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Sami_in_Finland Sami_in_Finland Presentation Transcript

  • The Sami
    • The only indigenous people of the EU (in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Russia)
    • Status written into the constitution in 1995
      • Right to maintain and develop their own language, culture and traditional livelyhoods
      • A law regarding the right use of the Sámi language when dealing with the authorities
    • Altogether 60,000 – 70,000, in Finland about 7,500 – 9,000
  • Indigenous people
    • Definition: Indigenous people
      • Descended from populations which inhabited the country at the time of colonisation
      • Identify themselves as indigenous
      • Retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institution.
  • Sami Flag
    • motif: the Shaman’s drum and the poem Sons of the Sun
    • circle: sun (red) and moon (blue)
    • 11 flag days
      • 6 February Sámi National Day
    View slide
  • The Sami homeland
    • Since 1996 consitutional self-government in the Sámi homeland in the spheres of language and culture
      • Managed by the Sámi Parliament
    • Municipalities of Enontekiö, Inari and Utsjoki + Lappi reindeer-herding district in Sodankylä
    View slide
  • Sámi language
    • Most closely related to the Baltic-Finnic languages
    • In Finland, 3 Sámi languages North Sámi (2,000 speakers)
    • Inari Sámi (300, spoken only in Finland) Skolt Sámi (300 speakers)
    • In Inari 4 official languages: Finnish and the 3 Sámi languages
    • http://lotta.yle.fi/srwebanar.nsf/sivut/ovdasiidu2004
  • 9 Sámi languages in all
    • Geographic distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. (2 extinct)
    • Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official language.
  • Education
    • The Sámi living the Sámi homeland have the right to receive msot of their primary education in the Sámi language (since 1970s)
    • Language in the matriculation examination
    • Further language studies at universities of Oulu, Helsinki and Lapland
    • Online teaching
  • Other features of Sámi culture
    • Reindeer husbandry
      • Nomadism (not any more) -> ”kota” dwellings
      • Primary production (meat, handicraft)
      • Reindeer races
      • Tourism (round-ups, safaris)
    • Sámi costume (Who can use it?) http://www.refu.fi/g-1-1.html
    • Yoik (Sámi music)
    • Shamanism
      • Witch drum
  • Handicrafts
    • Roots in traditional lifestyle and folklore
    • Beauty and practicality
    • Sámi handcrafts ”duodji” reflect the nomadic lifestyle
    • Traditional materials: horn, bone, wood, tin, leather, fabric
    • http://www.saariselka.fi/samekki/en/index.html
  • Contemporary art
    • Merja Aletta Ranttila (born 1960, lives in Inari)
      • Painter
        • Especially portraits of good and evil, linocut and mixed media technique
      • Sámi author
    • http://arctic-council.npolar.no/Members/finland/Arctic%20Council%C2%A0_%C2%A0Merja%20Aletta%20Ranttila.htm
    • Nils Aslak Valkeapää
      • Áillohaš in the Northern Sami language
      • (1943-2001)
      • Sámi writer, musician and artist
      • born to a family of traditional reindeer herders
    • http://lapinkirjailijat.rovaniemi.fi/enils.htm
  • Reindeer words in Finnish
    • Elo reindeer livestock
    • Etto, ettoaminen gathering reindeer for the
    • round-up
    • Hirvas a male over three years old
    • Härkä a castrated male
    • Jotos, rannio a track trodden by reindeer
    • in thick, hard-crusted snow
    • Jutaa to travel or move
    • Kallokas a fur boot made from the skin of
    • a reindeer skull
    • Kalppinokka a reindeer with a white muzzle
    • Keloa the rub the skin off new antlers
    • Kesukka a tame reindeer
    • Kirnu ‘churn’, the round section of the
    • round-up corral where reindeer livestock
    • are separated from reindeer for slaughter
    • Konttori ‘office’, a side pen of a round
    • up corral
    • Kopara a reindeer’s hoof
    • Kulvakko a male reindeer over three years of age exhausted by the rutting season
    • Luostakka a white-sided reindeer
    • Maanija a timid reindeer that avoids people
    • Mutsikki, musikki a dark (coloured) reindeer
    • Naamasarvet growing antlers covered in skin
    • Nulkata to run slowly
    • Nulppo a reindeer without antlers
    • Nutukas, siepakka a fur boot made from the leg skin of a reindeer
    • Pailakka an untamed, untrained reindeer
    • Paliskunta a reindeer herding cooperative
    • Palkia to wander in summer pastures
    • Parttio a small herd of reindeer
    • Peura, peurakorva a reindeer without an earmark
    • Raavas a fully-grown reindeer
    • Raito a harnessed caravan of reindeer
    • Roukua a sound made by reindeer
    • Rusakka, rusakko a brownish-yellowish reindeer
    • Rykimä the rutting season
    • Räkkä a plague of blood-sucking flying insects that torment the reindeer
    • Säpikäs reindeer skin gaiters or leggings
    • Taamoa to train, to tame
    • Takkahärkä a castrated male reindeer that carries a load
    • Tokka a large herd of reindeer
    • Tolvata to run
    • Vaadin a female over three years old
    • Valkko a white reindeer
    • Veiti reindeer scattered about
    • Vuonelo a female in its second year
    • Vuotturaippa a pulling strap for a boat sledge
  • ” Poronkusema”
    • the traditional measuring unit of distance in Lapland - the reindeer piss. Should be max. 7.5 km or so, depending on the reindeer and the weight of the sledge.
  • Finnish snow words http://lumensanakirja.blogspot.com/