isrecognised that across the dioceses there is a lot of knowledge of such issues and thatconsiderable work has already been undertaken. This document is aiming to draw togetheruseful information for surveyors and the incumbent clergy living in them. It contains a guidancesection that; • covers the typical energy consumption in a home, • covers the carbon dioxide emissions from a home, • gives a summary of the Parsonages Sustainable Energy Project, • lists the cost and carbon dioxide savings from a range of energy efficiency, • and provides sources of information and links for the home occupier, Clergy and diocese surveyors.
    • Faber Maunsell 31Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from ahomeGreenhouse gas emissions from a domestic building (home) arise from heating, hot water,lighting and other electrical consumption, see below. The total emissions from a household willbe somewhere in the range of 4-8 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, with the lower value beinga home most likely built after 1995. Energy consumption of an average home built circa 1975 Cooking, 6% Lights and appliances, 25% Space heating, 44% Water heating, 25%This chart shows where energy is used within a home. When we begin thinking about thecarbon footprint of a building it is important to realise that we are considering the amount andtypes of energy we use. Carbon dioxide is released from burning the fossil fuels (natural gas,coal, petrol, diesel, LPG etc) required to supply us with the heat, electrical and transport energy– the UK generated 4.7% of its electricity from renewable sources in 2006, DEFRA 2008. Thetable below show the relative carbon dioxide intensities of each of the most common energytypes used in a home. The relative carbon dioxide emissions from each unit/volume of energy kgCO2/kWh kgCO2/kWh Electricity 0.537 - Natural Gas 0.185 - Gas/Diesel oil 0.252 2.674 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) 0.214 1.495 * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.When considering action to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions it is important toconsider the relative emissions from the different types of energy we use. If we compare thekgCO2 per kWh of Natural Gas and Domestic Heating Oil we can see that the emissions perkWh of natural gas are roughly ¾ of the emissions of Domestic Heating Oil with emissions fromelectricity significantly higher then both of these. In 2006 27% (149 million tonnes) of emissions came from the energy we use to heat, light and power our homes.
    • Faber Maunsell 32Below is a worked example of calculating carbon dioxide emissions from typical energy home. Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked example *Total Energy multiplied kgCO2/uni Units emission in consumed by t kgCO2Electricity kWh 5,000 x 0.537 2,685Natural Gas kWh 30,000 x 0.185 5,550 Total 8,235 * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000The example shows that this site emits 8.2tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbon dioxideemission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculating tool:http://actonco2.direct.gov.uk/index.htmlWhen reading gas meters it is important to make a note of the unit of measurement on themeter. Some meters use cubic feet, others use cubic metres, conversion factors are listed ongas bills, more information on reading meters can be found in the appendix. To confirm yourcarbon dioxide emission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculatingtool.
    • Faber Maunsell 33Parsonage Sustainable Energy ProjectThis project provided action focused achievable examples of how the Church of England candeliver low-carbon parsonages in a practical and cost effective manner. There is a greatpotential to improve the clergy housing stock and this project demonstrated, through a series ofcase studies, what is achievable around sustainable energy in the different types of parsonagehousing and how it can be achieved. The emissions caused by passenger cars, buses and mopeds and motorcycles accounted for a 16% (87 million tonnes) of CO2 emissions in 2006The project looked at the property types in 2 dioceses and selected 8 properties from 5 housingcategories; post war housing, Hard to Treat, Inter-war, Post 1996 and one for an Eco-houseupgrade. Below is a list of the outcomes of the project.Outcomes • Six out of eight properties required loft insulation, • Four required cavity walls to be filled • Two required solid wall insulation. • Heating controls were specified as well as draught proofing and new boilers. • Energy efficient light bulbs were fitted throughout the properties. • Post war properties have the greatest potential for energy and emissions saving at the least cost. • Supplying information and guidance on energy efficiency and carbon dioxide reduction could help incumbents to reduce heating bills. • There is an opportunity for recognised training on carbon dioxide emissions and climate change to be delivered to raise knowledge levels. • There is a potential to review the procedures for the quinquennial survey to make them more rigorous with regard to managing carbon dioxide emissions from Clergy homes • There is funding available from energy supplies and manufacturers for insulation, boilers and light bulbs. Using a bulk purchasing approach will help to attract this funding. • The Parsonage Design Guide should be reviewedMore information can be obtained by contacting the Cathedrals and Church Buildings Division,Church House.
    • Faber Maunsell 34How to reduce emissions from domestic propertiesReducing emissions from domestic properties is relatively simple. There are many no costactions that should be undertaken initially to reduce energy consumption and then many easilyavailable capital investments that can provide on going savings.Ways to reduce energy consumption – no cost actionsIt is not possible to save when you are unsure how much you use – sounds obvious but veryfew people or organisations know how much energy they use and if that is more or less thanthe previous year. Therefore regularly reading meters is very important. Simply reading metersand keeping track of the amount of energy being consumed can help save money. If theoccupier is conscious of the amount of energy being consumed they invariably becomeinterested in undertaking actions to reduce energy use.Reading meters is also essential to build on the success of “measuring the footprint”. Moreinformation on reading meters can be found in the appendix. As the Church of Englanddevelops the Shrinking the Footprint it will depend upon the collection of energy consumptioninformation from a variety of building types including Clergy homes to construct an ongoingpicture of the emissions arising from the Church’s operations..No cost actions for saving energy at home are well documented. From switching off lights tofilling the kettle with enough water to make the tea or coffee required. The Energy Saving Trust10 ways to save energy and help prevent climate change. is a good resource, see this linkwww.energysavingtrust.org.uk/what_can_i_do_today/getting_startedMore guidance and information on how to save energy at home refer to the Marches EnergyAgency Parsonages Sustainable Energy ProjectWays to reduce energy consumption – capital investmentWithin the Church of England replacement and refurbishment of Clergy homes will beundertaken by the Diocese. Previous work has shown that there is an opportunity tostandardise the best options for replacement and refurbishment of clergy homes and also tocontinue sharing the knowledge gained from pervious work in each of the Dioceses.The Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) - which came into effect on 1 April 2008 andwill run until 2011 - is an obligation