Human Resource Management Fundamentals
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Human Resource Management Fundamentals

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To introduce the reader or learner to the fundamentals of Human Resource Management.

To introduce the reader or learner to the fundamentals of Human Resource Management.

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    Human Resource Management Fundamentals Human Resource Management Fundamentals Presentation Transcript

    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: Trinity College, Cambridge)Human Resource Management Fundamentals
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: Trinity College, Cambridge)HRM FundamentalsKeyPoints to develop in your own time!Introductory concepts in Human Resource Management @ OxfordCambridge.Org all for free andfree for all.The information gathered here are under KeyPoints format and may be use:- Either to give the reader an overview before deciding for a full scale study of the subject.- Or to guide readers in expanding their knowledge on the given topic.Some recommendations, perhaps:- Identify all the KeyPoints on which you feel a need to expand your knowledge.- Choose a good book or two and/or info from Internet.- And then work towards gaining that knowledge.Please enjoy!
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: Trinity College, Cambridge)Aim of publicationTo introduce the reader or learner to thefundamentals of Human Resource Management.
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: Trinity College, Cambridge)After developing the KeyPoints outlined in this publication, you should mainly be able to:☺ describe the importance of HR to an organization☺ discuss the way attitudes to employment are changing☺ explain the recruitment process☺ explain how recruitment is perceived by job applicants☺ participate in effective recruiting☺ explain how organizations source suitable applicants☺ define external selection☺ outline the major pre-interview staffing techniques☺ …Learning Objectives
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: Trinity College, Cambridge)After developing the KeyPoints outlined in this publication, you should mainly be able to:☺ discuss the interview process☺ explain what makes performance appraisal worthwhile☺ discuss the different methods of performance appraisal☺ explain the relationship between total quality management and performance appraisal☺ appraise an employee☺ describe effective workplace communication☺ outline the benefits of employee feedback and recognition programsLearning Objectives
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: Trinity College, Cambridge)☺ Defining HRM☺ Recruitment☺ External Selection☺ Performance Appraisal Methods☺ Employee Relations and CommunicationsHRM Fundamentals - Sections list
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Defining HRM: Objectives☺ After completing the KeyPoints in thissection the reader should be able to:• define human resources and humanresource management (HRM)• discuss the importance of integratedhuman resource (HR) decisions in abusiness context• discuss the need for efficiency andequity in organizations• discuss the ways in which theeffectiveness of HR practices can bemeasured• describe a diagnostic approach tomaking HRM decisions• explain the changing nature ofemployment• explain how changing approaches toemployment affect the employee
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Defining HRM: Summary☺ You have examined how human resourcemanagement (HRM) contributes to anorganization.☺ An organizations human resources are thepeople employed to work toward achievingits goals. Human resource management(HRM) refers to the management ofemployees.☺ Human resource (HR) decisions need totake the business context of organizationsinto account.☺ To be effective, an organization needs tomonitor the efficiency and equity of itspractices. Efficiency concerns theproductive placement and performance ofemployees, while equity concerns the fairand legally compliant treatment ofemployees.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Defining HRM: Summary☺ Undervaluing or underutilizing employeescauses employee dissatisfaction andhampers an organizations chances ofsuccess.☺ HR problems may be solved by applying adiagnostic approach.☺ The four phases of the diagnostic approachare assessing conditions, settingobjectives, choosing appropriate actions,and evaluating results.☺ Assessing a problematic situation entailsexamining external, internal, and employeeconditions to understand the problemproperly.☺ Setting objectives involves finding ways tomove from problem situations to new,desired situations.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Defining HRM: Summary☺ A number of actions can be taken to putplans into effect.☺ HR decisions and actions are evaluated todetermine if they have achieved therequired objective.☺ Employment contracts used to be largelyimplicit, with high levels of job security andpredictable earnings. This relationship ischanging as employers begin to expect morefrom employees, and employees areincreasingly concerned with managing theirown careers.☺ Employers are beginning to regardemployees as providers of corecompetencies in terms of an organizationsimmediate needs, rather than as long-term,secure investments.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Defining HRM: Summary☺ Employees today may be required to updatetheir skills according to organizationaldevelopments.☺ Also, employees are more likely to reviewtheir options for career developmentacross organizations, rather than remainingin one job and progressing throughseniority-based career paths.
