SUSTAINABILITY OFAUTOMOBILE FUELS Amarjit Singh University of Hawaii at Manoa
PROBLEM STATEMENT             95% of the world’s         transportation sector relies              on petroleum oil.      ...
PROBLEM STATEMENT          Improved efficiency gasoline          engines are only a band-aid                   solution   ...
PREMISECan only plan for tomorrowwith the technology of today“Better to fix the known than   wait for the unknown”  (Ancie...
AUTOMOBILES AROUND THE WORLD                     MANILA                      DELHI                     BEIJING            ...
HANOI   SEOUL   TEHRAN   6
PARIS   MOSCOW   WASHINGTON                     DC                              7
CONCEPT CARS AND       FEASIBLE CARSCONCEPT CARS                         FEASIBLEWind-powered, solar-       CARSpowered, f...
NATURAL  GAS          9
NATURAL GAS FUEL (- NONRENEWABLE)  Propane – Uses LPG  CNG – Burns methane • Propane               • Range is 25%   engi...
NATURAL GAS RESOURCELIMITATIONS 2008-10 DataNo. of cars using natural gas in the world =   11 275,000
OIL SHALE, OILSANDS, PRESALT  DEEPWATER,  TIGHT OIL, &     ARCTIC   OFFSHORE                  12
RESOURCE AVAILABILITY FOR “NEW”AND ‘UNCONVENTIONAL” OILS                                  13
HYDROGEN  FUEL           14
HYDROGEN FUEL                 HYDROGEN                   CARS  Hydrogen internal  combustion engine       Hydrogen fuel ce...
HYDROGENBENEFITS   Zero emission vehicle             Greenhouse gases are       Electricity, heat, water       95% wate...
HYDROGEN CONCERNS                                           H2 is sometimes                   H2                      stor...
MIRACLES NEEDED     Dr. Steven Chu: need four miracles for             HFCVs to become reality    1. Cost    2. Infrastruc...
PLATINUM RESOURCECONSTRAINT                                           WORLD           USAPlatinum reserves (billion oz.)  ...
BIOFUELS           20
BIOFUELS                    Most common                   alternative fuel                  in the U.S. today        1. Et...
ETHANOLE10 to E100Emissions reduced by 10% – 30%Ethanol engines are 67% asefficient as gasoline engines, whichhave only an...
LAND ISSUES: CORN                                and SUGAR FOR                                ETHANOL                     ...
SUGAR CANEETHANOLSugar based ethanol is 7 times moreefficient than corn, but sugar growsonly in warm climates (23% of land...
25
BIODIESEL            26
BIODIESEL (GGE = 0.96) - PALM AND SOYOIL      Through its                       Biodiesel                        Lowers   ...
LAND ISSUES: SOY AND PALM OIL FOR ETHANOL                                                           Biodiesel Gasoline Ara...
HYBRIDELECTRICVEHICLES           29
Hybrid Electric              Vehicle (HEV)                           POWER ASSISTSTRONG HYBRID                  HYBRID Ab...
HYBRID CONCERNS                    Even if every vehicle                     in the U.S. was a                       hybri...
RESOURCE CONSTRAINT:RARE EARTH ELEMENTS     Toyota Prius is the largest user     • 2.2 lbs of neodymium for electric motor...
LANTHANUMRESOURCESFOR NIMHBATTERIES                UM                        Million         LANTHAN                    lb...
ELECTRICVEHICLES           34
ELECTRIC VEHICLES       Avoid use of REE by using AC motor       (Tesla) and lithium ion battery (GM)                     ...
BATTERIES   AC or DC Motor       Charging typ. Takes 8 hours                 Lead-acid                 • cheap, easily a...
LITHIUM RESOURCE CONCERNS: WORLD    Li in  ground           LiCO3           Cars          Li runs  (million        (millio...
ELECTRIC CAPACITY - USA U.S. current installed capacity: 1,031 GW    250 million cars charging    8 kW over 8 hrs each    ...
