Somalia and Canada January 7, 2007
What is Peacekeeping <ul><li>One of the first goals of the United Nations was to find ways to prevent war from occurring o...
<ul><li>Traditionally, peacekeeping has been defined as a process where a group of lightly armed military personnel stood ...
Canadian role in peacekeeping <ul><li>Between 1948 and 1989, the UN had 18 peacekeeping missions </li></ul><ul><li>Canada ...
Peacekeeping changes <ul><li>After the end of the Cold War, peacekeeping becomes more widespread  </li></ul><ul><li>Since ...
New problems for peacekeepers <ul><li>Demand that more be done, like provide food, oversee elections, serve as police </li...
Somalia <ul><li>Said Barre was the military dictator of Somalia from 1969 to 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>At times had support f...
Civil War in Somalia <ul><li>Various groups start civils war to remove Barre </li></ul><ul><li>Barre flees in 1991 </li></...
UN Peacekeeping mission <ul><li>In December 1992, UN passes a resolution to set up a force to bring humanitarian aid and e...
Operation Deliverance <ul><li>Canadian forces in Somalia was about 2000 strong, led by the Canadian Airborne Regiment </li...
Murder of Shidane Arone <ul><li>Problems of Somalis stealing food from Canadian camp </li></ul><ul><li>March 1993 – Canadi...
Cover up and the Somali Inquiry <ul><li>Although people are charged, Defence officials in Canada try keep information from...
The US in Somalia <ul><li>Initial American arrival in Somalia is very positive </li></ul><ul><li>April 1993, Somali leader...
<ul><li>Mohammed Farrah Aidid, leader of the United Somali Congress, was the strongest warlord and opposed to the peace pl...
<ul><li>This starts a war between Aidid’s forces against the UN forces </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting leads to civilian casual...
<ul><li>Over the rest of 93, fighting continues </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Mogadishu/Day of the Rangers – October 4/5 - 1...
American Retreat <ul><li>Images of Americans being dragged through streets and loss of American lives leads President Clin...
Long Term Consequences <ul><li>For next several years, US, Canada and other western nations try to avoid peacekeeping or g...
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Somalia And Canada

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Somalia And Canada

  1. 1. Somalia and Canada January 7, 2007
  2. 2. What is Peacekeeping <ul><li>One of the first goals of the United Nations was to find ways to prevent war from occurring or to help end it quickly </li></ul><ul><li>UN sent soldiers and civilians to monitor truces in the conflicts between Israel and Arab states, and India-Pakistan </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Traditionally, peacekeeping has been defined as a process where a group of lightly armed military personnel stood between two parties in a conflict who had agreed to a ceasefire, to keep the peace. The conventional guiding principles of peacekeeping are threefold: impartiality, minimum use of force and acquiring the consent of involved parties </li></ul>
  4. 4. Canadian role in peacekeeping <ul><li>Between 1948 and 1989, the UN had 18 peacekeeping missions </li></ul><ul><li>Canada was involved in many of them, such as Cyprus </li></ul>
  5. 5. Peacekeeping changes <ul><li>After the end of the Cold War, peacekeeping becomes more widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1990, there has been 45 peacekeeping missions </li></ul>
  6. 6. New problems for peacekeepers <ul><li>Demand that more be done, like provide food, oversee elections, serve as police </li></ul><ul><li>Start going into situations where there was no ceasefire, and not with the consent from all parties </li></ul><ul><li>Some accuse western countries of still being neo-colonialists, imposing their ideas on the poorer developing world </li></ul>
  7. 7. Somalia <ul><li>Said Barre was the military dictator of Somalia from 1969 to 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>At times had support from Soviet Union and US </li></ul><ul><li>Rule became more brutal and tyrannical </li></ul>
  8. 8. Civil War in Somalia <ul><li>Various groups start civils war to remove Barre </li></ul><ul><li>Barre flees in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Groups start fighting themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Situation for Somalia deteriorates </li></ul>
  9. 9. UN Peacekeeping mission <ul><li>In December 1992, UN passes a resolution to set up a force to bring humanitarian aid and establish peace in Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>Led by the US, with 22 other nations, including Canada, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Egypt, Turkey, etc. – over 28 000 troops </li></ul>
  10. 10. Operation Deliverance <ul><li>Canadian forces in Somalia was about 2000 strong, led by the Canadian Airborne Regiment </li></ul><ul><li>Set up at Belet Huen - mission was to secure and bring order to the town and a 30,000 square kilometer area around it </li></ul>
  11. 11. Murder of Shidane Arone <ul><li>Problems of Somalis stealing food from Canadian camp </li></ul><ul><li>March 1993 – Canadian soldiers shoot and kill one of Somali – perhaps an execution </li></ul><ul><li>Days later, a teenager is caught and a Canadian soldier beats and tortures him for hours, he later dies </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cover up and the Somali Inquiry <ul><li>Although people are charged, Defence officials in Canada try keep information from reaching Canadians for several weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Somalia Inquiry starts to examine this episode in 1994, reveals larger problems </li></ul><ul><li>The Airborne Regiment is disbanded </li></ul><ul><li>This episode is seen as a low point for the Canadian military </li></ul>
  13. 13. The US in Somalia <ul><li>Initial American arrival in Somalia is very positive </li></ul><ul><li>April 1993, Somali leaders agree to a peace plan </li></ul><ul><li>UN changes the mission to support this plan </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Mohammed Farrah Aidid, leader of the United Somali Congress, was the strongest warlord and opposed to the peace plan </li></ul><ul><li>June 5, 1993 – his forces attack and kill 24 Pakistani troops inspecting one of his weapons depots </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>This starts a war between Aidid’s forces against the UN forces </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting leads to civilian casualties and anger at the foriegners </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Over the rest of 93, fighting continues </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Mogadishu/Day of the Rangers – October 4/5 - 18 Americans and 1 Malaysian are killed, as are about 1000 to 1500 Somalis </li></ul>
  17. 17. American Retreat <ul><li>Images of Americans being dragged through streets and loss of American lives leads President Clinton to pull the US out of Somalia by 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>UN mission pulls out in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Somalia falls back into anarchy and civil war </li></ul>
  18. 18. Long Term Consequences <ul><li>For next several years, US, Canada and other western nations try to avoid peacekeeping or getting involved in local conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>1994 Rwandan Genocide leads to nearly 1 million dead </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war in Afghanistan 1992-2001 is not dealt with by UN </li></ul>

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