on energy suppliers to achieve targets for promotingreductions in carbon emissions in the household sector. Practically promotion means fundingreduced price insulation and other energy saving measures. These can be purchased directlythrough Utility companies or indirectly through larger Council and Utility run energy efficiencyschemes such as the British Gas Council Tax scheme.This and other national or regional funding scheme may help to support the work undertaken bythe Dioceses to improve the energy performance of Clergy homes.Options to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from homesThe table on the following page displays a list of the potential no cost actions and replacementand refurbishment options from homes. Beside each option the table displays the potentialannual saving in terms of cost and carbon dioxide, these figures are calculated using theaverage figures from a three bedroom detached gascentral heated property unless otherwise indicated. The Costtable also give an indication of the potential cost ofimplementing each option. No £0 Low <£100Please refer to the table to the right which explains the Medium £100 - £1,000cost savings from different options. High £1,000 - £5,000 Very high £5,000 - £12,500 very very high >£12,500
    • Faber Maunsell 35Table displaying the options to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from home Savings £s kg CO2 Cost Wall insulation * Install cavity wall insulation 70 464 Medium Install solid wall insulation (internal) 200 1376 High Install solid wall insulation (external) 220 1464 High Loft insulation * Install loft insulation to 270mm 210 1419 Medium Top up your loft insulation to 270mm 60 389 Medium Double glazing Install double glazing 40 265 High Draught proofing * Fit draught proofing 10 97 Low Floor insulation * Install floor insulation 30 173 Medium - High Tanks and pipe insulation * Fit a hot water tank jacket 30 195 Low Insulate your primary pipe work 10 64 Low Buy Energy saving recommended products Low if purchased at Fridge freezer 30 142 Medium replacement date Upright/chest freezer 20 85 Medium Refrigerator 10 48 Medium Washing machines 10 45 Medium Dishwasher 20 90 Medium Integrated Digital Television 10 45 Medium Heating * Install a condensing boiler 80 562 High Install heating controls 90 619 Low Fit energy saving light bulbs Fit energy saving light bulbs in your home 40 172 Low Simple tips * Turn down your thermostat by 1°C 30 187 No Turn appliances off and avoid standby 30 133 No Wash your laundry at 30°C 10 45 No Only boil as much water as you need 10 29 No Always turn off your lights when you leave a room 10 23 No Generate your own energy Install biomass * 180** 2880 Very high Ground source heat pumps ** 90** 1386 Very high Install a wind turbine 200 860 High - very high Install solar photovoltaics*** 400 1720 Very very high Install solar water heating**** 24 146 High Assumptions * If replacing Gas central heating, savings will be higher if system is replacing electric or oil ** assuming a gas central heating consumption of 18,000kWh/year *** assuming a 5kWp system is installed **** assuming 2 m² of installed solar thermal areaInformation taken from the Energy Saving Trust Checklist saving assumptions and the Churchof England Renewable Energy Appraisal
    • Faber Maunsell 36 Good practice in domestic properties This is an Energy Saving Trust diagram that demonstrates the areas of energy loss and the areas for potential energy savings. Figures are indicative of the potential savings. The savings generated from individual energy saving measures will vary with property type, construction, heating fuel, occupancy and the energy saving measures already installed.
    • Faber Maunsell 37Tools and resources for the home occupierEnergy Saving Trust website has lots of useful information • What can I do and how much would it save? www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/calculator/checklist • Grants and Offers for the home occupier www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/what_can_i_do_today/energy_saving_gra nts_and_offer • What can I do today? www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/what_can_i_do_todayChristians tackling environmental issues: • How Many Light bulbs Does it Take To Change a Christian? Foster, C. and Shreeve, D Church House Publishing, 2007. • Dont Stop at the Lights: Leading your church through a changing climate, Foster, C. and Shreeve, D. Church House Publishing, 2008.Information and links for surveyorsThe Cathedral and Church Buildings Division hold two further supportingdocuments: • Renewable Energy Appraisal • Research Report on Grant Funding AvailabilityMore on government funding • Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/household/supplier/Technical documents: • Energy conservation in traditional buildings, English Heritage, 2008 • Document - GPG 171 Domestic Energy Efficiency Primer. Provides a useful breakdown of housing types and gives detailed descriptions of the potential energy efficiency measures that can be installed.WebsitesShrinking the FootprintTo keep up to date on the developments with the Church of England’s progress towardsreducing its carbon footprintwww.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/church40.phpThere are also a list of links and resources available on the following pagewww.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/link_res.phpConversion factors for carbon dioxide emissions, Department forenvironment, food and rural affairs (DEFRA)www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/envrp/conversion-factors.htm
    • Faber Maunsell 38SchoolsIntroduction“Reducing energy use has many advantages for schools – it saves money,reduces carbon emissions (helping to combat climate change), improves thelearning environment and can enhance a school’s reputation.” Carbon Trust,CTV019.The Church of England is involved in the operation of over 4,000 primary schools(25%) and 200 secondary schools (6%). Although the involvement for the Church ofEngland varies between each school it is acknowledged that under Shrinking theFootprint the Church of England should begin to engage with schools on the issue ofreducing carbon dioxide emissions. UK schools release up to four million tonnes of carbon dioxide (tCO2) a year. 7% or 300,000 tonnes of these emissions could be saved through effective energy management. An average English home uses approximately 5.3 tC02.The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) discusses energysavings as a component of the push towards sustainable schools. A sustainableschool is one that is considering more than just the carbon dioxide emissions andhas a wider focus on trying to manage its overall environmental impact. The DCSFstate that a sustainable school has the following characteristics: • It conserves energy and water • It avoids the use of pollutants and potential pollutants • It takes steps to minimise the production of waste • It enhances and protects plants and wildlife • It meets local needs while respecting people and their environment.The first and most important step towards becoming a sustainableschool is managing the energy consumption of the school. This documentis intended to provide staff at the Church of England with a higher level view of theissues of energy management and reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a school.Its aim is to give a summary of the information and tools that the Church of Englandmay require to communicate with schools. This document outlines the following: • Schools energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. • The guidance available for schools. • Measuring the energy consumption of schools? • What is an energy efficient school? • Renewable energy. • Further information.
