OBC | Omnipresent sensor systems - the pros and cons of monitoring almost every aspect of our world – environment, processes, humans
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OBC | Omnipresent sensor systems - the pros and cons of monitoring almost every aspect of our world – environment, processes, humans



Volker Ribitsch, University of Graz, Austria ...

Volker Ribitsch, University of Graz, Austria
Omnipresent sensor systems - the pros and cons of monitoring almost every aspect of our world – environment, processes, humans




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OBC | Omnipresent sensor systems - the pros and cons of monitoring almost every aspect of our world – environment, processes, humans OBC | Omnipresent sensor systems - the pros and cons of monitoring almost every aspect of our world – environment, processes, humans Presentation Transcript

  • JOANNE M U RESEARCH Omnipresent sensor systems – the pros and cons of monitoring almostevery aspect of our world – environment, processes, humans Out of the Box conference, Maribor 2012 Volker Ribitsch Physical Chemistry University Graz, Institute of ChemistryJoanneum Research Graz, Institute Materials, Sensor Systems 1
  • JOANNE M U Omnipresent sensor systems RESEARCH• Many innovative aspects to improve the quality of living - Health, environment, technology• Also aspects reducing the quality and culture of living - Sociological aspects 2
  • JOANNE M U Overview RESEARCH• Sensors – their technology• Technical vs. biological sensors• Sensor applications – Industry – Environment – Health care• Positive aspects• Questionable aspects 3
  • JOANNE M U What is a sensor ? RESEARCH• SENSORS are devices transforming non-electrical signals – biological, chemical, physical - into electrical signals. Myriad of them in everyday devices surrounds us in our daily live.• Sensors are little devices embedded in a wide range of products and often overlooked in our IT centered world.• They provide manufacturer, sales organisation, consumer, environment control organs, health care organisations with a permanent flow of data.• They provide due to wireless intelligence and capabilities on one side safety, flexibility, mobility and ease of use on the other side information about our whereabouts, health and fitness conditions to organizations, persons we do not know. 4
  • JOANNE M U Sensor applications RESEARCH• Industrial process / products control and management• Energy management and efficiency• Automotive technology• Consumer device control• Control of public places• Home and commercial building control and automation• Food production - quality (and pathogens) control• Health care• Many more 5
  • JOANNE M U What do they sense? RESEARCHPhysical Chemical BiologicalTemperature pH (acidic, basic) Heart beatPressure Conductivity Blood pressureLength Concentration ?? GlucoseDistance Redox potential OxygenationRevolutionSound AntibodiesTime span ProteinsOptical signals DNAColour 6
  • JOANNE M U Sensors – basic principles RESEARCHTransfer a chemical, physical, biological signal into an electrical signal: Electrical Transducer ProcessingInput Outputsignal A/ D signal Non electrical / Converter electrical signal Amplification 7
  • JOANNE M U Working principle RESEARCH Input Transformation Signal processing TransducerTechnical sensorsnon electrical signal electrical signals microprocessorphysical, chemical resistance, voltage storage currentBiological sensorsbiological compounds signal molecules nerve cells nerve cells brain electrical signals 8
  • JOANNE M U Technical sensors RESEARCHMagnetic field temperature light Typical industrial sensor systemsSize: 0.5 – 2 mm diameter Development trend: electrical replaced by optical sensors 9
  • JOANNE M U Optochemical Sensors for Industrial Process Control RESEARCH(~2003)(~2008) O2, CO2, pH, … In-line sensor for process systems´and vessels Present Implementation: Oxygen process sensor for the beverage industry ( breweries)(~2010) Particular Challenge: Must withstand CiP („Cleaning in Place“) •NaOH •HCl •HNO3 •HOOAc •H3PO4 •HClO •Temperatures >90dC 10
  • JOANNE M U RFID Radio Frequency Identification RESEARCH• Passive sensor 11
  • JOANNE M UBiological sensors RESEARCH 12
  • JOANNE M U Biosensors RESEARCHBiosensors combine the excellent selectivity of biology with theprocessing power of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics.They offer powerful new analytical tools with major applications in medicine,environmental diagnostics and the food and processing industries.Biosensors consist of bio-recognition systems, typically enzymes or bindingproteins (antibodies), nucleic acids immobilised onto the surface of physico-chemical transducers.Specific interactions between the target analyte and the complementary bio-recognition layer produces physico-chemical changes which are measuredby the transducer. Lab on a Chip several hundred processes on one micro-chip 13