EXTENDEDRANGE ELECTRICVEHICLES (EREV)   & PLUG-IN    HYBRIDVEHICLES (PHEV)                  39
PHEV and EREV OPERATIONALCHARACTERISTICS            PLUG-IN               EXTENDED            HYBRID                RANGE ...
PHEV AND EREV CONCERNS    Same electric, ethanol,    gasoline, and fuel cell     concerns as already     discussed previou...
Solutions            42
Solution 1:                        A Mix of                      Technologies                Reduces      Lesser          ...
Solution 2:                              Sugar                             Ethanol   Possible Future of Automobiles     ...
SUMMARY          45
Li-S batteries                can increase                 range by 5                times; Li-air                 by 10 t...
RUMOURS          47
FINDINGS     World dependence on oil is a security     and economical risk for many     countries     The current use of a...
A completely new world order will be               necessary  It will be nothing like we are used toChanges are possible: ...
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EPILOGUE           51
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 Price: $500 for Horse and Carriage; $200 for  Bullock Cart Manufacturing: very easy Emissions: nothing to worry about;...
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We hopethings can work out!             59
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Amarjit Singh, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Sustainability of automobile fuels

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OBC | Sustainability of automobile fuels

  1. 1. SUSTAINABILITY OFAUTOMOBILE FUELS Amarjit Singh University of Hawaii at Manoa
  2. 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT 95% of the world’s transportation sector relies on petroleum oil. The world has 1.3 trillion bbl of proven oil reserves, being consumed at 85 million bbl / day. This will last only 42 years. With 2% growth per year, the oil will last 31 years! 2
  3. 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT Improved efficiency gasoline engines are only a band-aid solution New oilfield discoveries may add 2~4 years, at most. An alternative fuel needs to be found for transportation in order to avoid a crisis. 3
  4. 4. PREMISECan only plan for tomorrowwith the technology of today“Better to fix the known than wait for the unknown” (Ancient Arabic Proverb) 4
  5. 5. AUTOMOBILES AROUND THE WORLD MANILA DELHI BEIJING 5
  6. 6. HANOI SEOUL TEHRAN 6
  7. 7. PARIS MOSCOW WASHINGTON DC 7
  8. 8. CONCEPT CARS AND FEASIBLE CARSCONCEPT CARS FEASIBLEWind-powered, solar- CARSpowered, flying-cars, nuclear-powered, Natural gas,and algae-fueled cars hydrogen fuel Closer to science cells, biofuels, hybrid vehicles,fiction than reality and electric vehicles 8
  9. 9. NATURAL GAS 9
  10. 10. NATURAL GAS FUEL (- NONRENEWABLE)  Propane – Uses LPG  CNG – Burns methane • Propane • Range is 25% engines last less than twice as long as gasoline cars conventional because of the engines – lower lower energy maintenance. content of fuel. • Performance • Natural gas is similar to fuels emit a gasoline- 1/3rd fewer 10 powered car reactive organic gases.
  11. 11. NATURAL GAS RESOURCELIMITATIONS 2008-10 DataNo. of cars using natural gas in the world = 11 275,000
  12. 12. OIL SHALE, OILSANDS, PRESALT DEEPWATER, TIGHT OIL, & ARCTIC OFFSHORE 12
  13. 13. RESOURCE AVAILABILITY FOR “NEW”AND ‘UNCONVENTIONAL” OILS 13
