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  1. 1. Suburbia November 27, 2007
  2. 2. Where we live is how we live <ul><li>Human society changes a great deal with how communities organize themselves </li></ul><ul><li>For most of human history, a key factor was the urban (city) vs. rural (farm) </li></ul><ul><li>Islam is a religion where the urban view and urban issues dominate the way of thinking </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In Europe and the Middle East, cities develop their own structures and ways for meeting people </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the town square can be found in nearly every European town </li></ul>
  4. 4. Place and Space <ul><li>In Europe and the Middle East, the restrictions on the physical size of towns made it important for people to live together in a much closer environment </li></ul><ul><li>In North America, which had abundant land, people don’t need to live so close together </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rise of Suburbs <ul><li>Before the Second World War, North America had few suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>As soldiers returned home from the war, governments gave generous loans for them to buy houses </li></ul><ul><li>With few houses available, people buy up new homes that exist on the outskirts of the original town </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, suburban towns are created (ie Ajax) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is a suburb? <ul><li>The easiest definition is that it is a residential neighbourhood located on the outskirts of a city </li></ul>
  7. 7. Suburbs of Toronto <ul><li>Inner suburbs: Scarborough, Etobicoke, North York </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Suburbs: Oakville, Mississauga, Brampton, Markham, Pickering, Ajax </li></ul><ul><li>Are places like Barrie, Milton, Oshawa, even Hamilton now just suburbs too? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Things suburbs need <ul><li>Can’t exist with cars, highways, train stations, and other infrastructure needed to get people to their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Need large areas of flat land, to allow for large houses and yards </li></ul>
  9. 9. Popularity of Suburbs <ul><li>By 1950, half of Americans lived in suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Large suburbs grow around Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver </li></ul>
  10. 10. Features of suburbs <ul><li>Housing subdivisions, including gated communities </li></ul><ul><li>Winding roads and highways </li></ul><ul><li>Strip malls </li></ul><ul><li>Office parks </li></ul><ul><li>Terrible public transit </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on the automobile </li></ul><ul><li>No town centre </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic jams </li></ul>
  11. 11. Suburb culture <ul><li>In popular culture, suburbs seen as a lifeless, boring land </li></ul><ul><li>Represents people making the safe, bland choice over that of the city with its (perceived) crime and excitement </li></ul>
  12. 12. Worries over suburbs <ul><li>The term ‘sprawl’ refers to the fear that suburbs have grown too quickly and expanded too far </li></ul><ul><li>Worries about traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Now worries that gas prices will make it too difficult to live in suburbs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Changing the suburb and city <ul><li>Toronto and other major cities are trying to figure out ways to allow more people live in the city (condos), and move around (public transit, bikes, walking) </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbs are trying to figure out ways to become more than just places to live – to become places where to do business, run factories, </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quiet Revolution November 28, 2007
  15. 15. Quebec before 1960 <ul><li>Since the late 19 th century, French Canadians in Quebec had become more isolated, conservative and inward looking </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Church dominated much of everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Big business was controlled by English Canada </li></ul>
  16. 16. Duplessis <ul><li>In 1936, the Union Nationale political party won the provincial election </li></ul><ul><li>Maurice Duplessis would be Premier for most of the next 25 years, until he died in 1959 </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Duplessis’ reign is often called as &quot;The Great Darkness&quot;(La Grande Noirceur) </li></ul><ul><li>Corrupt, conservative, favoured rural over urban </li></ul><ul><li>Had support of the Catholic church </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Duplessis orphans’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fought against unions </li></ul>
  18. 18. Jean Lesage and the Liberals <ul><li>Duplessis dies in 1959, </li></ul><ul><li>In 1960 provincial elections take place and the Liberals, under Jean Lesage win </li></ul><ul><li>Used the slogan “Il faut que ca change!” – “Things must change!” </li></ul><ul><li>As they win the start to make big changes to the Quebec government and society </li></ul>
  19. 19. What changes… <ul><li>Education gets taken away from the church, sets up a Ministry of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Professional bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalize the Hydro electricity industry </li></ul>
  20. 20. Quebec society changes <ul><li>The influence of the Catholic church declines very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec society becomes more secular, more nationalistic, more modern </li></ul><ul><li>Want to change their role in Canada </li></ul>