    • Faber Maunsell 39Schools energy use and carbon dioxide emissionsEnergy use in schoolsEnergy consumption will vary from school to school. Size, age, hours of occupancy,pupil numbers and the presence of sporting facilities will all affect energyconsumption. This chart displays where energy is consumed in an average school. Chart taken from the Carbon Trust report CTV019The chart shows that the main use of energy in schools is firstly for heating and thensecondly for hot water.Below is a table of benchmarks published by the Carbon Trust (GPG343, GoodPractice Guide 2005). These benchmarks demonstrate the energy consumption ofprimary and secondary school, with or without a swimming pool. Benchmarks aredefined by investigating the actual energy consumption of a range of sites. Thisinformation is then compiled to indicate the energy consumed as a NormalisedPerformance Indicator (NPI). This NPI compares a school’s energy consumption by 2floor area (kWh/ m per year).Energy benchmarks (kWh/m²) for good, typical and poorly performing schools Primary school Secondary school (no Secondary school (with (no pool) pool) pool) Fossil Fuel Electricity Fossil Fuel Electricity Fossil Fuel ElectricityGood Practice 110 25 114 28 142 29Typical Practice 157 34 160 36 187 36Poor Practice 209 47 207 45 233 41For more information on benchmarks and how to use them, see page 43Carbon dioxide emissions from schoolsCalculating the amount of carbon dioxide emissions being released from energyconsumption is relatively easy. Carbon dioxide is released as fossil fuel is burnt toproduce heat or electrical energy. Therefore it is possible to calculate the volume of
    • Faber Maunsell 40gas released for every kWh or litre of energy used. The table below shows a list ofweights of carbon dioxide emission, or conversion figures, for the main fuel types.These figures are revised regularly for government and displayed on the Departmentof Environment, Food and Rural Affairs website – www.defra.gov.uk. Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, CO2 emissions by fuel type for the UK kgCO2/kWh kgCO2/litre Electricity 0.537 - Natural Gas 0.185 - Gas/Diesel oil 0.252 2.674 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) 0.214 1.495 * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.Below is a worked example calculating the carbon dioxide emissions from typicalenergy consumption information. Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked example *Total Energy multiplied Units kgCO2/unit emission in consumed by kgCO2 Electricity kWh 55,000 x 0.537 29,535 Natural Gas kWh 156,000 x 0.185 28,860 Heating Oil Litres 1500 x 2.674 4,011 Total 62,406 * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000The example shows that this site emits 62.4tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbondioxide emission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprintcalculating tool:www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htm
    • Faber Maunsell 41 Guidance for schools There are a lot of publications and guidance documents that have been produced to help schools reduce emissions and energy consumption. This document focuses upon two documents, one produced by the Carbon Trust that focuses on energy management in a school, and another produced by the Department for Children, Schools and Families, this document outlines actions that should be undertaken to make a school sustainable. • CTV037: A whole School Approach – Management Guide. Carbon Trust, 2008. • A bursar’s guide to sustainable school operations, DfES 2007. These documents are not exhaustive. But it is possible for a school to gain most of the information they need to implement a simple energy/carbon management programme whilst gaining a basic understanding of the technical issues associated. Further links and information can be found on page 47. Diagram displaying the basic elements of energy/carbon management programme Church of England School – energy championCirculate guidance from Carbon Trust and DFCS Policy – energy, climate change etc Read meters and undertake energy efficient actions Create awareness campaigns Have an energy efficient replacement and maintenance programme in place Report on the progress made: • Newsletters. • To cathedral management. • Notice boards. Above is a flow diagram showing the input of information into a school and the basic elements of energy/carbon management that a school should have in place. For the Church of England to continue making progress towards its goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions it will
    • Faber Maunsell 42require communication with schools to understand their emissions and the work that they areundertaking to reduce them. To enable this to happen the schools must have undertaken thefollowing initial steps.Initial steps for schools and the Church of EnglandCommunicationThe Church of England must initially set up communication channels with schools to discussenergy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.Energy ChampionsThe Church of England must encourage the schools to nominate an energy champion. Theenergy champion will oversee the monitoring of energy consumption and take responsibilityfor a routine of energy saving. This role may fit easily with the duties of the Facilities Manageror Head Teacher or interested Governor.Collecting good (actual) energy informationThe schools should be encouraged to begin meter reading and recording energy consumptionas an important foundation action. Energy information will also help the Church of Englandcommunicate with schools about carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Schools should beginby creating a Meter Reading Schedule, meter readings should be undertaken regularly(monthly, quarterly or at least annually) and energy consumption should be discussedregularly to monitor energy consumption, costs and help with emissions. Guidance on how todo this can be found in the appendix.Circulate guidance informationOnce contact has been made with schools it should be possible to establish which havealready undertaken work and which need some guidance. Circulate guidance documents tothe Energy Champions and encourage them to communicate back.Once the above actions have been put in place and reliable energy information is beingcollected it is possible to communicate with schools about energy consumption. Lots ofschools will have many examples of the work that they have been undertaking and this willcompliment the energy information and calculated carbon dioxide emissions that they arecollecting.
    • Faber Maunsell 43Measuring the energy consumption of schoolsHow can a school reduce its energy consumption and resultant carbon dioxide emissions? Howdo you compare their performance and is the school performing well, bad or somewhere in themiddle?Comparing the energy performance and emissions from schools should be undertaken via avariety of methods by an energy management professional. This section outlines some of thebasic principles used in the Carbon Trust document CTV037: A whole School Approach –Management Guide.Note: Trends in energy consumption can fluctuate greatly over a year and from one year to thenext. Care should be taken when considering the energy consumption information from a site.BenchmarksAs seen previously benchmarks are defined by investigating the actual energy consumption ofa range of sites. This information is then compiled to indicate the energy consumed as aNormalised Performance Indicator (NPI). Typically this is the annual energy consumption per 2square metre of floor area (kWh/ m per year) and will represent buildings that are averageperformers (Typical Practice), the top 10% or performers (Good Practice) and those using toomuch energy (Poor Practice). Other NPIs can use energy costs or energy consumption perpupil per year.Below is a table of benchmarks published by the Carbon Trust (GPG343, Good Practice Guide2005). These benchmarks were chosen because they split between primary and secondaryschool with or without swimming pool. Other benchmarks have also been published byorganisations such as the Charted Institute of Building Service Engineers (CIBSE). 2Comparing a school’s energy consumption by floor area (kWh/ m per year) to the benchmarkis a quick way to establish the potential energy savings available if energy saving good practicewas undertaken. Energy benchmarks (kWh/m²) for good, typical and poorly performing schools Primary school (no Secondary school Secondary school pool) (no pool) (with pool) Fossil Fuel Electricity Fossil Fuel Electricity Fossil Fuel Electricity Good Practice 110 25 114 28 142 29 Typical 157 34 160 36 187 36 Practice Poor Practice 209 47 207 45 233 41The benchmarks for schools and industrial buildings are currently being reviewed as part of thegovernment’s implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.Reasons for fluctuations in energy consumptionIf the school’s energy performance differs greatly from the benchmarks, don’t become tooalarmed. Many factors can cause differences to the levels of recorded energy consumption,See below:• Occupancy levels When comparing schools by kWh/pupil, in general, the more efficiently a school utilises its space, the lower its energy costs per pupil.• Additional facilities. Additional facilities such as swimming pools, sports halls, and on site catering and media centres can result in a significant increase in energy consumption.