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Recruitment: Objectives☺ After completing the KeyPoints in thissection the reader should be able to:• describe the concept of recruitment• outline the recruitment process• outline inducements and recruitmentstyles• discuss the preparation of recruiters• discuss recruitment costs andevaluation practices• describe factors that influenceoccupational choice• outline information channels for jobseekers• describe search strategies adopted byjob seekers
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Recruitment: Summary☺ You have been introduced to recruitmentfrom the perspectives of both employerand employee.☺ Recruitment is the beginning of the searchfor employees by organizations that needto fill positions and entails the creation ofa suitable pool of candidates that can bedrawn on at short notice.☺ The recruitment process is a product ofhuman resource (HR) planning andphilosophy.☺ Few organizations design their work, pay,and career paths solely to improverecruiting. However, some inducements -such as home loans or subsidies, free orreduced-cost services, and signing bonuses- focus specifically on the recruitmentprocess.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Recruitment: Summary☺ The costs involved in recruitment can varydepending on job levels, the intensity ofrecruiting activities, and the number andtype of recruitment sources used.☺ These factors, together with theperformance levels and retention rates ofemployees, should form evaluation criteriafor recruitment practices.☺ Individuals occupational choices can beinfluenced bypsychological, sociological, and economicfactors.☺ Job seekers can gather informationthrough informal contacts, employmentagencies, prospective employers, formaladvertising, and Internet sources☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Recruitment: Summary☺ Also, job seekers adopt different searchstrategies and can be classified asmaximisers, satisfiers, or validators.☺ The particular search strategy used by ajob seeker may influence the quality of thejob found.
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)External Selection: Objectives☺ After going through the KeyPoints in thissection you should be able to describe theexternal selection process:• identify the main objectives ofexternal selection• discuss selection techniques(predictors) and the benefits andlimitations of determining theirvalidity• describe validation and the use ofstatistical methods to determinevalidity• discuss the benefits, risks, andvalidity of application forms andresumes• …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)External Selection: Objectives☺ After going through the KeyPoints in thissection you should be able to describe theexternal selection process:• discuss the benefits, risks, andvalidity of background and referencechecks and life-history information• discuss selection interviews andidentify factors affecting interviewoutcomes• describe interview structuring andexplain how it affects interviewvalidities
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)External Selection: Summary☺ You have been introduced to the externalselection process and the validityassessment of selection techniques.☺ External selection forms part of thestaffing process and involves decisionsabout which externally recruited applicantsto employ.☺ Selection objectives are determined byoverall organizational goals, the need forefficiency, and requirements concerningfairness (equity) in employment practices.☺ Selection decisions are predictions basedon information provided by selectiontechniques or predictors. A predictorrelates to a specific criterion that isrequired for the performance of a specificjob. Validity is the degree to which apredictor is supported by statisticalevidence.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)External Selection: Summary☺ Validity enables employers to assessselection techniques and can be used asevidence to defend selection practicesagainst legal challenges.☺ However, validity in itself does not signifythat a criterion is appropriate for aspecific job or that assumptions aboutcause and effect are correct.☺ The process of determining the validity ofa predictor is called validation. You can plotthe degree of correlation betweenpredictor and criterion scores on ascatterplot graph or express it numericallyin the form of a validity coefficient.
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)External Selection: Summary☺ It is not always practical to interview allthe applicants for a job. Pre-interviewselection techniques help identifycandidates to be invited for interviews orto participate in further selectionprocedures. Application forms and resumescontain particulars supplied by theapplicants and have low validities, whereasweighted application blanks have greatervalidity.☺ Background checks are often essential as alegal precaution. References generallyprovide only positive information aboutapplicants. Life-history techniques have lowvalidities, except for biographicalinventories and accomplishment records.Employers need to avoid askinginappropriate questions irrespective of theselection techniques involved.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)External Selection: Summary☺ Interviews of candidates for selectionproceed through similar phases, but eachinterview is nevertheless unique.Interviewers need to be aware of factorsthat can affect interview outcomesunfairly. These may include interviewerstereotypes of certain groups andimpression management tactics used byapplicants.☺ Employers attach great importance to theinterview, but as a selection technique itgenerally has a low validity. Effectivenesscan be improved significantly by interviewstructuring - that is, by specifying identicalquestions, processes and evaluationmethods for all candidates. Examples ofstructured interviews are behaviordescription interviews, situationalinterviews, and comprehensive structuredinterviews.
