March 4 Childhood Disorders

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March 4 Childhood Disorders

  1. 1. Review Group Communication & Discuss Abnormal Psychology
  2. 2. Review <ul><li>What is the focus of a process group? What is the focus of a content group? </li></ul><ul><li>With respect to the roles of members, please provide examples of a) group task roles; b) group building roles; c) individual roles. </li></ul><ul><li>In your opinion, which type of roles are needed in order to facilitate communication in a content-focused group? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two therapeutic factors of group discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the symptoms of Groupthink. See handouts “Groupthink” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Childhood Disorders
  4. 4. Dimensional Models of Childhood Disorders <ul><li>Degree of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Undercontrolled Overcontrolled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undercontrolled Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcontrolled Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Undercontrolled Behavior <ul><li>Attention-deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Disorder </li></ul>
  6. 6. Attention-deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder <ul><li>or ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>3 subcategories of symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactive-impulsive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have both problems </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Studies on ADHD Symptoms <ul><li>Whalen & Henker (1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactive children tend to miss subtle social cues _________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Misattribution and misinterpretation _____________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, hyperactive children have trouble getting along with others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Studies on ADHD Symptoms <ul><li>Hoza et al, 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures: boys with ADHD and boys with no diagnosis engaged in a get-acquainted task. Results: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objective raters evaluated that boys with ADHD performed poorer than control participants; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>boys with ADHD evaluated themselves in more positive terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Boys with ADHD tend to have illusory bias concerning their social behaviors. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Studies on ADHD Symptoms <ul><li>Casey et al, 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% to 30% of children with ADHD have a learning disability in math, reading, or spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barkle et al, 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50% of children with ADHD are placed in special education programs. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Problems associated with ADHD <ul><li>International Consensus Statement on ADHD (2002): fewer than half of those with ADHD receive treatment, while ADHD is associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High drop out rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No or few friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract STDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive at excessive speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have multiple car accidents </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Biological Theories of ADHD <ul><li>Genetic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children of parents who have ADHD are more likely to have the disorder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption and twin studies suggested that genetic influence is stronger than environmental influences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural: smaller frontal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional: frontal lobes under-responsive to stimulation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Psychological Theories of ADHD <ul><li>Bruno Bettelheim (1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diathesis-stress </li></ul></ul>A Child’s Predisposition: Overactivity & Moodiness Environmental Stressor: Parents who are impatient ADHD Symptoms
  13. 13. Conduct Disorder <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>violate basic rights of others and major societal norms; lack of remorse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comorbidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD (30-90%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety and depression (15-30%) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Biological Theories of CD <ul><li>Genetic influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twin studies showed mixed results: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A study of 3000 Vietnam war veterans suggested that family influence is stronger than genetic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A study of 2600 twin pairs in Australia found a substantial genetic influence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further twin studies suggest that some aggressive behaviors are heritable (I.e., cruelty towards animals); others (stealing, truancy) may not be. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuropsychological deficits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poor verbal skills, planning abilities, problem-solving skills </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Psychological theories of CD <ul><li>Lack of moral awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verlaan et al 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parental style: Lax parental discipline and parental adjustment difficulties contribute to conduct disordered behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Psychological theories of CD <ul><li>Learning theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura’s social learning theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People learn through the process of imitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo doll study (Bandura et al, 1961): Children who witnessed an adult being aggressive with a plastic Bobo doll were observed imitating this aggression while playing with other children. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children can learn aggressiveness from parents who behave aggressively. (Bandura & Walters, 1963) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning - reward and punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression is an effective means to achieve a goal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Psychological theories of CD <ul><li>Cognitive explanation of aggressive behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dodge et al (1982) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual Bias & Cycle of Aggression: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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