    • Faber Maunsell 44• Age of school The influence of age is less pronounced. Older schools aren’t always higher energy consumers. However, a higher than average proportion of the better energy performers are newer schools.• Hours of use Extending the hours of use will increase energy consumption. Two hours a day of extra use is likely to increase annual energy costs by about 10%.• Size of school It has been shown that larger schools tend to be more energy-efficient per square metre or per pupil.Performance Matrix ToolOnce an organisation or site is aware how much energy is consumed, the next step is todiscover how they can improve their efficiency.The Carbon Trust has developed a Performance Matrix tool which can help assess thestrengths and weaknesses across six main areas of energy management, these six areasshould be considered to be key pillars for building a strong sustainable school:• Policy – what commitments has the school made?• Organisation – whose job is it to manage energy at the school?• Training – are staff aware of the issues and their role in tackling them?• Performance measurement – what systems are in place to give you the data needed?• Communication – are staff, pupils, parents and the Board interested in reducing the school’s carbon footprint? Do they know what to do? What has been achieved?• Investment – spending money on energy saving programmes and equipment can pay back. Does the school make the most of investments?This is a very subjective tool that can be filled out quite simply be someone that has experienceof energy management. It could be used by schools to give them an overview of the systemsand mechanisms that they may already have in place or that they may want to try andimplement.Figure 1 Example of completed Energy Management MatrixFor more information see the Carbon Trust report, CTV037: A whole School Approach –Management Guide
    • Faber Maunsell 45What is an energy efficient school? An energy efficient school….Shows Responsibility and Commitment by.. 1. Creating an Energy Policy 2. Undertaking Regular Energy Walk-Rounds 3. Recording and Reporting collected information 4. Monitors occupancy, heating times and lighting 5. Having a policy of low carbon and energy efficient purchasing Uses heat efficiently, it…. 1. Delivers heat only when it is needed 2. Checks thermostats and time clocks regularly 3. Keeps all ventilation and heating systems clear and unobstructed 4. Maintains boilers and insulates hot water pipes 5. Has an efficient boilerKeeps heat in/out of the building by… 1. Checking and maintaining insulation 2. Using improved glazing to stop heat transfer 3. Drawing blinds each evening 4. Regularly checking the building for damp Reduces energy from lighting by… 1. Replacing failing lamps with energy efficient versions 2. Labelling light switches so that lights not needed can be easily switched off 3. Having a culture of switching off when not needed 4. Installing automated lighting controls in common areasManaging energy consumed in swimming pools by… 1. Using a pool cover 2. Scheduled backwashes 3. Maintaining correct pool and air temperatures 4. Using heat recovery of ventilation air 5. Potentially using solar water heating or combined heat and power boilerFor a full list of good practice energy and other sustainability actions see:“A bursar’s guide to sustainable school operations, DfES 2007”. It can be accessedfrom the Department for Children, Schools and Families www.dcsf.gov.uk
    • Faber Maunsell 46Renewable EnergyThe renewable energy sources are: • The Sun • Wind • Well managed forests (i.e. wood) • Intrinsic heat of the Earth • And movement of waterThese resources can be harnessed by the following technologies: • Solar photovoltaic panels for electricity and solar flat plate panels or evacuated tubes for heat collection • Wind turbines at range of scales • Burning wood in boilers for heat (i.e. biomass heat) • Hydro turbines at a range of scales • Ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling generationThe energy output from renewable technologies is dependant on the availability of renewableresources (e.g. sun, wind) and can be impacted by site specific constraints such as overshading, ground condition and building design. Because of this, it is not possible to find a singlerenewable technology solution that can be applied to all sites. Therefore selecting theappropriate renewable technology can be very complex.More information on the types of renewable energy and how to select the appropriaterenewable technology can be found in the Renewable Energy Appraisal document. This reportis aimed at churches but is useful for highlighting the issues that need to be considered whenassessing the technologies that are most suitable for any given site.It should be noted that energy efficiency improvements should be implemented beforeconsidering renewable energy technologies. Energy efficiency improvements in most instancesprovide a more cost effective way of saving CO2, and money than the renewable technologies
    • Faber Maunsell 47Further informationThe Church and Cathedral buildings division hold two further supportingdocuments: • Renewable Energy Appraisal • Research Report on Grant Funding Availability“A bursar’s guide to sustainable school operations, DfES 2007”.The Department for Children, Schools and Families has lots of information and links onSustainable Schools. www.dcsf.gov.ukCarbon Trust and good practice guidance documents • CTV037: A whole School Approach – Management Guide • GPG343, Good Practice Guide 2005Carbon Trust carbon footprinting page could help to establish the basic footprint of aschoolwww.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htmDepartment for Environment, Food and Rural AffairsThe DEFRA website has lots of link and information about climate change and carbondioxide emissions as well as other sustainability issueswww.defra.gov.uk
    • Faber Maunsell 48OfficesReducing the carbon footprint of officesWhen we begin thinking about our carbon footprints it is important to realise that we areconsidering the amount and types of energy we use. Carbon dioxide is released from burningthe fossil fuels (natural gas, coal, petrol, diesel, LPG etc) required to supply us with the heat,electrical and transport energy that we require.Energy use is one of the main controllable overheads in office buildings. By utilising simple andcost effective measures it is possible for an office to reduce energy bills by as much as 20%. Inorder to put such measures into practice it is important to: • Know where energy is currently being used on site. • Understand where best to focus energy saving attention. • Know what can be done internally. • Understand when it will be necessary to seek outside technical assistance.Top actions for energy saving Action Completed? SavingsInstall daylight sensors (photocell controls) to switch off 20% of lightinglighting near windows on brighter days. costsReplacement tungsten lamps and old Fluorescent tubeswith energy efficient lamps to reduce energy and 75% ofmaintenance costs. tungsten lighting costsSwitch to Compact Fluorescent Lamps and T5 fluorescenttubes.Set a ‘dead band’ between heating and air conditioningcontrol temperatures to avoid them operating at the same 10% of heatingtime. and cooling o o • Heat to 19 C and cool to 24 C. costs • Regularly ensure that thermostats are set correctly.Turn off unnecessary equipment during the day and 5% of energyespecially out of hours to reduce heat build-up and costsunnecessary electrical costs.Check insulation levels and increase wherever practical to 5% of energyreduce heating and cooling requirements. costsComplete a regular walk round of your office and complete 5% of heatingenergy saving checklist - check time, temperature settings costsand switch things off.Create an ongoing regular energy saving routine – see plan This will help tobelow achieve those listed above.
    • Faber Maunsell 49 Where is energy consumed in a typical office? Energy use in an office is typically expended upon heating, lighting, office equipment, air conditioning and hot water. The following chart offers an example of an energy use breakdown within a typical naturally ventilated (non air conditioned) office. Energy Consumption from a Type 2 Good Practice Office Other electricity 3% Computer Room Catering electricity 0% 2% Gas/oil heating and hot Office Equipment water 15% 59% Lighting 17% Humidification 0% Fans, pumps and controls 3% Catering Gas Cooling 0% 1% The chart above shows the energy consumption of a naturally ventilated 2 office In general the main areas of energy consumption in an office are: 1. Air Conditioning – greatest energy requirement (where an office has air conditioning) nd 2. Heating – 2 greatest energy requirement in an air conditioned office space 3. Office equipment – Computers, printers, photocopiers, personal small power 4. Lighting – roughly the same as office equipment, depends on office. 5. Hot Water – smallest energy requirement Comparing the energy consumed in an office Benchmarks are defined by investigating the actual energy consumption of a range of sites. This information is then compiled to indicate the energy consumed as a Normalised Performance Indicator (NPI). Typically this is the annual energy consumption per square metre 2 of floor area (kWh/m per year) and will represent buildings that are average performers (Typical Practice), the top 10% or performers (Good Practice) and those using too much energy (Poor Practice). The table below shows the energy benchmarks for the four types of office building.Energy benchmarks (kWh/m²) for good and typical performing offices by type Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Fossil Fossil Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Fuel FuelGood 79 33 79 54 97 128 114 234PracticeTypical 151 54 151 85 178 226 210 358Practice Table 1 Good practice and typical energy use indices examples for the four office types
    • Faber Maunsell 50When considering if an office’s energy consumption and costs are reasonable the aim should 2be to meet an energy consumption per treated floor area (kWh/m ) figure that is equivalent too(or even better than) the good practice figure for your office type.For more information on benchmarks and office types see ECG019, this document is listed inthe Further Links section at the end of the document. ECG019 is due for updating and mayunderestimate the contribution of I.T. equipment to the overall energy consumption. This shouldbe kept in mind when using this document for reference.A plan for reducing the carbon footprintManaging the emissions from an office may focus more on how energy is used rather than howenergy efficient the equipment is. Offices generally function as part of or perhaps the whole of abuilding and are heated, have hot water supplied, cooled and lit by central systems that may bemore difficult to change.The aim of this section is to help you establish a plan for an energy saving routine to reduce thecarbon footprint of the office.Implementing a plan and making progress will be dependent on the following actions beingundertaken: • Nominating someone to be an energy champion • Understanding the energy consumption of the office – recording energy consumption, monthly, quarterly or annually. There may be problems doing this as the office may be a part of a larger building with other tenants. In this case you will need to work with the landlord or facilities managers to try and work out your energy consumption. Actual meter readings are best. For more information on reading meters please see appendix. • Creating a carbon footprint • Undertaking regular energy walk-rounds of the office • Creating awareness campaigns to engage staff • And reporting progress to engage senior management and maintain supportUnderstand the energy saving opportunitiesA successful programme to reduce the carbon footprint of an office needs to focus on the fivemain categories of energy consumption listed in the above section and it should consider thefollowing energy saving opportunities for each: • Maintenance – Proper maintenance of equipment can ensure efficient operation maximising the output of the energy consumed • Control - Switching off equipment when not in use, • Replacement/Refurbishment – Energy saving systems should be considered whenever a system is replaced or a building is being refurbished, there may be an alternative for the same cost or for a small extra investment that will produce noticeable energy savings.The following page has an example of what an energy saving routine wouldlook like.
