SADDAM HUSSEIN• Dictator of Iraq from 1979 until 2003• Used fear and power to stay in power• Invaded Kuwait because it was a historical part of Iraq• Suspected of having nuclear weapons• Fled Baghdad during the war• Found hiding in a hole on December 13, 2003 in al-Dwar, near Tikrit• Sentenced to death on November 5, 2006
CONTINUED…• Before execution he was told “go to Hell”• His last words “You mean to the hell that is Iraq!”• Executed by hanging on December 30, 2006• Buried at his birthplace in Al-Awja
OSAMA BIN-LADEN• Leader and founder of Al-Qaeda• Banned from ever entering Saudi Arabia territory in 1992• Play a role in the first bombing of the World trade Center in 1993• Joined forces with Taliban in May 1996• Issued Al Qaeda’s first “declaration of war” against America• August 1998- bombed two American embassies in East Africa• Later attacked the USS COLE in October of 2000, battleship off the coast of Oman• Responsible for the bombing on September 11 th, 2001• Referred the United States to being the “White Devil”• FBI held an offer of $1,000,000 to anyone who captured or killed Osama Bin-Laden
BIN-LADEN CONTINUED• More than half a year to get the go-ahead on the operation• Operation was called “Operation Neptune Spear”• Killed on May 2 nd, 2011, at the age of 54• Compound (home) in Bilal Town, Abbottabad Pakistan• Compound was three stories high• Seal team Six lead and operated the mission of killing Osama• It took a decade to kill Osama Bin-Laden• His body was buried in the North Arabian Sea
TALIBAN• Became worldly known in 1979, during the war against the Soviets• U.S. supplied Afghanistan with 65,000 tons of weapons in 1987 during the Afghan- Soviet War• “Group of Islamic Students”• Mohammed Omar was the leader• Restored law and order after defeating warlords in Afghanistan• Had control over 90% of the country• Laws were based on strict Islamic religion • Women were not allowed out in public unless covered from head to toe • Girls were no longer allowed in school • TV and radios were banned, also books were removed from schools and libraries
TALIBAN CONTINUED• Sheltered Al-Qaeda and Bin-Laden• Funded mainly by Pakistan and other neighboring countries
AL-QAEDA• Under the control of Bin-Laden• Active since 1988• Fought against Soviets and then shifted to U.S. troops in Islamic land• 1991-1996, they took part in major terror attacks• Poor and Weak, never financially supported• Well organized militant terrorist group• Heavily equipped with weapons• Held heavy training camps• Responsible for the September 11 attack• Fled Afghanistan into Pakistan territory because of US invasion following 9/11
CONTINUED…• Before and during the war, they released video and audio statements of operations
TARGETS• The World Trade Center Towers (Twin Towers) in New York City• The Pentagon in Washington D.C.• Shanksville, Pennsylvania• The White House- failed attack
FOUR FLIGHTS• American Airlines Flight 11: Left Bostons Logan Airport at 7:59 a.m. enroute to Los Angeles with a crew of 11 and 76 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8:46 a.m. at 440 mph• United Airlines Flight 175: Left Logan Airport at 8:14 a.m. enroute to Los Angeles with a crew of nine and 51 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the South Tower of the World Trade Center at 9:03 a.m. at 540 mph• American Airlines Flight 77: Left Washington Dulles International Airport in Virginia at 8:20 a.m. enroute to Los Angeles with a crew of six and 53 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the Pentagon at 9:37 a.m. at 530 mph• United Airlines Flight 93: Left Newark International Airport at 8:42 a.m. enroute to San Francisco, with a crew of seven and 33 passengers, not including four hijackers. After the passengers revolted, the hijackers crashed the plane into the ground near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:03 a.m. at 500 mph
TIMELINE OF AIRPLANE HIJACKS• 7:59 am – American Airlines Flight 11 with 92 people aboard, takes off from BostonsLogan International Airport en route to Los Angeles.• 8:14 am – United Airlines Flight 175 with 65 people aboard, takes off from Boston;also headed to Los Angeles.• 8:19 am – Flight attendants aboard Flight 11 alert ground personnel that the plane hasbeen hijacked; American Airlines notifies the FBI.• 8:20 am – American Airlines Flight 77 takes off from Dulles International Airportoutside of Washington, D.C. It is headed to Los Angeles with 64 people aboard.• 8:24 am – Hijacker Mohammed Atta makes the first of two accidental transmissionsfrom Flight 11 to ground control. "We have some planes. Just stay quiet, and youll beokay. We are returning to the airport" ("We have some planes," was unintelligible.)Seconds later another statement follows: "Nobody move. Everything will be okay. If youtry to make any moves, youll endanger yourself and the airplane. Just stay quiet."
