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Somalia And Canada
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Somalia And Canada


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  • 1. Somalia and Canada January 7, 2007
  • 2. What is Peacekeeping
    • One of the first goals of the United Nations was to find ways to prevent war from occurring or to help end it quickly
    • UN sent soldiers and civilians to monitor truces in the conflicts between Israel and Arab states, and India-Pakistan
  • 3.
    • Traditionally, peacekeeping has been defined as a process where a group of lightly armed military personnel stood between two parties in a conflict who had agreed to a ceasefire, to keep the peace. The conventional guiding principles of peacekeeping are threefold: impartiality, minimum use of force and acquiring the consent of involved parties
  • 4. Canadian role in peacekeeping
    • Between 1948 and 1989, the UN had 18 peacekeeping missions
    • Canada was involved in many of them, such as Cyprus
  • 5. Peacekeeping changes
    • After the end of the Cold War, peacekeeping becomes more widespread
    • Since 1990, there has been 45 peacekeeping missions
  • 6. New problems for peacekeepers
    • Demand that more be done, like provide food, oversee elections, serve as police
    • Start going into situations where there was no ceasefire, and not with the consent from all parties
    • Some accuse western countries of still being neo-colonialists, imposing their ideas on the poorer developing world
  • 7. Somalia
    • Said Barre was the military dictator of Somalia from 1969 to 1991
    • At times had support from Soviet Union and US
    • Rule became more brutal and tyrannical
  • 8. Civil War in Somalia
    • Various groups start civils war to remove Barre
    • Barre flees in 1991
    • Groups start fighting themselves
    • Situation for Somalia deteriorates
  • 9. UN Peacekeeping mission
    • In December 1992, UN passes a resolution to set up a force to bring humanitarian aid and establish peace in Somalia
    • Led by the US, with 22 other nations, including Canada, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Egypt, Turkey, etc. – over 28 000 troops
  • 10. Operation Deliverance
    • Canadian forces in Somalia was about 2000 strong, led by the Canadian Airborne Regiment
    • Set up at Belet Huen - mission was to secure and bring order to the town and a 30,000 square kilometer area around it
  • 11. Murder of Shidane Arone
    • Problems of Somalis stealing food from Canadian camp
    • March 1993 – Canadian soldiers shoot and kill one of Somali – perhaps an execution
    • Days later, a teenager is caught and a Canadian soldier beats and tortures him for hours, he later dies
  • 12. Cover up and the Somali Inquiry
    • Although people are charged, Defence officials in Canada try keep information from reaching Canadians for several weeks
    • Somalia Inquiry starts to examine this episode in 1994, reveals larger problems
    • The Airborne Regiment is disbanded
    • This episode is seen as a low point for the Canadian military
  • 13. The US in Somalia
    • Initial American arrival in Somalia is very positive
    • April 1993, Somali leaders agree to a peace plan
    • UN changes the mission to support this plan
  • 14.
    • Mohammed Farrah Aidid, leader of the United Somali Congress, was the strongest warlord and opposed to the peace plan
    • June 5, 1993 – his forces attack and kill 24 Pakistani troops inspecting one of his weapons depots
  • 15.
    • This starts a war between Aidid’s forces against the UN forces
    • Fighting leads to civilian casualties and anger at the foriegners
  • 16.
    • Over the rest of 93, fighting continues
    • Battle of Mogadishu/Day of the Rangers – October 4/5 - 18 Americans and 1 Malaysian are killed, as are about 1000 to 1500 Somalis
  • 17. American Retreat
    • Images of Americans being dragged through streets and loss of American lives leads President Clinton to pull the US out of Somalia by 1994
    • UN mission pulls out in 1995
    • Somalia falls back into anarchy and civil war
  • 18. Long Term Consequences
    • For next several years, US, Canada and other western nations try to avoid peacekeeping or getting involved in local conflicts
    • 1994 Rwandan Genocide leads to nearly 1 million dead
    • Civil war in Afghanistan 1992-2001 is not dealt with by UN