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The Holocaust
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The Holocaust


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  • 1. The Holocaust Friday, November 16 th
  • 2. Reading for this lesson
    • From the William Lyon Mackenzie King book:
    • Page 39: How Canada neglected to help Jewish refugees
    • Page 41: Canada’s Japanese wartime internment camps
  • 3. Nazism and the Jews
    • Hitler and the Nazi Party blamed Germany’s troubles on its Jewish population
    • Once they were in power, they began a campaign to punish all Jewish people in Germany
  • 4. Jewish refugees
    • Jews in Germany and other parts of Europe start fleeing their countries, looking to escape Nazi officials
    • Canadian government did not want Jews coming here – less than 5000 arrived between 1933 and 1945
    • Some Jewish refugees were forced to return to Germany
  • 5. World War 2
    • As Germany invades Poland and other parts of Europe, they send in death squads to target Jewish population
    • Some were executed, others sent to ghettos
  • 6. The entire state was involved
    • One scholar has called Germany of this time a “genocidal nation”
    • All aspects of government and society were mobilized to assist in persecution of Jewish population
    • Nazis also target Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals, the physically and mentally disabled, some Christian groups
  • 7.
    • Why were German people so willing to do this?
  • 8. Some people helped
    • Oskar Schindler.
    • Abdol Hossein Sardari
    • Raoul Wallenberg
    • Others would hide Jewish neighbours in their homes
  • 9. Concentration Camps
    • After 1939, Germany sets up these camps for Jews and POWs, where they serve as slave labour
    • Set up about 15000 camps in Europe
    • ‘ Extermination through labour’ – people would be worked to death – disease, injury, or if too weak, would be executed
    • Everyone in the camps was tattooed with ID number
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • Prisoners in Austria's Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp climbing the 186 steps of the Stairway of Death, carrying stone slabs. Around 44,000 inmates are believed to have died there
  • 12. Death in the Ghettos
    • Starvation and disease slowly starts killing off people in ghettos
    • In some places, Jews organize uprisings against Nazis
    • Most famous is the Warsaw Ghetto uprising in 1943
  • 13. The Final Solution
    • As Nazis take over most of Europe, number of Jewish people under their control grows into several million
    • Nazi leadership decides in January 1942 to implement a “Final Solution” to create an industrialized killing network
  • 14. Extermination Camps
    • In 1942 seven camps were built: Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Jasenovac, Majdanek, Maly Trostinets, Solibor and Treblinka
  • 15. Gas Chambers
    • Most sent to these places would be immediately taken to gas chambers
  • 16. Medical Experiments
    • Nazi physicians like Joseph Mengele used these camps as places to carry out experiments on people
  • 17.  
  • 18. Liberation of camps
    • As Allied forces march towards Germany, Nazis start to abandon and dismantle some camps
    • Others are still operating when allied soldiers arrive
  • 19. Belsen-Bergen
    • Liberated on April 25, 1945 by British 11 th Armoured Division
    • Found 60000 people here, and 13000 unburied corpses
    • Another 10000 would die from typhus or malnutrition over the next few weeks
  • 20. Auschwitz
    • January 27, 1945, Soviet forces reach Auschwitz, finding 7600 survivors abandoned there
    • This was the largest camp, responsible for killing about 1.6 million people
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Nuremburg Trials
    • From 1945 to 1949, Allies (US, Britain, France and Soviet Union) set up a series of trials in Nuremberg, Germany
    • Various captured German leaders and soldiers were tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity
    • Great influence on international law
  • 26. Holocaust deniers
    • Various people, mostly Nazi supporters have claimed that the Holocaust was a hoax, or that the numbers of killed were exaggerated, as part of a Jewish plot
    • Currently, Islamic fundamentalists and Islamic leaders, like the President of Iran, have been claiming this. The Iranian President called the Holocaust “a myth”
  • 27. Evidence for the Holocaust
    • Written documents – hundreds of thousands of letters, memos, blueprints, orders, memoirs, confessions, etc.
    • Eyewitness testimony – accounts from survivors, Nazi guards and commanders, local townspeople
    • Photographs – from German and Allied footage, official and unofficial
    • The camps themselves – many still remain
    • Population demographics,if six million Jews were not killed, what happened to them all?