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International Conference on Managing Forest Resources for Multiple Ecosystem Services under Robust and Fragile Environments, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 10 Aug. 2010

International Conference on Managing Forest Resources for Multiple Ecosystem Services under Robust and Fragile Environments, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 10 Aug. 2010

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Precision management of selection forests using innovative surveying technologies in Hokkaido, Japan Precision management of selection forests using innovative surveying technologies in Hokkaido, Japan Presentation Transcript

  • Precision Management of Selection Forests Using Innovative Surveying Technologies in Hokkaido, Japan
    Dr. Toshiaki Owari
    Assistant Director and Lecturer
    Hokkaido Forest, The University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Precision Forestry …
    … refers to “planning and conducting site-specific forest management activities and operations to improve wood product quality and utilization, reduce waste, increase profits, and maintain the quality of the environment” (Taylor et al., 2002)
    The concept emerged in late 1990’s in Washington State, USA
    … uses geospatial information and technologies (GPS, GIS, etc.) to assist forest management planning and to improve operational efficiency (Taylor et al., 2002)
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    Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Owari, T.)
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  • Precision Forestry andReduced Impact Logging
    Precision forestry may be a useful concept for the implementation of reduced impact logging (RIL), because it requires detailed inventories in which the trees to be harvested are mapped, marked and measured (Putzet al., 2008)
    Selection logging using RIL techniques will increase forest retention of carbon compared to conventional logging (Putzet al., 2008)
    Under the REDD-plus mechanism, all signatory countries will be required to adopt a sound logging system such as RIL (Sasaki and Yoshimoto, 2010)
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  • Precision Forestry in Hokkaido, Japan
    In recent years, precision forestry has successfully been introduced to selection logging at the University of Tokyo Forest in central Hokkaido, northern Japan
    The adoption of laser-based survey system has improved operational efficiency for identifying the forests to be harvested
    Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology enable us to pinpoint the geographic location of marked trees for harvest
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  • Purpose
    To present practical applications of innovative surveying technologies to the precision management of selection forests in Hokkaido, Japan
    Selection forest refers to a forest managed with an uneven-aged silvicultural system, in which trees are removed individually from a large area periodically (Zingg et al., 1999)
    Topics include:
    The use of laser-based survey system for stand classification
    The use of GPS for tree marking
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  • 2010/08/10
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    The Univ. of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest
    Located in Furano, Hokkaido
    43°10´- 20´ N, 142°20´- 40´ E
    Between the cool-temperate and the sub-boreal zone
    22,733 ha of forestland
    Established in 1899
    Natural mixed forest with coniferous and broad-leaved species
    The average growing stock is 210 m3/ha
    The cutting volume was 21,000 m3in 2009
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  • Using Laser-based Survey System for Stand Classification
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  • Stand Classification
    … serves as the basis for spatial management planning on where to be cut (Owariet al., 2007)
    … identifies selection forests where natural regeneration is expectable so that selection logging is applicable (Takahashi, 2001)
    In-depth ground surveys are essential for stand classification (Owariet al., 2009)
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  • Ground Survey for Stand Classification
    The ground survey was formerly conducted using a pocket compass with a measuring rope
    Although this method was reasonably accurate, it required much time and effort
    Laser-based survey system has been introduced to stand classification surveys since 2008
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  • Laser-based Survey System
    TruPulse 200 with Mapstar compass module (Laser Technology, Inc., CO, USA)
    Archer Field PC (Juniper Systems, Inc. , UT, USA)
    GeoSketch 2 (TimberTech Co., Ltd., Japan)
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  • Stand Classification Map
    Example: sub-comp. 66A
    Area: 106.27 ha, of which 29.23 ha were classified as selection forest
    Effectiveness of laser-based traverse survey (Tookuniet al., 2010)
    Mean error of closure: 1.3 m
    Number of survey crew: 2-3 (from 4)
    Time for in-house data processing: 1/6 of the conventional method
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    Tree & Stump Locations
    Permanent Plot No. 5137
  • Stand Visualization using Forest Window
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    Before Harvest
    After Harvest
    Note: Dark Green: Conifer, Light Green: Broad-leaves, Red: Harvest trees
  • Using GPS for Tree Marking
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  • Tree Marking
    … is an essential technique in single-tree selection system (Owariet al., 2010)
    … involves the careful selection of trees for harvest according to forest management objectives (OMNR, 2004)
    … affects the growth, quality and regeneration of a stand
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  • Record of Marked Tree Locations
    Previously, the tree marker wrote down tracks and approximate positions of marked trees by hand during marking operations
    Since precise locations were not prepared, loggers and managers experienced trouble finding marked trees
    GPS has been introduced to tree marking operations since 2008
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    Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Owari, T.)
    20
  • Positional Data Collection by GPS
    GPS receiver
    GPSMAP 60CSx (Garmin Ltd.)
    Small, handy, and easy to use
    Relatively easy GPS signal reception in a forested area (Tsuyukiet al., 2006)
    Marking the location (waypoint)
    Stand by the stem
    Stay shortly
    Press “MARK” and “ENTER” buttons by one hand
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    Mapping of Marked Trees
    During April - May 2008 (defoliated season)
    Rate of removals: 16 % of the standing volume (a total of 1,565 trees were selected and marked)
    All positions were successfully measured
    Mean positional error was 5.7 m
  • Intersection with Selection Forests
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    Using the “select by location” option of ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI Corp., CA, USA), trees that intersect with polygon features of selection forest can be extracted
    Of 1,565 trees, 410 (26%) were located outside the selection forests
  • Harvest Intensity
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    Spatial distribution of harvest intensity (trees ha-1) can be identified by calculating the point density of marked trees
    Mean density within selection forest was 35.3 trees ha-1
  • Summary
    Using laser-based survey system for stand mapping, we can …
    … accurately identify the area for selection logging
    … reduce the number of crew for ground surveys
    … save the time for in-house data processing
    Using GPSfor tree marking, we can …
    … easily record the location of trees that were marked for harvest
    … produce the information on where marked trees are located
    … know exactly how tree marking operations are implemented
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  • Concluding Remarks
    Innovative surveying technologies such as laser-based survey system and GPS may be useful tools for forest managers in Cambodia
    We are happy to share the know-how on precision forestrywith selection logging
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  • Thank you!
    This paper was partly supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), 20710035, 2008 – 2010
    (Corresponding address: owari@uf.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp)
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