    • Faber Maunsell 51 An example plan Below is a flow chart illustrating a potential plan for how you can begin a process of identifying and tackling energy saving opportunities. Nominate someone to take responsibility of energy and CO2Create Carbon Footprint and Create meter reading schedule compare and record book Undertake energy walk-round – take meter reading A list of actions that will reduce A low carbon replacement list - emissions – actions could be when will equipment be replaced undertaken during housekeeping and would an energy efficient or part of an awareness campaign options cost extra? Create awareness campaigns – encourage others to help manage the way energy is used. Report on the progress made: • Newsletters. • To cathedral management. • Notice boards. Create an energy policy – Set a target for reduction of energy consumption or to increase energy saving behaviour Energy saving work in offices is well documented with many supporting documents provided. This document has taken the basic structure of implementing an energy saving routine whilst giving some background information on where energy is consumed in an office. Development of an energy saving routine can use build on this information and utilise the links, documents and resources listed in the next section.
    • Faber Maunsell 52Further links:Useful reference documents • CTV007: Office Based companies – Maximising energy savings in an office environment • CTG001: Creating an awareness campaign – Energy awareness in your business • GG256 - Green Officiency: Running a cost effective environmentally aware office • ECG019: Energy use in officesWebsites • www.carbontrust.co.uk • www.envirowise.gov.uk • www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bulk_purchasing.bus_purchasing#co mapp - Energy Star website is a U.S. government based standard with lots of information on office equipment • www.sust-it.net – This is an independent site covering the energy consumption and other details of I.T. equipment
    • Faber Maunsell 53AppendicesReading a meterFrequency of meter readings and data collectionKeeping an accurate record of Meter Readings is an important part of managing energyconsumption.It is recommended that meter readings should be taken at intervals (monthly, quarterly orannually at least) by everyone, incumbent clergy in their home, church wardens, officemanagers and anyone else responsible for a building. This information is going to be requiredto continue the progression of Shrinking the Footprint.The following tables are an example of how meter data can be collated. Energy champions areencouraged to develop tables based on their own data collection needs:Weekly Electricity/Gas Meter Readings Month This example table shows how you can collect the Week 1 energy consumption from Present Previous Diferrence several meters on the same sheet. ByMeter 1 subtracting the presentMeter 2 from the previous you canMeter 3 establish the difference orMeter 4 the energy consumption from that period.Meter 5 Total It is recommended that gas and electric readingsRepeat above table as needed are kept separate.Monthly Consumption DataSite This table demonstrates how you canLocation compile the energy consumption figuresMonth from a given period. Meter numbers 1 – 5 relates to the table above.Total Electricity/Gas Consumption In this table you will insert the energy consumption figures for each meter.Meter 1 kwhMeter 2 kwhMeter 3 kwhMeter 4 kwhMeter 5 kwhOther useful information to be recordedGas conversion factor cost p/kWh
    • Faber Maunsell 54Reading energy metersIt is important to be able to identify the different types of energy meters to ensure that accuratereadings are taken. Below the meters are split into their types and guidance on how to readthem is given.N.B. all meters will have a unique identity that should appear on your bill. This is usually a ten digit number located onthe meter. This number is different for gas and electricity meters.Gas = Meter Point Reference Number (MPRN)Electricity = Meter Point Administration Number (MPAN)Electricity metersThe type of meters used will vary from premise to premise. The meter will either be analogue ofdigital and will generally fall into one of three categories of electricity metering; • Standard meters, • Variable rate meters, • Prepayment meters.Electricity analogue (single and dual rate) • To read an analogue single or dual rate meter, simply write down the numbers shown from left to right. • On a dial meter (see blue diagram) the dials rotate anti clockwise and clockwise. Therefore you should the numbers on each dial and read in the appropriate direction. • Make sure to write down any zeros, including any at the start of the reading. Ignore any red figures or the red dial. • Make a note of the two sets of numbers and observe the meter for rate 1 or rate 2. • To find out how many units you have used since your last reading, subtract the previous reading from the new one.NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost perkWh charged.
    • Faber Maunsell 55Electricity digital (single and dual rate) • To read a single or dual rate digital meter, simply write down the numbers shown from left to right as they appear. The digital display may require you to press a button to activate or the display may cycle through a series of numbers automatically. • Make sure you write down any zeros, including any at the start of the reading. Ignore any red figures. • A dual rate metre will normally give an indication, something like “R1 or R2”, of which rate is being displayed. • To find out how many units you have used since your last reading, subtract the previous reading(s) from the new one – for dual rate meters add both figures together to get the total.NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost perkWh charged.N.B. Definition, kilowatt-hour (kWh): The amount of energy used by a load of one kilowattover the period of one hour
    • Faber Maunsell 56Gas meter typesThe type of meters used will vary from premise to premise. The meter will either be analogue ofdigital and will generally fall into one of two categories of gas metering; • Credit meters • Prepayment metersThe following table explains the key differences between both:Gas analogue • To read an analogue meter, simply write down the numbers shown from left to right. • Make sure you write down any zeros, including any at the start of the reading. Ignore any red figures. • Note the units of measurement 3 used by the meter – cubic feet (ft ) 3 or cubic metres (m ) • To find out how many units you have used since your last reading, subtract the previous reading(s) from the new one • Convert units into kWh by using the information printed on your gas bill or gas supplier website.NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost perkWh charged.Gas digital • To read an analogue meter, simply write down the numbers shown from left to right. • Make sure you write down any zeros, including any at the start of the reading. Ignore any red figures or any figures after a decimal point. • Note the units of measurement 3 used by the meter – cubic feet (ft ) 3 or cubic metres (m ) • To find out how many units you have used since your last reading, subtract the previous reading(s) from the new one • Convert units into kWh by using the information printed on your gas bill or gas supplier website.NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost perkWh charged.For further information on reading a meter please contact your energysupplier or visit their website.