  14. 14. HYDROGEN FUEL 14
  15. 15. HYDROGEN FUEL HYDROGEN CARS Hydrogen internal combustion engine Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HICEV) vehicle (HFCV)  Produces nitrous Electrochemical cell  oxides produces electricity from hydrogen  Water is a byproduct First fuel cell conceived in 1839 15
  16. 16. HYDROGENBENEFITS Zero emission vehicle  Greenhouse gases are  Electricity, heat, water 95% water vapor  How much can the atmosphere hold? Very efficient use of on- board hydrogen  and …>> Uses renewable fuel source 16
  17. 17. HYDROGEN CONCERNS H2 is sometimes H2 stored in high infrastructure pressure tanks, H2 car Pt cells up to 5000 psi. in USA couldcurrently malfunction These cause cost $500 costs below 32 potential safety billion, but$300,000 degrees F and storage manageable issues that have over 50 years not yet been fully resolved. 17
  18. 18. MIRACLES NEEDED Dr. Steven Chu: need four miracles for HFCVs to become reality 1. Cost 2. Infrastructure 3. Fuel cell 18 4. Storage
  19. 19. PLATINUM RESOURCECONSTRAINT WORLD USAPlatinum reserves (billion oz.) 1No. of cars produced per year (million) 50 7.5Pt in cars produced per year (million oz.) 125 18.75Pt is depleted (years) 8 53Amt of platinum needed per car = 2.5 oz for 100 KW cell (typ.)Recycling Pt will mean that growth will not be accommodated 19
  20. 20. BIOFUELS 20
  21. 21. BIOFUELS Most common alternative fuel in the U.S. today 1. Ethanol fuel 2. Biodiesel  Energy from  Energy derived burning of alcohol from fatty acids and sugars such as vegetable oils and animal fats  Used in gasoline engine  Used in diesel engine Saving the US 304 million gallons of gasoline each year 21 0.21% of annual US consumption
  22. 22. ETHANOLE10 to E100Emissions reduced by 10% – 30%Ethanol engines are 67% asefficient as gasoline engines, whichhave only an efficiency of 14% 22
  23. 23. LAND ISSUES: CORN and SUGAR FOR ETHANOL Ethanol Gasoline Arable % Produced Consumed Land Arable (billion (billion (million LandUSA gallons) gallons) acres) AreaArable Land in USA 396Current ethanol consumed 9 24.7 6.2%Current gasoline consumed 146Corn ethanol for 250 m cars 219 590 149%Sugar ethanol for 250 m cars 31 84 23% 23GGE: 1 gallon of gasoline = 1.5 gallons of CORN ethanol1 acre of land yields ~ 370 gallons of CORN ethanol
  24. 24. SUGAR CANEETHANOLSugar based ethanol is 7 times moreefficient than corn, but sugar growsonly in warm climates (23% of landarea)Hence, fuel dependence could shiftfrom oil-producing countries to sugar-producing countries in tropicalregions. {Change the WORLD ORDER} 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. BIODIESEL 26
  27. 27. BIODIESEL (GGE = 0.96) - PALM AND SOYOIL Through its Biodiesel Lowers yields 320% life cycle, carcinogenic more energy biodiesel properties per gallon reduces greenhouse of diesel than is gas fuel by 94% required for emissions by production 41% (13 times 27 better than corn ethanol)
  28. 28. LAND ISSUES: SOY AND PALM OIL FOR ETHANOL Biodiesel Gasoline Arable % Production Consumed Land Arable (billion (billion (million LandUSA gallons) gallons) acres) AreaArable Land in USA 396Gasoline consumption current 146Soy Oil for 250 million cars 140 2,000 505%Palm Oil for 250 million cars 140 280 71%GGE: 1 gallon of gasoline = 0.96 gallons of biodiesel1 acre of land yields ~ 70 gallons of soy oil and 500 gallons of palm oil  Algae research promises to deliver fuel by using only 28 1.1% of the arable land!
