Using global positioning system (GPS) technology for tree marking in a natural forest under single-tree selection system<b...
Single-tree Selection System<br />… is an uneven-aged silvicultural system under which trees are selected to be cut indivi...
Tree Marking<br />… involves the careful selection of trees for harvest according to forest management objectives (OMNR, 2...
Using GPS for Tree Marking<br />Practically, a tree marker makes a marking decision<br />The information on “where marked ...
Purpose<br />This paper presents practical applications of GPS technology to tree marking in single-tree selection forest ...
Study Site<br />Sub-compartment 66A, the UT Hokkaido Forest<br />Location:Furano city (43º 16 – 17´ N, 142º 28 – 29´ E, 37...
2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />7<br />
Tree Marking in the Study Site<br />During April - May 2008 (defoliated season)<br />Rate of removals: 16 % of the standin...
Data Collection<br />GPS receiver<br />GPSMAP 60CSx (Garmin Ltd.)<br />Small, handy, and easy to use<br />Relatively easy ...
Data Processing<br />Mapping of marked trees<br />Save the waypoints as a .gpx file (GPS eXchange Format)<br />Convert to ...
Results<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />11<br />
2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />12<br />Locations of marked trees (n = 43)<br />By GPSMAP 60CSx receiver<br />...
Positional Error<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />13<br />Mean ± SD: 5.7 ± 4.0 m<br />< 4 m in 20 points (...
2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />14<br />Mapping of Marked Trees<br />N = 1,565<br />All positions were success...
2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />15<br />Comparison with the Conventional Map<br />
Intersection with the Selection Stand<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />16<br />n = 1,565<br />Within the s...
Spatial Distribution of Harvest Intensity<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />17<br />Mean density within sel...
Discussion<br />Positional accuracy of the GPS receiver…<br />… was acceptable for the use of tree marking<br />… might be...
Conclusions<br />GPS is a useful tool for managers and loggers…<br />To easily record the location of trees that were mark...
Thank you!<br />This study was partly supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant-in-Aid for Young ...
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Using global positioning system (GPS) technology for tree marking in a natural forest under single-tree selection system

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FORMATH TACHIKAWA 2010 (the 10th Anniversary Forest Resource Management and Mathematical Modeling International Symposium), Tachikawa, Japan, 13 Mar. 2010

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Transcript of "Using global positioning system (GPS) technology for tree marking in a natural forest under single-tree selection system"