CONTINUED…• 8:41 am – United Airlines Flight 93, with 44 people aboard, takes off from NewarkInternational Airport en route to San Francisco. It had been scheduled to depart at 8:00am, around the time of the other hijacked flights.• 8:46 am – Mohammed Atta and the other hijackers aboard American Airlines Flight 11crash the plane into floors 93-99 of the North Tower of the World Trade Center.• 8:50 am – White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card alerts President George W. Bushthat a plane has hit the World Trade Center; the president is visiting an elementary schoolin Sarasota, Florida at the time.• 9:02 am – After initially instructing tenants of the WTCs South Tower to remain in thebuilding, Port Authority officials broadcast orders to evacuate both towers via the publicaddress system; an estimated 10,000 to 14,000 people are already in the process ofevacuating.• 9:03 am – Hijackers crash United Airlines Flight 175 into floors 75-85 of the WTCsSouth Tower.
CONTINUED…• 9:08 am – The Federal Aviation Administration bans all takeoffs of flights goingto New York City or through the airspace around the city.• 9:21 am – The Port Authority closes all bridges and tunnels in the New York Cityarea.• 9:24 am – The FAA notified NEADS of the suspected hijacking of Flight 77 aftersome passengers and crew aboard are able to alert family members on the ground.• 9:31 am – President Bush addresses the nation of the events in New York City an"apparent terrorist attack on our country."• 9:37 am – Hijackers aboard Flight 77 crash the plane into the western façade ofthe Pentagon in Washington, D.C., killing 59 aboard the plane and 125 military andcivilian personnel inside the building.
CONTINUED…• 9:42 am – All flights are ordered to land. Some 3,300 commercial flights and1,200 private planes are guided to airports in Canada and the United States.• 9:45 am – Amid escalating rumors of other attacks, the White House and U.S.Capitol building are evacuated (along with numerous other high-profile buildings,landmarks and public spaces).• 10:05 am – The South Tower of the World Trade Center collapses.• 10:07 am – After passengers and crew members aboard the hijacked Flight 93contact friends and family and learn about the attacks in New York and Washington,they mount an attempt to retake the plane. The plane crashes into a field in SomersetCounty, Pennsylvania.• 10:28 am – The World Trade Centers North Tower collapses, 102 minutes afterbeing struck by Flight 11.
END• 11 am – more than 1 million residents, workers and tourists are evacuated from LowerManhattan, as efforts continue throughout the afternoon to search for survivors at theWTC site.• 1 pm – From a U.S. Air Force base in Louisiana, President Bush announces that U.S.military forces are on high alert worldwide.• 2:51 pm – The U.S. Navy dispatches missile destroyers to New York and Washington,D.C.• 5:20 pm – The 47-story Seven World Trade Center collapses after burning for hours;the building had been evacuated in the morning, and there are no casualties, though thecollapse forces rescue workers to flee for their lives.• 8:30 pm – President Bush addresses the nation, calling the attacks "evil, despicableacts of terror" and declaring that America, its friends and allies would "stand together towin the war against terrorism."
9/11 AFTERMATH• Estimated deaths- 3000• Took just three days for U.S. to declare war against Iraq• Memorials were built in honor of the tragedy• A new world trade center was built where the North Tower stood• A museum was built where the South Tower stood• The Pentagon was rebuilt where the plane crashed• A monument was placed in the town of Shanksville• Every year to this day, the United States of America commemorates September 11th, 2001
AFGHAN WAR• The main goal was to capture Osama Bin-Laden• Began October 7th, 2001• 2,000 American troops perished in the 12 year war• 17,644 Americans were wounded
IRAQ WAR• Kuwait pleaded for U.S. help• U.S. intelligence believed that Iraq had possession of nuclear weapons• President Bush gave Saddam Hussein an ultimatum a 48-hour deadline to leave Iraq or face destruction• Began March 20, 2003 with bombing of Iraq and 150,000 troops were deployed• Iraq War was also referred to “Operation Iraqi Freedom’• British, Austrian, Polish and Danish forces participated in the war• Less than a month, U.S. took control of Baghdad (capital city of Iraq) in April 9, 2003• On May 1st, 2003- major combat operations in Iraq ended• Both of Hussein’s sons were killed on July 22, 2003• U.N. Headquarters in Baghdad was bombed
CONTINUED• War with Saddam Hussein was over but still fought against terrorist groups• Hussein was charged for the 1982 killing of 150 villagers on July 17, 2005- 1st sentence• On October 19, 2005 Hussein pleaded not guilty to bombings and attacks to U.S. territorial lands• Hussein is convicted on November 5, 2006 for all alleged crimes against humanity• The war ended on December 17th, 2011- U.S. troops officially withdraw from Iraq
IRAQ WAR AFTERMATH• No evidence of nuclear weapons were ever found• War reduced the global pool of terrorist• Reshaped new generations of terrorists leaders and operatives• Congress enacted strict legislation: laws, police enforcement & border patrol, detain & deport aliens, enforce safer airport security, etc.…• Estimation of the total budget for the war- $802 billion• 30,000 U.S. military troops were wounded• About 4,500 Americans were killed in Iraq war itself• Near total of $1.2 trillion costs for both wars