  • JOANNE M UBiosensors RESEARCH 14
  • JOANNE M U Biological sensor vs. technical sensor systems RESEARCH Technical Biological systems systems Digital camera Temperature Eye sensor systemResolution: 10 million pixels 1 out of 1000 7 million cones (maximum 80*106) 120 million rodsSignal transfer: digital digital digitalTransfer: 16 bit 16 bit 106 fibresTransfer rate 460 kHz 500 pulses / neuron / sec 1,4 GBit/sec 15 MBit /sec 500 MBit / secPre-processing no no yes 15
  • JOANNE M U Sensor market RESEARCHAnnual growth:Active sensor systems:Technological sensor systems: > 10%Biosensor sensor systems: > 20%Passive sensor systems:(Radio Frequency Identification RFID tags): > 50% 16
  • JOANNE M U Application RESEARCHFood industry: Control of beer production• Oxygen in beverage - deteriorates the taste of beer!!• Chemical parameter: pH, conductivity• Hygienic aspects – O2 in closed food packagesEnvironmental control:• Parameter monitored continuously: – Dissolved oxygen, ionic strength, (pH)• Demand: Heavy metals, hazardous substances, nitrateCars:• Lambda sensor determines the O2 in the exhaust gas• Distances• Pressure, temperature, current ….. 17
  • JOANNE M U Remote environmental sensing system RESEARCHDATA ACQUISITION GPRS NETWORK (GES) Central Monitoring Station (CMS) 18
  • JOANNE M U Health application RESEARCH Application in chronic disease monitoring, personal wellness monitoring and personal fitness1. Chronic Disease Monitoring Episodic Patient Monitoring partially Continuous Patient Monitoring classical parameter Patient Alarm Monitoring yes2. Personal Wellness Monitoring Senior Activity Monitoring partially Safety Monitoring partially3. Personal Fitness Monitoring Monitoring and Tracking Fitness Level partially Personalized Fitness Schedule no 19
  • JOANNE M UO2, CO2, pH in organs RESEARCH Optochemical glas fibre sensor, 0.2 mm diameter 20
  • JOANNE M U Health application RESEARCHProducts available / under development for Health CareNon stationary• Glucose sensors invasive!• Pulse oximeter• Electrocardiograph (ECG)• Heart beat detector• Social alarm devicesUrgent need of wireless sensor devices communicating with services. Very few devices availableThis will allow safe, healthy and independent living conditions for the disabled or elderly. 21
  • JOANNE M UControlled situation RESEARCH 22
  • JOANNE M U Positive aspects – summary RESEARCHHealth related sensing systems:• Change in medical treatment strategies – reshaping of health care: – Now: post - incidents actions – reactive health care – Future: pre – incident treatments – proactive health care – Continuous monitoring to reduce hospitalization days and health care costs• Point-of-care medical device• Wireless sensors for better health care and patient monitoring to provide healthy and independent living conditionsFood control related systems:• Better and constant quality• Reduced risk of non food components (cleaning chemicals, broken glass …)• Reduced risk of deteriorated food 23
  • JOANNE M U Positive aspects – summary RESEARCHEnvironmental monitoring:• Better quality of life• Control of release of harmful substances• Early warningTechnological process monitoring• Reduction of deficient products• Increased product quality• Reduced costs• Improved sustainability 24
  • JOANNE M U Questionable aspects RESEARCHPast & Present Present & FutureDevice 1 Device 2 Device 1 Device 2 Human Human – recording device Manufacturer controlled device communication – not transparent what, whom, when 25
  • JOANNE M U Questionable aspects RESEARCH• There already exists and is under rapid development a network of connected objects: – Vehicles, machine components - intelligent machines – Domestic consumable durables – smart home – The clothes we ware – smart clothes• All items are hooked up via identification and tracking technologies - wireless sensors, actuators, RFID (radio frequency identification) - to a network with a speed most of us have yet to comprehend. 26
  • JOANNE M U The internet of things RESEARCHThis network of connected objects is the "Internet of Things IoT“first mentioned by Kevin Ashton in 1999 27
  • JOANNE M U Statements RESEARCHKevin Kelly executive editor of Wired Magazine (2004): “Before 2030 everything will become connected and the web will be the environment. A pair of sneakers will become a “chip with heels” A car will become an “assembly of sensors” and a “chip on wheels”Kevin Kelly (2007) "In 5000 days, since the start of the internet, less time than it takes for a child to progress through the school system, the world has been transformed. Online social networking through applications like Myspace and Facebook are changing the nature of social interactions” 28