  1. 1. Using global positioning system (GPS) technology for tree marking in a natural forest under single-tree selection system<br />Owari, T., Kimura, N., Shimizume, M., Takuma, R., Nakagawa, Y. and Tookuni, M.<br />(Univ. of Tokyo, Japan)<br />
  2. 2. Single-tree Selection System<br />… is an uneven-aged silvicultural system under which trees are selected to be cut individually from a large area periodically (Zingg et al., 1999)<br />… has been employed in Hokkaido, northern Japan, since the early 20th century as a major option for natural forest management (Yoshida et al., 2006)<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Tree Marking<br />… involves the careful selection of trees for harvest according to forest management objectives (OMNR, 2004)<br />… is an essential technique in single-tree selection system (Owariet al., 2010)<br />… affects the growth, quality and regeneration of a stand<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Using GPS for Tree Marking<br />Practically, a tree marker makes a marking decision<br />The information on “where marked trees were located” has not been available<br />Recent advances in GPS technology enable us to pinpoint the geographic location of marked trees (Tsuyukiet al., 2006)<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Purpose<br />This paper presents practical applications of GPS technology to tree marking in single-tree selection forest management<br />A case study was conducted at the University of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest<br />Topics include:<br />Positional accuracy of a handy GPS receiver during tree marking<br />Mapping the location of marked trees<br />Spatial analyses of tree marking (spatial query, point density)<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Study Site<br />Sub-compartment 66A, the UT Hokkaido Forest<br />Location:Furano city (43º 16 – 17´ N, 142º 28 – 29´ E, 370 – 400 m a.s.l.)<br />Area: 106.27 ha, of which 29.23 ha were selection cutting stand<br />Terrain: flat<br />Growing stock in selection stand: 7,286 m3 (249 m3 ha-1), 899 trees ha-1<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />6<br />
  7. 7. 2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Tree Marking in the Study Site<br />During April - May 2008 (defoliated season)<br />Rate of removals: 16 % of the standing volume<br />Designated: 1,166 m3 (40 m3/ha)<br />Actual: 1,146 m3 (98% of the designated harvest)<br />A total of 1,565 trees were selected and marked to be cut<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Data Collection<br />GPS receiver<br />GPSMAP 60CSx (Garmin Ltd.)<br />Small, handy, and easy to use<br />Relatively easy GPS signal reception in a forested area (Tsuyukiet al., 2006)<br />Marking the location (waypoint)<br />Stand at 30 cm from the stem<br />Stay shortly<br />Press “MARK” and “ENTER”<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Data Processing<br />Mapping of marked trees<br />Save the waypoints as a .gpx file (GPS eXchange Format)<br />Convert to a .shp file (ESRI Shapefile) using the gpx2shp file converter<br />Convert map projection from WGS1984 to JGD2000 using ArcGIS 9.3<br />Positional accuracy<br />Positional error (d):<br />True coordinates (Xtrue, Ytrue) of 43 points were obtained through a traverse survey with a laser rangefinder Impulse200, Mapstar compass module (LTI Inc.), and a static GPS survey with a ProMark 3 receiver (Magellan Navigation, Inc.)<br />Spatial analysis (ArcGIS 9.3; n=1,565)<br />Using “select by location”, trees that intersect with polygon features of selection cutting stand were determined<br />Spatial distribution of harvest intensity was identified by calculating “point density” (circular neighborhood; r = 17.84 m, cell size; 10 m)<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Results<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />11<br />
  12. 12. 2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />12<br />Locations of marked trees (n = 43)<br />By GPSMAP 60CSx receiver<br />By the traverse survey<br />Ratio of closure<br />1/6003 (north) and 1/367 (south)<br />
  13. 13. Positional Error<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />13<br />Mean ± SD: 5.7 ± 4.0 m<br />< 4 m in 20 points (47%)<br />≥ 10 m in 7 points (16%)<br />
  14. 14. 2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />14<br />Mapping of Marked Trees<br />N = 1,565<br />All positions were successfully measured<br />
  15. 15. 2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />15<br />Comparison with the Conventional Map<br />
  16. 16. Intersection with the Selection Stand<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />16<br />n = 1,565<br />Within the selection cutting stand: 1,155<br />Outside of the selection cutting stand: 410 (26%)<br />
  17. 17. Spatial Distribution of Harvest Intensity<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />17<br />Mean density within selection cutting stand: 35.3 trees ha-1<br />
  18. 18. Discussion<br />Positional accuracy of the GPS receiver…<br />… was acceptable for the use of tree marking<br />… might be less accurate (>10 m) in some cases<br />Mapping the location of marked trees…<br />… provides the information on where trees were selected to be cut<br />… helps improve efficiency of tree search (Takuma et al., 2009)<br />Spatial analyses revealed that…<br />… the marking decision was conducted in a flexible manner<br />… harvest Intensity was not uniform throughout the stand<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Conclusions<br />GPS is a useful tool for managers and loggers…<br />To easily record the location of trees that were marked for harvest<br />To provide the information on where marked trees are located<br />To know exactly how tree marking operations are implemented<br />Future topics:<br />How can we improve the positional accuracy?<br />How can we reduce the cost and effort for tree marking operations?<br />How can we evaluate the impact of harvest on stand dynamics?<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Thank you!<br />This study was partly supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), 20710035, 2008 – 2009<br />(Corresponding address: owari@uf.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp)<br />2010/03/13<br />FORMATH2010 (T. Owari)<br />20<br />

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