  29. 29. HYBRIDELECTRICVEHICLES 29
  30. 30. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) POWER ASSISTSTRONG HYBRID HYBRID Able to run on just  Runs on gasolinebatteries, just engine, but uses electric or combination motor for additional [Toyota Prius] power when needed [Honda Insight]Increased fuel efficiency;regenerative breaking … 30
  31. 31. HYBRID CONCERNS Even if every vehicle in the U.S. was a hybrid by 2025, because of growth in Still rely on vehicle use, the U.S. gasoline as the would still need to source of fuel import the same amount of oil that it does today. 31
  32. 32. RESOURCE CONSTRAINT:RARE EARTH ELEMENTS Toyota Prius is the largest user • 2.2 lbs of neodymium for electric motor • 22-32 lbs of lanthanum for NiMH battery China controls 95% of REEs • has been reducing exports every year since 2004 • plans to stop exports by 2013 32
  33. 33. LANTHANUMRESOURCESFOR NIMHBATTERIES UM Million LANTHAN lbs Cars Years World Reserves 13.2 bn - - Amount per Prius 27 - - No. of Cars Possible - 489 Years this can last - - 10 10 Note: Current Production of cars in the world = 50 million/ year 33
  34. 34. ELECTRICVEHICLES 34
  35. 35. ELECTRIC VEHICLES Avoid use of REE by using AC motor (Tesla) and lithium ion battery (GM) 35
  36. 36. BATTERIES AC or DC Motor  Charging typ. Takes 8 hours Lead-acid • cheap, easily available, very heavy • limited capacity (12 Kwh), limited range • short life; disposal problems Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) • doubles the range • long-lasting (RAV 4) Lithium ion • twice the capacity of NiMH in half the weight 36 • (Chevy VOLT and Tesla ROADSTAR) • Zero emissions while in use
  37. 37. LITHIUM RESOURCE CONCERNS: WORLD Li in ground LiCO3 Cars Li runs (million (million Produced out in tonnes) tonnes) (billions) (years) 28.4 150 2.14 43Li in Ocean (million tonnes) 238,878 1,261,682 18,000 360,0000.5% of Li in Ocean (million tonnes) 1,194 6,308 90 1,800 37•Each car uses 70 kg (typ.) of LiCO3 Ocean mining costs•50 million cars produced per year $30/kg cf. $8/kg on land•1 KWh requires 1.4Kg
  38. 38. ELECTRIC CAPACITY - USA U.S. current installed capacity: 1,031 GW 250 million cars charging 8 kW over 8 hrs each night requires 250 gigawatts installed capacity Charging mostly done at night when demand for power is low Hence, additional capacity is not deemed 38 necessary
  39. 39. EXTENDEDRANGE ELECTRICVEHICLES (EREV) & PLUG-IN HYBRIDVEHICLES (PHEV) 39
  40. 40. PHEV and EREV OPERATIONALCHARACTERISTICS PLUG-IN EXTENDED HYBRID RANGE ELECTRIC ELECTRIC VEHICLE: VEHICLE: PHE EREV V • Runs on batteries, •The car is but uses an ICE to essentially an power a generator to charge the electric vehicle batteries when the with a gas- batteries are low. tank backup. • Engine can be ICE on biofuel, or fuel cell … 40
  41. 41. PHEV AND EREV CONCERNS Same electric, ethanol, gasoline, and fuel cell concerns as already discussed previously 41
  42. 42. Solutions 42
  43. 43. Solution 1: A Mix of Technologies Reduces Lesser OverallUse a littlebit of every strain on trauma for life istechnology the resources technology changeover still 161 years 43
  44. 44. Solution 2: Sugar Ethanol Possible Future of Automobiles  Biodiesel (sugar) powered engines  Enough biodiesel (sugar) could be grown on 23% of arable land, which is quite doable  Will entail major political changes in the world, a major shift in world power, and major reprioritization. (Best of luck!) 44
  45. 45. SUMMARY 45
  46. 46. Li-S batteries can increase range by 5 times; Li-air by 10 times “PROMISES” Algae to & 1/10th thepower all US amount of “HOPES” platinum cancars can grow on 1.1% of be used in a arable land fuel cell 46
  47. 47. RUMOURS 47
  48. 48. FINDINGS World dependence on oil is a security and economical risk for many countries The current use of automobiles is creating a scenario in which the world will run out of oil and earth minerals The system is NOT SUSTAINABLE 48
  49. 49. A completely new world order will be necessary It will be nothing like we are used toChanges are possible: but strong political will is necessary, and may come at an immense cost 49
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  51. 51. EPILOGUE 51
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  54. 54.  Price: $500 for Horse and Carriage; $200 for Bullock Cart Manufacturing: very easy Emissions: nothing to worry about; biodegradable Benefits: Fertilizer by-product; leather; oils Recycling: not necessary R&M: Spare parts not needed; [more veterinarians required] Useful working life: 12~18 years Health effects: Return to easy pace of life; reduce stress 54
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  59. 59. We hopethings can work out! 59
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