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March 4 Childhood Disorders
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March 4 Childhood Disorders


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  • 1. Review Group Communication & Discuss Abnormal Psychology
  • 2. Review
    • What is the focus of a process group? What is the focus of a content group?
    • With respect to the roles of members, please provide examples of a) group task roles; b) group building roles; c) individual roles.
    • In your opinion, which type of roles are needed in order to facilitate communication in a content-focused group? Why?
    • Describe two therapeutic factors of group discussion.
    • Describe the symptoms of Groupthink. See handouts “Groupthink”
  • 3. Childhood Disorders
  • 4. Dimensional Models of Childhood Disorders
    • Degree of Control
    • Undercontrolled Overcontrolled
      • Undercontrolled Behavior
        • ________________________________
      • Overcontrolled Behavior
        • ________________________________
  • 5. Undercontrolled Behavior
    • Attention-deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder
    • Conduct Disorder
  • 6. Attention-deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder
    • or ADHD
    • 3 subcategories of symptoms
      • Poor attention
      • Hyperactive-impulsive behavior
      • Have both problems
  • 7. Studies on ADHD Symptoms
    • Whalen & Henker (1985)
        • Hyperactive children tend to miss subtle social cues _________________________
        • Misattribution and misinterpretation _____________________________
        • Therefore, hyperactive children have trouble getting along with others
  • 8. Studies on ADHD Symptoms
    • Hoza et al, 2000
      • Procedures: boys with ADHD and boys with no diagnosis engaged in a get-acquainted task. Results:
        • Objective raters evaluated that boys with ADHD performed poorer than control participants;
        • boys with ADHD evaluated themselves in more positive terms
      • Conclusion: Boys with ADHD tend to have illusory bias concerning their social behaviors.
  • 9. Studies on ADHD Symptoms
    • Casey et al, 1996
      • 15% to 30% of children with ADHD have a learning disability in math, reading, or spelling
    • Barkle et al, 1990
      • About 50% of children with ADHD are placed in special education programs.
  • 10. Problems associated with ADHD
    • International Consensus Statement on ADHD (2002): fewer than half of those with ADHD receive treatment, while ADHD is associated with:
      • High drop out rates
      • No or few friends
      • Antisocial behavior
      • Substance abuse
      • Contract STDs
      • Drive at excessive speeds
      • Have multiple car accidents
  • 11. Biological Theories of ADHD
    • Genetic factors
      • Children of parents who have ADHD are more likely to have the disorder.
      • Adoption and twin studies suggested that genetic influence is stronger than environmental influences.
    • Brain studies
      • Structural: smaller frontal lobes
      • Functional: frontal lobes under-responsive to stimulation
  • 12. Psychological Theories of ADHD
    • Bruno Bettelheim (1973)
      • Diathesis-stress
    A Child’s Predisposition: Overactivity & Moodiness Environmental Stressor: Parents who are impatient ADHD Symptoms
  • 13. Conduct Disorder
    • Symptoms
      • violate basic rights of others and major societal norms; lack of remorse
    • Comorbidity
      • ADHD (30-90%)
      • Substance abuse
      • Anxiety and depression (15-30%)
  • 14. Biological Theories of CD
    • Genetic influence
      • Twin studies showed mixed results:
        • A study of 3000 Vietnam war veterans suggested that family influence is stronger than genetic.
        • A study of 2600 twin pairs in Australia found a substantial genetic influence.
      • Further twin studies suggest that some aggressive behaviors are heritable (I.e., cruelty towards animals); others (stealing, truancy) may not be.
    • Neuropsychological deficits
      • poor verbal skills, planning abilities, problem-solving skills
  • 15. Psychological theories of CD
    • Lack of moral awareness
      • Verlaan et al 2002
        • Parental style: Lax parental discipline and parental adjustment difficulties contribute to conduct disordered behavior
  • 16. Psychological theories of CD
    • Learning theories
      • Bandura’s social learning theory
        • People learn through the process of imitation
        • Bobo doll study (Bandura et al, 1961): Children who witnessed an adult being aggressive with a plastic Bobo doll were observed imitating this aggression while playing with other children.
        • Children can learn aggressiveness from parents who behave aggressively. (Bandura & Walters, 1963)
      • Operant Conditioning - reward and punishment
        • Aggression is an effective means to achieve a goal.
  • 17. Psychological theories of CD
    • Cognitive explanation of aggressive behavior
      • Dodge et al (1982)
        • Perceptual Bias & Cycle of Aggression:
          • __________________________________
          • __________________________________
          • __________________________________