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  • 1. Suburbia November 27, 2007
  • 2. Where we live is how we live
    • Human society changes a great deal with how communities organize themselves
    • For most of human history, a key factor was the urban (city) vs. rural (farm)
    • Islam is a religion where the urban view and urban issues dominate the way of thinking
  • 3.
    • In Europe and the Middle East, cities develop their own structures and ways for meeting people
    • For example, the town square can be found in nearly every European town
  • 4. Place and Space
    • In Europe and the Middle East, the restrictions on the physical size of towns made it important for people to live together in a much closer environment
    • In North America, which had abundant land, people don’t need to live so close together
  • 5. Rise of Suburbs
    • Before the Second World War, North America had few suburbs
    • As soldiers returned home from the war, governments gave generous loans for them to buy houses
    • With few houses available, people buy up new homes that exist on the outskirts of the original town
    • In some cases, suburban towns are created (ie Ajax)
  • 6. What is a suburb?
    • The easiest definition is that it is a residential neighbourhood located on the outskirts of a city
  • 7. Suburbs of Toronto
    • Inner suburbs: Scarborough, Etobicoke, North York
    • Outer Suburbs: Oakville, Mississauga, Brampton, Markham, Pickering, Ajax
    • Are places like Barrie, Milton, Oshawa, even Hamilton now just suburbs too?
  • 8. Things suburbs need
    • Can’t exist with cars, highways, train stations, and other infrastructure needed to get people to their jobs
    • Need large areas of flat land, to allow for large houses and yards
  • 9. Popularity of Suburbs
    • By 1950, half of Americans lived in suburbs
    • Large suburbs grow around Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver
  • 10. Features of suburbs
    • Housing subdivisions, including gated communities
    • Winding roads and highways
    • Strip malls
    • Office parks
    • Terrible public transit
    • Reliance on the automobile
    • No town centre
    • Traffic jams
  • 11. Suburb culture
    • In popular culture, suburbs seen as a lifeless, boring land
    • Represents people making the safe, bland choice over that of the city with its (perceived) crime and excitement
  • 12. Worries over suburbs
    • The term ‘sprawl’ refers to the fear that suburbs have grown too quickly and expanded too far
    • Worries about traffic congestion
    • Now worries that gas prices will make it too difficult to live in suburbs
  • 13. Changing the suburb and city
    • Toronto and other major cities are trying to figure out ways to allow more people live in the city (condos), and move around (public transit, bikes, walking)
    • Suburbs are trying to figure out ways to become more than just places to live – to become places where to do business, run factories,
  • 14. Quiet Revolution November 28, 2007
  • 15. Quebec before 1960
    • Since the late 19 th century, French Canadians in Quebec had become more isolated, conservative and inward looking
    • Catholic Church dominated much of everyday life
    • Big business was controlled by English Canada
  • 16. Duplessis
    • In 1936, the Union Nationale political party won the provincial election
    • Maurice Duplessis would be Premier for most of the next 25 years, until he died in 1959
  • 17.
    • Duplessis’ reign is often called as "The Great Darkness"(La Grande Noirceur)
    • Corrupt, conservative, favoured rural over urban
    • Had support of the Catholic church
    • ‘ Duplessis orphans’
    • Fought against unions
  • 18. Jean Lesage and the Liberals
    • Duplessis dies in 1959,
    • In 1960 provincial elections take place and the Liberals, under Jean Lesage win
    • Used the slogan “Il faut que ca change!” – “Things must change!”
    • As they win the start to make big changes to the Quebec government and society
  • 19. What changes…
    • Education gets taken away from the church, sets up a Ministry of Education
    • Professional bureaucracy
    • Nationalize the Hydro electricity industry
  • 20. Quebec society changes
    • The influence of the Catholic church declines very quickly
    • Quebec society becomes more secular, more nationalistic, more modern
    • Want to change their role in Canada