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Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
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Schizophrenia

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  • 1. Psychology Class: Schizophrenia April 8
  • 2. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD <ul><li>Prolonged maladaptive reaction to traumatic experience </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Actual or threatened death, serious injury; threats to physical integrity of others.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The person’s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. PTSD Symptoms <ul><li>Avoidance behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Re-experience the trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional numbing </li></ul>
  • 4. PTSD Treatments <ul><li>CBT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated exposure to cues associated with trauma; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly talk about the traumatic experience; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-experience the emotional aspects of the trauma; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit related slides or films; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit the scene of traumatic events; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive restructuring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress management skills (self-relaxation) </li></ul><ul><li>Anger management skills </li></ul><ul><li>EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) </li></ul>
  • 5. Schizophrenia
  • 6. Overview <ul><li>Psychotic disorder; psychosis </li></ul><ul><li>Major disturbance in thought, perception emotion, behavior, and social functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Etiology: Diathesis of Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments: Biological and Psychological </li></ul>
  • 7. Symptoms of Schizophrenia <ul><li>Positive symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alogia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anhedonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat Affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asociality </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Positive symptoms <ul><li>Disorganized speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoherence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neologism or word salads </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Positive symptoms <ul><li>Delusions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensations and thoughts are imposed by an external agent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts are being broadcast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts are stolen by an external thoughts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior is controlled by external force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulses are controlled by external force </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Positive symptoms <ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting one’s own thoughts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arguing voices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voices commenting on behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. Negative Symptoms <ul><li>Apathy </li></ul><ul><li>Alogia </li></ul><ul><li>Anhedonia </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Affect </li></ul><ul><li>Asociality </li></ul>
  • 12. Other symptoms <ul><li>Catatonia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor abnormalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catatonic immobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waxy flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate affect </li></ul>
  • 13. Etiology <ul><li>Genetic basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and Twin studies (Gottesman, et al, 1987) </li></ul></ul>44.30 MZ twins 12.08 DZ twins 7.30 Siblings 9.35 Children 2.65 Nieces / nephews 2.84 Grandchildren 1.00 Spouse % with schizophrenia Relation to the person with schizophrenia
  • 14. Genetic <ul><li>Genetic basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption studies (Heston, 1966) </li></ul></ul>7 13 # of diagnosed neurotic 2 9 # of diagnosed psychopathic 0 9 # of diagnosed mentally defective 0 4 # of diagnosed schizophrenic 18% 66% % of clinical diagnosis 50 47 # of participants Control offspring 47 children of schizophrenic mothers (born btn 1915-45) Assessment
  • 15. Etiology: Genetic basis <ul><li>Is schizophrenia completely determined by genes? </li></ul>
  • 16. Etiology: Psychology explanation <ul><li>Expressed emotion (EE): </li></ul><ul><li>Brown’s study (1966) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: patients with schizophrenia who returned to live with their families after hospitalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews were conducted with family members before the patients returned home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families were classified into high EE or low EE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9-month follow up: 58% relapsed in high EE families; 10% relapsed in low EE families. </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Expressed emotion <ul><li>Bidirectional </li></ul><ul><li>The role of stress: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased cortisol, increased dopamine activity; increased schizophrenia symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Treatments <ul><li>Biological: antipsychotic drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: ; side effects; noncompliance; high chance of relapse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Behavioral Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Skills Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family Therapy (reduced EE) </li></ul></ul>

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