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Performance Appraisal Methods: Objectives☺ After completing this unit you should beable to:• describe how performance appraisalmethods are selected• describe and discuss performanceappraisal methods• describe management by objectives(MBO)• define total quality management(TQM)• describe the characteristics of TQMorganizations and how this relates tousing an appraisal system• describe how an appraisal system maybe designed for a TQM organization• …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Performance Appraisal Methods: Objectives☺ After completing this unit you should beable to:• identify and discuss appraisal methodsthat are consistent with TQM• describe the appraisal interview andhow it may be structured• describe types of appraisal interviews• outline guidelines for conductingeffective appraisal interviews• describe how employee performancemay be improved
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Performance Appraisal Methods: Summary☺ You have been introduced to performanceappraisal methods.☺ HR managers often make cost-benefitdecisions when selecting a performanceappraisal method.☺ The way in which an appraisal method isused may have more impact on itseffectiveness than the actual methodselected.☺ Appraisal methods may be broadlyclassified as measuring traits, behaviors, orresults.☺ These appraisal methods have varyingdegrees of usefulness for eitheradministrative or developmental purposesand are prone to various levels of error andsubjectivity.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Performance Appraisal Methods: Summary☺ Results appraisals are more objective thanother methods and align the goals of bothemployees and organizations.☺ Management by objectives (MBO) is amanagement philosophy that attempts toovercome the disadvantages of resultsappraisals.☺ In MBO, employees are evaluated on goalsthat they set for themselves inconsultation with managers.☺ This process is intended to increasemotivation and focus employee attention onorganizationally relevant outcomes.☺ Total quality management (TQM) is amanagement philosophy that strives forcontinuous improvement by settingobjectives based on customerrequirements.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Performance Appraisal Methods: Summary☺ TQM organizations display particularcharacteristics that cause traditionalappraisal methods to be ineffective orinappropriate.☺ Appraisal systems consistent with TQMneed to be designed using employee andcustomer participation.☺ An appraisal system objectives shouldrelate directly to organizational goals.☺ Appraisal methods that are consistent withTQM include team appraisal, customerappraisal and team-based performancereview sessions.☺ In an appraisal interview, employees andmanagers discuss the results ofperformance appraisals and identify areasfor improvement.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Performance Appraisal Methods: Summary☺ It may be beneficial to interviewers andemployees if the interview is divided intotwo sessions - one to deal with theperformance appraisal and one to discussemployees plans and suggestions.☺ There are three types of appraisalinterviews: "tell-and-sell" interviews, "tell-and-listen" interviews, and "problem-solving" interviews.☺ Appraisal interviews will be more effectiveif conducted according to specificguidelines.☺ These guidelines focus on maximizingemployees participation in discussions andgaining a better mutual understanding ofthe causes of any performance problemsand the best solutions.
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Employee Relations and Communications: Objectives☺ After completing all the KeyPoints in thissection you should be able to:• describe the role of communication inhealthy employee relations• outline communication processes in theworkplace• describe the function ofwritten, audiovisual, and electroniccommunications in organizations• describe the function of meetings infacilitating communication betweenemployees and managers• identify the most appropriate methodof communicating different kinds ofworkplace information• describe employee feedback programsand the function of attitude surveys• …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Employee Relations and Communications: Objectives☺ After completing all the KeyPoints in thissection you should be able to:• describe the function of appealsprocedures• describe the function of employeeassistance programs• describe the function of employeerecognition programs
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Employee Relations and Communications: Summary☺ You have been introduced to employeerelations and communications.☺ Effective communication betweenemployees and managers is necessary iforganizations are to maintain healthyemployee relations.☺ Employee relations representatives can actas mediators when a problem arises andhelp keep the communication channelsbetween management and employees open.☺ A typical communication involves a sender, areceiver, and a message. The message isencoded in a suitable communicationchannel and then decoded by the recipient,although it may be distorted in the process.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Employee Relations and Communications: Summary☺ Communications that move up and down theorganizational hierarchy are becomingincreasingly important as a country movesfrom an industrial to an information-basedeconomy.☺ Employee handbooks, memos, financialstatements, newsletters and bulletins mayconstitute appropriate writtencommunication channels in an organization.☺ Audiovisual and electronic communicationsprovide various ways of sharing informationin and between organizations.☺ Face-to-face meetings between employeesand managers may be formal or informal.They can be used to promote dialogue,develop personal relationships, andencourage creative ideas.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Employee Relations and Communications: Summary☺ Employee feedback programs are designedto improve employee relations by promotingupward communication, allowing employeesto participate in policy formulation, andensuring that they receive due process inresponse to complaints lodged againstmanagers.☺ Employment attitude surveys may ascertainhow employees feel about their work,supervisors, remuneration, and careeraspirations.☺ Appeals procedures provide employees withthe means to respond and challengemanagement practices and decisions.☺ Appeals procedures provide employees withthe means to respond and challengemanagement practices and decisions.☺ …
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)Employee Relations and Communications: Summary☺ Appeals procedures provide employees withthe means to respond and challengemanagement practices and decisions.☺ Employee assistance programs provideconfidential support to employees whoseperformance is suffering as a result ofpersonal problems.☺ Employee recognition programs are a meansof encouraging and rewarding employeeswork improvement ideas.
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: Trinity College, Cambridge)
    • Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2013 © OxfordCambridge.OrgHuman Resource Management (This picture: hills West of Oxford)