    • Faber Maunsell 57Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment inCathedrals and ChurchesContinuing to make progress on energy and carbon saving requires a move towards energyefficient or low carbon equipment and plant. The aim of this document is to reduce carbonemissions through enabling lower carbon options to be selected as part of thereplacement/maintenance process. This document lists; • the principles of purchasing, • Organisations providing information on buildings, energy using plant and efficient operation • Replacement/Maintenance Options – table of guidanceGuidance on principles of purchasingBelow are a set of questions that everyone should ask before deciding to buy a product orservice.What do we buy and how much carbon does it emit?We need to think about the things that we buy and generally how much energy or fuel they useand therefore the carbon they are responsible for emitting. If we are uncertain about this weneed to start to look into where we might find information about this.What can suppliers provide in terms of information about carbon emissions and runningcosts?We need to start the process of asking suppliers to provide details of the energy use andcarbon emissions of equipment and services. We also need to think about how we might startthe process of making this a requirement in the future for those who supply us.In terms of carbon efficiency, what does good practice look like?We need to begin to identify where information about good practice in terms of energy orcarbon efficiency can be found. For example the Government’s Enhanced Capital AllowanceScheme (ECA) website provides criteria for good carbon performance for a range of plant andequipment. We need to aim to be able to compare our buying options with good practice.What factors do we currently consider when making our buying choice?Once we have the key information, we need to start to take energy use in operation andassociated running costs into account as part of the buying decision. We might want toestablish for example a payback period of 3 or 5 years whereby the lower carbon option couldbe chosen. We might want to consider also establishing criteria which will aim to only procureequipment or services that performs well compared with good practice, if costs are comparable.
    • Faber Maunsell 58Organisations providing information on buildings, energy using plant andenergy/carbon efficient operationIn order for this to be done the individual or organisation wishing to replace/maintain plat orequipment must be able to identify what is most efficient. There are several organisationsworking within the UK, Europe and internationally that provide updated lists of products andother tools to evaluate the energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of purchases.The following list has been compiled to provide you with further sources of information onenergy efficiency. It contains reliable links to organisations that offer further information onenergy efficiency, energy efficient suppliers and the latest energy saving ideas:General advice on energy reduction and carbon dioxide emissionThe Carbon Trust – www.carbontrust.co.ukThe Carbon Trust is a government funded not for profit organisationthat via the website or a free phone number can provide guidance andresources to help reduce energy and carbon emissions. It will helpbusiness, the public sector and charitable organisations on all aspectsof carbon management and energy reduction.Historic buildings.English Heritage – www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.18525This link takes to a section of the English Heritage website that provides links to advice onclimate change and the historic environment and on the implications of adaptive responses andmitigation, including policies on renewable and low carbon energy.Products for the office and other commercial buildings – includes boilers, airconditioning, catering and lightingEnhanced Capital Allowance – www.eca.gov.uk/etlWhen thinking about purchasing energy consumingequipment the first place to look is the Enhanced CapitalAllowance (ECA) website. This web site has beenproduced by the Carbon Trust, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs(DEFRA) and the Inland Revenue, to provide information about energy efficient products. TheECA Scheme enables businesses to claim 100% first year capital allowances on investments inenergy saving technologies and products and provides the Energy Technology List thatprovides detailed information on the products that meet those eligibility criteria.Eurovent Certification scheme – www.eurovent-certification.comEurovent Certification tests and confirms the performance ratings of air-conditioning and refrigeration products according to European andInternational Standards. The objective is to build up customer confidence bylevelling the competitive playing field for all manufacturers and by increasingthe integrity and accuracy of the industrial performance ratingsThe certification programme covers products that provide; air conditioning,refrigeration for air, refrigeration for products, warming for air.Seasonal Efficiency Database United Kingdom (SEDBUK) - www.sedbuk.comSEDBUK was developed under the Governments Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programmewith the co-operation of boiler manufacturers, and provides a basis for fair comparison of theenergy performance of different boilers.
    • Faber Maunsell 59Products for the home, kitchen, office and other commercial buildings.Energy Star – www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bulk_purchasing.bus_purchasing#comappENERGY STAR is a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyand the U.S. Department of Energy that awards the Energy Star rating to productsthat perform to specific energy consumption criteria. The Energy Star websiteproduct and purchasing page has a range of commercial and residentialproduct categories including Commercial Appliances, Commercial Food Service,Commercial Heating & Cooling, Construction Products, Electronics, OfficeProducts, Residential Appliances, Residential Heating & Cooling and Residential Lighting. The site hasapproved product lists for each product category and also some tools to help calculate potentialsavings - this is a US tool so it can only be used as a guide to the energy efficient option.Standards for building fabric and operational efficiency – Commercial and Domestic.Building Regulations – www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/buildingregulationsThe Communities and Local Government website publishes the most up todate versions of the building regulations. Part L2A and 2B refer to theconservation of fuel and power in non domestic dwellings and provide aminimum standard for the building fabric. Significant developments havebeen made in this area over recent years with improvement now certain to be driven by the EUEnergy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Best Practice is currently closely linked to theBuilding Regulations and the criteria set out in the BRE environmental assessment method. Thismay change as the EPBD comes begins to be implemented.Domestic Buildings. – guidance for making your home energy efficientEnglish Heritage – www.climatechangeandyourhome.org.uk/live/Climate Change and Your Home is an interactive web portal designed specifically to help thosewho own or manage houses built of traditional construction understand more about thepotential impacts of climate change and ways to save energy. It is sponsored by Eon.Energy Saving Trust – www.energysavingtrust.org.ukThe Energy Saving Trust is a non-profit organisation that provides free impartial advice tailoredto the home owner. The site includes information about how to save energy in the home andcommunity and also from purchasing energy saving products.
