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Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching Vocabulary
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Teaching Vocabulary

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  • 1. Teaching Vocabulary 30 January 2007 TESOL Virtual Seminar
  • 2. Complex Items
    • A word is not fully learned through one meeting with it …
    • even if this meeting involves
    • substantial deliberate teaching.
  • 3. Complex Items
    • there are numerous things to know about
    • a word, namely
      • its form
        • spoken, written, and its component affixes and stem
      • its meaning
        • underlying concept, particular instantiations, and associations
      • its use
        • collocations, grammatical patterns, and constraints on its use
  • 4. A Range of Ways Form
    • Spoken form
    • Written form
    • Word parts
    • Pronounce the words
    • Read aloud
    • Word and sentence dictation
    • Finding spelling rules
    • Filling word part tables
    • Cutting up complex words
    • Building complex words
    • Choosing a correct form
  • 5. A Range of Ways Meaning
    • Form-meaning connection
    • Concept and reference
    • Matching words and definitions
    • Discussing the meanings of phrases
    • Drawing and labeling pictures
    • Peer teaching
    • Riddles
    • Finding common meanings
    • Choosing the right meaning
    • Semantic feature analysis
    • Answering questions
    • Word detectives
  • 6. A Range of Ways Meaning (cont.)
    • Associations
    • Finding substitutes
    • Explaining connections
    • Making word maps
    • Classifying words
    • Finding opposites
    • Suggesting causes or effects
    • Suggesting associations
    • Finding examples
  • 7. A Range of Ways Use
    • Grammar
    • Collocates
    • Constraints on use
    • Matching sentence halves
    • Putting words in order to make sentences
    • Matching collocates
    • Finding collocates
    • Identifying constraints
    • Classifying constraints
  • 8. Limited Effects
    • There are several strands through which knowledge of a word needs to develop:
    • 1. meaning-focused input (listening & reading)
    • 2. meaning-focused output (speaking & writing)
    • 3. language-focused learning (vocabulary
    • teaching & studying)
    • 4. fluency development (listening, speaking,
    • reading, writing)
  • 9. Limited Effects
    • In summary:
      • Teaching can usefully deal with only a limited amount of information at a time
      • Too much confuses
  • 10. In Summary
    • We should expect only limited learning from single meetings with a word.
    • We should bear this in mind when we plan or carry out those meetings
    • We should not spend too much time on vocabulary teaching.
  • 11. What can we do?
    • The teacher’s job (in order of importance):
      • Plan
      • Train
      • Test
      • Teach
  • 12. Plan
    • Insure that opportunities for vocabulary learning occur in all the four equally balanced strands.
  • 13. Train
    • Help learners develop skill in the four strategies of:
      • Guessing from context
      • Learning using word cards
      • Learning using word parts
      • Learning from dictionary use
  • 14. Test
    • Use the results of vocabulary tests to
      • see where learners are in their vocabulary development
      • plan future learning
      • motivate learning
  • 15. Teach
    • Give attention to high frequency words and academic words where appropriate.
  • 16. How do we teach words?
  • 17. Teaching Words
    • Only high frequency vocabulary (the first 2000 words and the AWL) and vocabulary learning strategies should be systematically taught.
    • Teachers should know where the learners are in their knowledge of these words.
  • 18. Teaching Words
    • The amount and strength of learning depends on the quality of mental processing.
    • The quality of mental processing can be increased by:
      • giving attention to a range of aspects involved in knowing a word
      • retrieval, generative use and instantiation
      • giving attention to word parts and helpful etymology
  • 19. Teaching Words
    • There are many ways of communicating word meanings.
    • The best are clear, simple and brief.
    • Where possible, the first language translation should be given.
  • 20. Teaching Words
    • First language translation can be given by:
    • - performing actions
      • showing objects
      • showing pictures or diagrams
      • defining in the first language (translation)
      • defining in the second language
      • providing language context clues
  • 21. Teaching Words
    • The meaning given should describe the underlying meaning that includes most of the word’s uses and senses.
    • e.g. region
          • large area of land
          • areas outside the capital
          • field of knowledge
          • part of the body
          • (in the region of) approximately
  • 22. Teaching Words
    • Words should not be taught with others that belong to the same lexical set, are near synonyms, or are opposites.
      • frog, hop, slimy, pond, croak, green
      • paint, funeral, recipe, market, uncle, ice
      • apple, pear, nectarine, peach, apricot, plum
      • never, sometimes, often, always
      • danger, dark, run, building, hide
      • north, south, east, west
      • travel, tour, journey, expedition, visit
      • glance, peer, stare, examine, scrutinize
  • 23. Teaching Words
    • There should be repeated opportunities for increasingly spaced retrieval of each word.
    • Later meetings with a word are more important than the initial presentation and teaching may be more useful then.
  • 24. Teaching Words
    • Direct teaching is only part of one of the four strands that a word should be met in.
    • It is only one way of giving deliberate attention.
  • 25. Teaching Words
    • Learners should take control of their own vocabulary learning.
      • Learners should be taught how to learn vocabulary.
      • Learners should be taught how to choose vocabulary to learn.

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