  • JOANNE M U The next 5000 days of the web RESEARCH• “The speed in which the web transforms the industrialised world shows no signs of slowing. Every item, every artefact will become part of the web."• CISCO predicts 50 billion connected active and passive sensors by 2020!• The IoT and the number of devices connected to the internet will exceed in 2015 the number of people populating the entire planet.• http://blogs.cisco.com/news/the-internet-of-things-infographic 29
  • JOANNE M U The situation 5000 days ago RESEARCH• No newspaper producer considered that the computer will shake the power of the printing press!• Which record company executive disbelieved its companies progress and increased revenue?• Who imagined that one can carry an entire library in a briefcase?• Who had an idea that all our movements are tracked and recorded?• It is evidenced by the increasing low cost of technologies as sensors and radio-frequency identification (RFID) that almost any physical artefact, any animal – any human ? - can be identified and tracked 30
  • JOANNE M U The situation now RESEARCHNow we have already the interconnection of many things:• It is also an integral part of your / my life.• Most of us carry RFID in our wallets without even knowing that we are engaging with network technology. We hold the cards we use to get into the office to the RFID reader embedded in the wall near the door. This reader pushes a constant wave of energy. The antenna in the chip picks up the energy, then moves it on to the chip that says "hello". The number appears in a database and any action can be attached to that number: accept as OK and allow to pass.• The computer is in our pocket and yet it has disappeared from our consciousness 31
  • JOANNE M U The situation in 1000 days RESEARCHConsumables will tell us what has to be done:• The refrigerator and the storage cabinet will let you know what you have to cook because this is available in your household• The vacuum cleaner or air cleaner will send text messages to remind you that the filter is clogged• Your flowers at the office will send SMS if they have to be watered• You might receive this messages every hour• We will loose our personal responsibility ! 32
  • JOANNE M U Statements RESEARCHMaria Karyda, Stefan Gritzalis, Jong Hyuk Park; Springer 2007Two major society trends:• There is a shift in the perception of privacy protection, which is increasingly considered as a responsibility of the individual, instead of an individuals right protected by a central authority, such as a state and its laws.• It appears that current IT research is largely based on the assumption that personal privacy is quantifiable and bargainable. There is a need for public awareness and discussion and input from other related disciplines such as law sociology and psychology! 33
  • JOANNE M U RESEARCH Joke on a web site: The consumer yells: “Where are my damned keys?” The keys answer:"On top of the refrigerator you idiot!” 34
  • JOANNE M U RESEARCH Thank you for your attention !Thanks to the organizers for this interesting conference! 35
  • JOANNE M U Eye – way of operation RESEARCH• Light sensitive photoreceptor cells transfer light signals into nerve impulses• Photoreceptor cells - 120 million rods and 7 million cones - in the retina contain photosensitive rhodopsin molecules. An incoming light quant – photon – changes rhodopsins conformation. One rhodopsin molecule activated by one photon activates up to 2000 transducing molecules.• Initiates an enzyme cascade – the visual signal transduction cascade causing changes of the nerve cells activity (noble price medicine biochemist Georg Wald 1967)• Bipolar cells in the retina are activated – generating an ON and OFF bipolar signal – a digitized signal. First signal processing – signal enhancement.• Visual nerve – one million nerve fibres – signal transfer via electrical signals. This is a membrane potential caused by active ion transport through membranes 36
  • JOANNE M U Working principle RESEARCH • A SENSOR is a device transforming non-electrical signals – biological, chemical, physical - into electrical signals non electrical space electrical space Measurement value Input value Transformer Transducer Data processing DisplayTransducer have many forms depending upon the parameters being measured –electrochemical, optical, mass and thermal changes are the most common 37
  • JOANNE M U Application health care RESEARCH• The US chronic disease device market: – US $3.8 billion in 2010 – US $26 billion by 2015• 2.3 million nodes (internet connections) used in 2010 – 5 % of the elderly population in North America and Japan.• Netherlands: 50 percent of seniors are interested in smart-home applications to aid in health, first responders’ reaction times and security improvement. (Forrester Research, Inc. 2004 and 2011)• The European Community sponsored the SOPRANO Study Results: Urgent need of wireless low-power sensors communicating with services. This allows safe, healthy and independent living conditions for the disabled or elderly. Point-of-care medical devices - Wireless sensors for better health care 38