    • Faber Maunsell 60 Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment in Cathedrals and Churches – technical guidance table The tables on the following pages go into more detail on the technical issues around some of the key replacement/maintenance areas to ensure lower carbon operation of a church or cathedral.replace/maintain Energy Saving Action Why? How? More informationA routine of energy saving Having the church heated to the correct Use thermostatic controls to keep the church NOTE temperature can protect against damp heated to a lower temperature of 8-10oC, These are the suggested temperatures for a ingression as well as reduce energy increase to 16-18oC when due to be occupied. larger church that takes time to heat up and is wastage and emissions. in frequent use. / Temperature monitoring Where a church is in frequent use requiring areas to be heated to a level Guidance documents • New Work in Places of Worship, English suitable for occupation then it may be Heritage, 2003. Available from website. more efficient to keep the church heated • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of to a lower temperature which is increased Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing. when due to be occupied. Managing energy consumption allows you Guidance documents to do the following: • Nominate a person responsible for energy • CTV023 Practical Energy Management, and carbon dioxide emissions Carbon Trust, 2007. Available from website. • Understand where and how energy is • Read meters • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of / Energy Management being used • Identify areas where you can reduce • Collect information Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing. • Undertake energy walk rounds energy consumption and save money • Report on performance • Confirm whether energy-saving measures are workingHeatingreplace/maintain Energy Saving Action Why? How? More information Insulating pipes can reduce heat energy Wrap hot/cold pipes and joints in insulating Costs Insulate hot water pipes, loss from the pipe by 70%. This can save sleeves. Insulating will cost between £10 and £40 per around 5% of the heating bill, depending meter. / include valves and joints on the pipe length involved Pipe insulation is cheap and easy to fit. But professional help may be required for larger pipe runs and difficult to reach areas. Windows transfer heat from surface to Below are a list of ways to reduce the heat loss Technical Improve glazing thermal / performance surface well. This means that during the winter heat will pass out of a building from a window with the rating for heat transferral (U Value) The lower the figure the The use of double glazing or secondary glazing will not be appropriate for many historic
    • Faber Maunsell 61 quicker through a window than through a better the insulation properties. buildings. The will affect the appearance, have wall. This leads to heat loss, condensation At dusk close: a high cost and produce low energy savings. It and draughts. • Shutters - ~ 3.0 W/m2/oC is also worth noting that English Heritage • Curtains – 3.6 W/m2/ oC states “No historic window can reach the U- Energy savings will vary depending on the Install: values recommended in Part L (i.e. 2.0 – 2.2 2 type of window and the action taken to • Thermally lined curtains – unknown W/m deg C)”. improve the thermal performance. but better (lower) than above • Secondary Glazing (where Guidance documents • Single glazed windows are rated appropriate) ~2.9-3.4 W/m2/ oC • Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings, at 4.8 W/m2/ oC • Double Glazed low emissivity (where English Heritage, 2008. Available from • Double glazed windows are appropriate) 2.0 W/m2/ oC website. rated at ~ 2.8 W/m2/ oC • CTV014 - Building fabric technology overview, Carbon Trust, 2007. Available from website. • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing Correct control of heat delivery can reduce Speak with your boiler/heating engineer during Guidance documents the energy use by 5 – 25% per year. its next service. • CTG02 - Heating control technology guide, • Does it have controls already fitted? Carbon Trust, 2006. Available from website. Controls can only produce savings when • Are they used? • GIL124 - Heating Fact Sheet, Carbon Trust, the user understands them and is • If there are no controls could you building 2005. Available from website confident in their use. benefit from better controls for the boiler? • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing. Ask about installing the following options: • Internal temperature controls allow the Boiler Install/Improve boiler correct temperature in each room. • External temperature compensation could controls controls be installed to ensure the boiler is regulated according to external temperatures (more heat on colder days and less when milder). • Boiler sequence controllers ensure that the boilers are operating at optimum efficiency. • Optimum start/stop controllers. These controls ensure that the boilers are switched on for the minimum amount of time before and after the building is occupied ensuring that the building is at the right temperature. New boilers typically achieve efficiencies Speak with boiler/heating engineer and assess Technical of 80%. Condensing gas and oil boilers performance of current boiler. Ensure that quotes contain information that can exceed 90%. describes the size of the boiler to be installed, If over 15 years old consider it as a priority for the efficiency of the boiler, warranty details, near future – ear mark funds. Replace when boiler controls, thermostatic controls, potentialIn efficient Replace Boiler It is likely that a boiler over 15 years old is not very efficient and is due for appropriate servicing costs and details of how the contractor has tried to reduce the energy or poorly replacement. Savings of between 5 and If the boiler is regularly failing and needing consumption required. 20% could be achieved constant attention then it may be cost effective operating to replace. More information on boilers can be found at the
    • Faber Maunsell 62 •Enhanced Capital Allowance website. boilers If boiler needs replacing ensure that a high See Energy Technology List efficiency boiler is specified. •SEDBUK website Ask three professional boiler/heating engineers Guidance documents to provide a quote. • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing. P 95 and 98-p99 • GPG381 - Energy efficient boilers and heat distribution systems, choosing the best for your site, Carbon Trust, 2005. Available from website • New Work in Places of Worship, English Heritage, 2003. Available from website. Installing zone control valves to reduce the Zoning of central heating systems will allow for NOTE Consider zoning the heat used in unoccupied areas can better control of heat delivery. Creating zones This is of particular use to large sites that are / heating system produce savings if 5 – 10% allow only the specific areas of the building to be heated as it is required. centrally heated with areas used at different times (i.e. cathedrals and churches with halls or offices attached). Insulation acts as a blanket, trapping heat Insulation in a church building may not be NOTE within a building. Savings of up to 20% straight forward or even appropriate. Buildings Insulation work can attract funding from various could be achieved in some buildings. built after 1930 will most likely fall into the different areas. Contract your local council, easier to insulate category but advice should Utility company, or even ask the insulation always be sought before undertaking any work. installer. You may be able to dramatically reduce the cost of insulation work by utilising Insulation is relatively simple work. Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT). • It can be simply laid over the floor of Insulate your roof, walls the loft, between and then over the If undertaking this work you should also or floors joists if they are visible. consider lagging your pipes at the same timeInsulation • It can be pumped in between the cavities in the appropriate walls. for optimum efficiency and to prevent freezing. • It can be laid in sheets against walls Guidance documents or ceilings with a new wall covering • Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings, overlaid. English Heritage, 2008. Available from website. A professional installer should undertake work • CTV014 - Building fabric technology unless otherwise agreed. overview, Carbon Trust, 2007. Available from website. • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing. Fans can help to distribute heat to the Speak with boiler/heating engineer and assess NOTEHeating is appropriate areas especially in high ceiling buildings like churches. Convection current performance of heating system. Care should be given to the noise created by a fan convector.on room or Destratification fans Savings can be as much as 20% Try to assess potential areas where heat may be directed and also areas that may suffer from Guidance documentsbuilding is depending on each site. draughts. • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of Churches 1996 Church House
    • Faber Maunsell 63 Publishing. P 95 and 98-p99 still cold • GPG381 - Energy efficient boilers and heat distribution systems, choosing the best for your site, Carbon Trust, 2005. Available from website • New Work in Places of Worship, English Heritage, 2003. Available from website.Lightingreplace/maintain Energy Saving Action Why? How? More information Very often, individual lights are controlled Trial and error, try the switches and label them NOTE from banks of switches. Correctly labelled in common language that will be understood This is a simple not cost action. Labels do getLight switch Ensure the light switches switches allow the user to ensure that only damaged and need replacing so these should are correctly labelled the correct lighting is utilised and switch be checked as part of a walk-round or labels off lighting when there is sufficient daylight maintenance programme. or the area is not longer being occupied To keep installation costs low a single Install pull cord or other switches to enable Costs switch may often operate banks of lights – improved control of individual light fittings or Less than £99 per individual switch this means that working spaces are often groups of light fittings Improve Install new switches to ensure lights can be lit on an “all or nothing” basis. Guidance documents • CTV021 – Technology Overview Lighting control controlled properly • GIL154 – How to refurbish your lighting • Additionally information can be found on the English Heritage website on Little thought is given to areas that are Fit photocells to switch off interior lights when Technical used regularly and for short periods of daylight is adequate. Seek professional advice – consideration time (corridors, locker rooms, toilets etc). should be given to the typical occupation of an Fit passive, infrared presence detectors to area and the potential savings that can be Install Use photocell or Also people may not consider turning off allow automatic control in areas that are not in made occupancy detectors to lights when there is adequate daylight permanent use. automatic automatically switch NOTE Consider Health and Safety and avoid dark control lights entrances or exits. Costs Less than £1,000 External lights frequently operate on a Check outside light time clocks, ensure they NOTE time clock over night as a security feature. are correct. This is a simple not cost action, check time Commonly time clocks do not get adjusted clocks routinely. External Ensure outside lights are and lights operate during daylight hours. Using automatic controls like infrared presence controlled properly detectors or photocells will ensure lights are Technical control only operating at night and when there is Occupancy detectors could be a better security someone in the area. feature then leaving a night on all night. Assess need on a site by site basis.
    • Faber Maunsell 64 Costs Less than £1,000 Compact Fluorescent Lamps are 3-4 times Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk Technical more efficient than traditional tungsten round or as part of Calendar of Care. • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of filament lamps and they last eight times 50 lumens per watt, maximum will be around longer and reduce maintenance costs due Purchase new lamps to replace Tungsten bulbs 85 to less frequent replacement. upon failure. • Lamps should have an economic life ofTungsten Install compact fluorescent light bulbs Tungsten have an Efficacy of 12 around 8,000 hours but 12,000 hours is not uncommon lamps (CFLs) lumens/Watt and a standard life of 1,000 hours. • CFLs have a lower Colour Rendering Index than Tungsten lamps and emit a slightly different colour light. Costs Less than £5 per individual lamp (bulb) Tungsten Halogen lamps have a low Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk Technical Efficacy (18 lumens/Watt) and round or as part of Calendar of Care. Consider • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of comparatively low economic life (2,000 – modern lighting alternatives throughout the 50 lumens per watt, maximum will be around 8,000 hours). church. 100 • Lamps have an economic life of between 50 LEDs are about 90% more energy-efficient Professional guidance maybe required when and 100,000 hours. Care should be takenTungsten Upon failure, install Light than the standard incandescent bulb, and replacing lamp fitting to accommodate newer when purchasing cheaper LEDs as the Emitting Diodes (LEDs), about twice as efficient as Compact more efficient lamps. Work could be equipment used to drive (light) the LEDsHalogen CFLs or at least replace Fluorescent Light bulbs. undertaken as part of a lighting refit. may be of a lower quality therefore reducing with Energy Saving the economic life.Dichroic Tungsten Halogen It is now possible to purchase Tungsten If LEDs or too expensive then CFLs should be • LEDs have a Colour Rendering Index of ~ Halogen spots with longer economic life considered. At the least new Energy Savingspot light alternatives. spans and higher Efficacy. Tungsten Halogen lamps should be specified 85, roughly the same as CFLs. • LEDs can have a superior quality of light. upon failure. This is dictated by the quality of the lamp and the driver (control gear). • Tungsten Halogen energy savers will have a longer economic life and higher light output in lumens. Tungsten Halogen Floodlights are very Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk Technical expensive to run. They have an Efficacy round or as part of Calendar of Care. • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of generally < 20 lumens/Watt and a life 60 lumens per watt, maximum will be around Internal span of around 2,000 hours. Check whether Tungsten Halogen lighting is switched on for long periods of time. 80 • Lamps have an economic life of between Replace internal TungstenTungsten Halogen Floodlights with Some alternatives lamps can use the same light fitting helping to reduce Budget to replace Tungsten Halogen lighting 8,000 and 40,000 hours. • They have a Colour Rendering Index of ~ 65 Metal Halide or compact Halogen fluorescent lamps replacement costs. with Metal Halide lamps and fittings. Obtain quotes from contractors and gain approval – 85 and a colour appearance of 3,000 – 6,000KFloodlight Metal Halide discharge lamps have a superior quality of light and use 1/3 to ¼ of before undertaking work. Professional Guidance should be sought the energy of an equivalent Tungsten before larger light refits are undertaken Halogen lamp.
    • Faber Maunsell 65 NOTE Tungsten Halogen flood lighting are ideally suited to intermittent use (e.g. security lighting controlled by presence detectors.) Care should be taken to reduce the running hours of these lamps New slim line high frequency controlled Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk Technical fluorescent lamps with triphosphor round or as part of Calendar of Care. • Lamps should be able to provide a minimum coatings are approximately 35% more Efficacy of 80 lumens per watt efficient Plan to replace all older Fluorescent tubes (T12 • Lamps have an economic life of 8,000 to andT8) with switch start ballasts with new T5Fluorescent Replace fluorescent lamps new slim line tubes with High Frequency electronic starters. 16,000 hours lamps lamps and fittings Replacement will require new lamps and fittings NOTE There may be a high cost when replacing and therefore a qualified electrical or lighting fittings and lamps. Payback on this investment contractor. will depend on the number of lamps and fittings and how many hours a week the lighting is in use. Tungsten Halogen Floodlights are very Tungsten Halogen flood lighting are ideally Technical, High Pressure Sodium expensive to run. They have an Efficacy suited to intermittent use (e.g. security lighting • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of generally < 20 lumens/Watt and a life controlled by presence detectors.) 80 lumens per watt. span of around 2,000 hours. • Lamps have an economic life of between Check whether Tungsten Halogen lighting is 12,000 and 50,000 hours. Some alternatives lamps can use the switched on for long periods of time. • They have lower quality of light with a Colour same light fitting helping to reduce Rendering Index of ~ 65 and a colour External Replace External replacement costs. Replace lamps that are not used for security lighting to Metal Halide or High Pressure appearance of around 2,000KTungsten Tungsten Halogen Floodlights with Metal Metal Halide or High Pressure Sodium discharge lamps have a superior quality of Sodium discharge lamps. Guidance documents • CTV021 – Technology Overview Lighting Halogen Halide or High Pressure light and use 1/3 to ¼ of the energy of an equivalent Tungsten Halogen lamp. Replacement will require new lamps and fittings and therefore a qualified electrical or lighting • GIL154 – How to refurbish your lighting Sodium • Additionally information can be found onFloodlight contractor. the English Heritage website on NOTE Tungsten Halogen flood lighting are ideally suited to intermittent use (e.g. security lighting controlled by presence detectors.) Care should be taken to reduce the running hours of these lamps